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Brian Neudorff Certified Broadcast Meteorologist with over 16 years Experience. Certified meteorologist with more than 15 years of broadcasting and forecasting experience ranging from severe Midwestern storms and Great Lakes snow to mountain meteorology and research paper on jane austen, tropical meteorology. Innovative and energetic broadcaster using creative graphics, social media and an easy to understand style to connect and engage the viewers. Successfully developed an online community through use of Twitter, Facebook and blogs and plan, recognized as reliable and accurate resource for research on jane austen, conveying critical weather information. Persuasive Plan? In five years, I have increased my following of @NASCAR_WXMAN on paper topics on jane austen, Twitter from persuasive essay writing plan, 6,000 followers to over 37,000 followers and it continues to grow. As the topics on jane, NASCAR Weatherman, I have drivers such as Danica Patrick and Dale Earnhardt Jr. following me, along with many NASCAR teams and media. Credentials include: Certified Broadcast Meteorologist , American Meteorological Society (2011) Seal of 21st century Approval , National Weather Association (2009) Bachelor of Science , Synoptic Meteorology, Purdue University (2001) KMVT-TV (CBS) / KSVT-TV (FOX) Twin Falls, Idaho 2011 Ė Present. Create, produce and present weather forecast for 5 pm, 6 pm, 9 pm and 10 pm evening newscast.

Present continuous live coverage and storm tracking during severe weather events including radio updates, web site, and social media. Paper Topics On Jane Austen? Write and record weekday evening weather forecasts for local radio station and online weather website. Write a weekday weather column for local newspaper. Through social and 21st century help, new media interactive with KMVT viewers by providing personalized weather forecasts and answering weather and station related questions. Developed and maintain original content for station web site,, by creating daily forecasts, weather webcasts, weather content, news stories and weather blog. Created and implemented Kidcaster, a weekly segment in one of research paper our evening weather broadcasts where local school children can participate in doing the weather live on television Write, shoot and edit news and weather related stories as assigned for newscast and website. Schedule and perform community outreach through public appearances, school visits and sample, station tours to increase station awareness. Paper Austen? Writer/Broadcaster/Forecaster Twin Falls, Idaho 2008 Ė Present. Media/ NASCAR_WXMAN. Essay? Create and distribute weekly weather forecasts for all major NASCAR events through Social Media.

On Twitter to over 37,000 followers across the country as well as Facebook. Use Twitter and syndicated posts to communicate with NASCAR race officials, drivers, racing teams, media, fans and research on jane austen, ticket holders to update, in real-time, weather related issues due to a personal sense of urgency and responsiveness. Provide weather forecasts for NASCAR, PGA, NFL, and for the, other various sports through Provide radio weather forecast on Sirius/XM NASCAR channel the Morning Drive and research on jane, pre-race weather coverage for the Performance Racing Network. Weather forecasts featured by Pocono Raceway, Watkins Glen International and Atlanta Motor Speedway to update all interested parties in weather conditions that could impact race conditions. Created and manage a national broadcast meteorologists Facebook group allowing over 1000 members a forum to sample resume share information not limited to just weather. WROC-TV (CBS) Rochester, New York 2008 Ė 2011. Create, produce and present weather forecast on-air for research paper topics on jane austen, two hour local morning broadcast, and noon newscast.

Present continuous live coverage and storm tracking during severe weather events including radio updates, weather hotline, web site, and science, social media. Topics? Accurately write and record weekday morning weather forecast for local radio station, weather phone, and online weather webcast. Initiated stationís social media activity by acquiring buy-in from for the university, station leadership. Within 3 years, built a community of nearly 3000 followers on topics austen, Twitter. Respected as station expert on social media issues. Through social and new media increased viewership of sample design WROC by providing personalized weather forecasts for western New York. Developed and on jane austen, maintain original content for station web site, by creating daily forecasts, weather webcasts, weather content and weather blog. Schedule and perform community outreach through public appearances, school visits and station tours to increase station awareness.

WJET-TV (ABC)/ WFXP (FOX) Erie, Pennsylvania 2003 Ė2007. Weekend Meteorologist / IT/ Web Manager. Create, produce and present weather forecast on-air for all weekend newscasts. Present continuous live coverage and storm tracking during severe weather events including radio updates, weather hotline, and web Developed and created unique and original content for resulting in sample resume design its timely and research paper topics, successful launch Spring, 2007. Recognized as Employee of the Month for component essay, work and time spent on launch of Served as key point of contact for all staff on technical issues. Troubleshot and resolved within Windows OS, Avid iNews and other web-based systems. Created and designed graphics on Accuweather Galileo for paper, all weather shows. Served as fill-in meteorologist for other newscasts when needed. KFYR-TV NBC Bismarck, North Dakota 2001 Ė2002.

Weekend Meteorologist / Reporter / Photographer. Create, produce and present weather forecast on-air for all weekend newscasts. Present continuous live coverage and storm tracking during severe weather Arranged and essay, conducted interviews and wrote content for stories on Environmental and Technical issues increasing breadth of experience. Wrote and paper topics on jane, edited Ask the Meteorologist, an on-air segment designed to increase viewership and viewer loyalty. Operated video camera to cover stories which ensured video footage was always available for stories. Best Weathercast Division B, 2014 and 2015.

WEATHER AND NEWS COMPUTER SYSTEMS. Weather Central: Live 3DLive Accuweather Cinema Live HD RadarScope on TV NewsKing Barons VIPIR, FasTrac, Stormwarn Avid iNews (System Operator), DCM, ENPS. Member of American Meteorological Society Member of National Weather Association Member of Idaho Press Club.

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samaria resume Jerusalem Letters of Lasting Interest. THE BEGINNING OF ISRAELI RULE IN JUDEA AND SAMARIA. A Sudden Reassignment / Disbelief on Both Sides / A Local Arab Leadership Arises / Religious Autonomy / The Beginning of the PLO / Educational Autonomy / Autonomy Negotiations in 1968-69 / Was an Opportunity Missed? / Resettling the Refugees / The Uprising. At the outbreak of the Six-Day War, I was serving as the research paper austen commander of the district of Jerusalem. On the afternoon of June 7, 1967, I was riding in essay energy a half-track on the way to capture Bethlehem when I received a call on the radio to come back to Jerusalem because the Minister of Defense wanted to see me. Research Paper Topics! I argued that I was in writing essay the midst of the campaign, but they repeated the message and kept insisting. By the time I arrived back at headquarters, Dayan had already left, but the commander of Central Command told me to research paper topics on jane austen, report to the Ambassador Hotel in save fuel save East Jerusalem where the new headquarters of the IDF forces occupying Judea and Samaria had been established. I was to be chief of staff to Major General Herzog (our present President), who was appointed as the commander of IDF forces in the West Bank. In December 1967 I became commander of the West Bank and in 1974 the paper on jane Coordinator of 21st science coursework help Government Operations in the administered territories.

That same evening, on June 7th, the rule of military government by the IDF was proclaimed in Judea and Samaria, a rule now in its 22nd year. Both the paper on jane Arab population of the area as well as ourselves were surprised by the fact that in 48 hours we had occupied the West Bank of Jordan. They were made to believe, at the outbreak of hostilities, that the Jordanian and component essay, other Arab forces were in no time going to occupy Israel. Suddenly they were overwhelmed by paper topics austen, the IDF defeating the Jordanian army in a matter of hours. Such was their surprise that the Israeli forces that entered Nablus were welcomed by the population with flowers and with flags because they believed that these were Iraqi forces that had come to support the Jordanians. We too were surprised because we believed and hoped that there would be no war with Jordan. Messages had been sent to King Hussein by Prime Minister Eshkol saying that if he would not start shooting, we shall refrain from shooting as well and essay fuel save, there would be no war between us. But the Jordanian army started the war by occupying the UN headquarters located near Talpiot, and by shelling Jerusalem. The IDF counterattacked and in 48 hours the whole of the West Bank and Jerusalem was under our control. The liberation of East Jerusalem and the Western Wall and all the other holy places was greeted on our side with great rejoicing.

We did not believe that the research on jane austen Israeli rule of the territories would last more than a few months following our experience after the Sinai Campaign in 1956 in which by March 1957 we were compelled to withdraw from the sample resume whole of Sinai. Some preparations for a military government in the West Bank, in case of war, had been made, but these were minimal because the possibility that the Big Powers would allow the research paper austen occupation of the science West Bank seemed unreal. Therefore we had to start organizing the military government virtually from scratch in order to establish the rule of the IDF, assume the functions of a civil government, maintain law and research paper topics on jane, order, organize and provide public services, look after all the other necessities of the population, restore life to persuasive writing, normal, and especially to reconstruct the economy. A Local Arab Leadership Arises. During 21 years of IDF rule in the West Bank, only in those first two years was the local leadership of the Arab population ready to take its own fate in its own hands and try to paper on jane, negotiate a settlement with Israel. The local leadership, which at that time was comprised mainly of the notables of the leading families, began to send out feelers to us to find out what role they might play in future peace negotiations. In that first month of June 1967, the local Arab population was ready and component essay, willing to fully cooperate with the military government in the West Bank and research paper austen, East Jerusalem as well. As a result of the IDF occupation, the West Bank was cut off from Jordan, including the top administration of Islamic religious (Wakf) property and the court of appeals in religious matters, which were all located in Amman. Some local Moslem religious leaders approached us and requested the establishment, by an ordinance of the papers for the Military Government, of a religious court of appeals in topics on jane Jerusalem as well as a local administration for Moslem religious affairs and 21st coursework help, property.

This unqualified willingness to cooperate lasted only several weeks. After the Knesset had enacted the topics act for the reunification of Jerusalem on June 28th and help, Israeli law had been established in East Jerusalem, the Arab leadership in Jerusalem ceased cooperating and began their first moves at research paper topics resistance to the Israeli government. This fact had an immediate impact on the attitude of the population in the West Bank which at that time accepted and followed the Jerusalem leaders as their own. In spite of that, some Arab leaders in the West Bank initiated some other political moves. At the beginning of July a certain notable from East Jerusalem brought me a petition signed by 200 notables of Jerusalem and the West Bank requesting permission to hold a convention to discuss their role in future peace negotiations, but the government rejected this request. Probably as a reaction to this refusal, the Jerusalem religious and political leadership began moves toward independent political action against resume design the wishes of both Israel and Jordan. At the end of July 1967 we received a letter signed by 22 leaders, mainly from Jerusalem, telling us that they had decided to establish a Supreme Moslem Council which would take care of all religious and judicial matters and research paper topics, the administration of the Wakf property. A Supreme Moslem Council had been established by the British Administration early in the 1920s and the infamous Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el Husseini, was appointed president of the Council until he fled the persuasive essay writing country sometime during the disturbances of 1936-39. After the Jordanians had annexed the West Bank in 1950, they dissolved the Supreme Moslem Council in research paper austen Jerusalem. Instead they established in Amman a Ministry for Religious Affairs. 21st Century! This ministry was put in charge of all Arab religious matters in Jordan and in the West Bank formerlymanaged by the Supreme Moslem Council.

In 1967 the 22 local Arab leaders decided to reestablish the Supreme Moslem Council. They informed us, contrary to research paper topics, their earlier request, that foreigners such as ourselves, who were not Moslems (virtually heathens), could not control Moslem religious affairs, though the Jordanian law which prevailed in the West Bank obliged the military government to save energy, control and take take of all religious institutions. In addition they decided to research paper topics on jane austen, establish an Islamic (Shari'a) religious court of appeals in plan Jerusalem for Jerusalem and the West Bank, and announced that hence they would nominate the justices of research paper on jane austen this court, as well as of the lower Shari'a courts in Jerusalem and elsewhere in papers for the university the West Bank. The justices and other officials were employees of the Jordanian government that paid their salaries. When the Israeli administration offered to pay those salaries, they refused, contending that even salaries could not be accepted from us because we were non-Moslems. What is especially interesting to note is that only a few weeks earlier, in June, they had asked us, as the legitimate government of the West Bank and research paper on jane austen, East Jerusalem, to exercise our authority according to Jordanian law and to organize and control the resume same religious affairs. The Supreme Moslem Council, which still exists today, was accepted by the population in those years as the political as well as the religious leadership of Jerusalem and the West Bank. Austen! The Council led and century science help, inspired the resistance that started against the military occupation of the West Bank and the Israeli authorities in Jerusalem. Strikes started gradually in topics on jane austen August-September 1967, and then built up to a crescendo in 1968 and 1969. There were widespread commercial and school strikes as it is today in the intifada, though they were not violent at first. It began more as a kind of civil, non-violent resistance until the persuasive essay writing beginning of 1968 when it developed into violent demonstrations.

The majority of the members of the Supreme Moslem Council were secular, not religious leaders. When they started leading the resistance, we expelled some of them and restricted the movement of others. As a result the Council's overt activities concentrated more on religious matters while their political and other anti-Israeli activities were covert. Since the Council had not been established by agreement but rather unilaterally, the military government did not formally or otherwise recognize it. The Council, to the contrary, did recognize the authority of the military government in the West Bank and East Jerusalem and research topics on jane, tried to involve it in matters concerning Jerusalem. The Council was consistent in persuasive essay writing plan its refusal to research, recognize the Israeli civilian authorities in Jerusalem and entirely disregarded them, but was willing to resume design, deal with the Military Government in matters concerning Jerusalem. The chairman of the Council would periodically notify me of various nominations and appointments and other matters they undertook in Jerusalem and the West Bank. I never replied to the Council's notifications because we refused to research paper, recognize the Council. The Council cooperated, to a certain extent and when necessary, with the Jerusalem municipality.

Years later, out of necessity, they recognized the Prime Minister of Israel, but failed to recognize the Ministries of Interior and Religious Affairs and refused to cooperate with them. The Supreme Moslem Council acted in religious matters with complete independence. Our policy was not to intervene because we did not want religious matters to century science, become issues of controversy between us. In 1967-68 the PLO was in its infancy and had not yet reached the status that it reached later on. They had started operating in July 1967. A small quantity of exposives was found near the wall of a police station in research paper on jane central Israel. Only later did we discover that this was the first terrorist act by for the university, the PLO against Israel after the Six-Day War. Austen! Later on, by the end of 1967 and the beginning of 1968, they started infiltrating in great numbers from century coursework, Jordan and tried to establish bases of operation in the hills of Samaria and research paper on jane, Judea. The IDF had quite difficult problems fighting the PLO terrorists and papers for the university, infiltrators at research on jane austen the time.

The activities became much more intensive than they had been in former years. The border along the Jordan River was wide open and men, weapons and explosives were smuggled in science coursework in great quantities. Only after the Karame operation in March 1968 when a barbed wire fence and other obstacles had been constructed and methods of research paper tracking and combat tactics were developed did the situation come under control. We encountered a very difficult time on the borders, mainly on the Jordanian border, because at that time the terrorist operations were supported by the Jordanian army. Our positions as well as our settlements in the Jordan Valley were shelled almost daily by Jordanian artillery for three years until September 1970. We had constant clashes with the Jordanian army and with the PLO terrorists infiltrating into the West Bank and the Jordan Valley, as well as into essay plan Israel. Even after we had established the fence along the Jordan River and research topics austen, installed other devices which made infiltration much more difficult, infiltrators kept coming and we had encounters with them in essay energy the West Bank and sometimes in Israel proper. Infiltration stopped almost entirely and terrorist activities decreased substantially after the Jordanian army expelled the PLO gangs from Jordan in September 1970. In September 1967 the resistance of the local Arab population came into focus with the start of the school year.

Arab schools did not open because at the time the paper topics on jane Israeli Ministry of Education decided that the Jordanian curriculum in coursework West Bank schools was to be replaced by the Israeli Arabic curriculum. The local population were afraid, and I believe with good reason from their point of research paper austen view, that we were going to intervene with their education, to be followed by intervention in their Arab culture, social and religious life. Therefore they vehemently opposed this move and started a strike which included all schools and part of commerce. Essay! The strike went on for three months. After long negotiations and internal discussions in Israel it was decided to restore the Jordanian curriculum. A committee comprised of local Arab educators was established, which virtually runs the paper topics on jane education system to this day. Only anti-Israel textbooks or passages in essay save fuel save such books were removed. Following these changes they stopped the strike and the schools were opened. Though the military government maintained a department of education headed by an Israeli officer, there were only four Israeli officials in the whole establishment of the military government who were assigned to supervise education. All the rest, teachers and administrative staff, were local Arabs.

To the present day they run the whole system, and they do it according to research paper austen, the curriculum, programs, books and examinations announced by the Jordanian Ministry of Education. Though we provide the money to pay the design salaries of the 8,000 local teachers, construct and furnish schools, print books, etc., education is research topics on jane austen another field in which the Arabs are virtually completely independent. Under the military government six universities were opened (before 1967 there were none) which run their academic affairs without any Israeli intervention. Autonomy Negotiations in 1968. In those first months after the war, it was, strangely enough, the leadership of Nablus who were the first to approach us and ask what they could do in order to begin negotiations between Israel and component essay, King Hussein of Jordan. They offered to act as mediators. They declared their wish to be returned to Jordan, even though they had suffered heavily under Jordanian rule. As all know, Jordan dealt very harshly with them because of their frequent uprisings against King Hussein in the West Bank in the 1950s and early 1960s. Those uprisings had endangered Hussein's regime, his rule and his crown, and the Jordanians subdued them with brutal force.

The Nablus leaders' offer to mediate was not accepted, but they returned sometime later, together with leaders from Ramallah and research paper austen, later on from Bethlehem and writing a history essay exam, Jerusalem, and suggested the paper establishment of a local autonomy to run their own affairs, which would eventually develop into save fuel energy a form of self-rule for the Palestinian Arabs in the West Bank. Thus the idea of autonomy had been conceived and negotiations started. The Israeli government considered that it might be to our advantage to start negotiations with the local leadership, thereby signalling to on jane, Jordan that there was an alternative partner if Jordan did not hurry to begin peace negotiations with Israel. Agreeing to a certain degree of autonomy conformed with Israeli government policy to not interfere in the internal affairs of the local Arab population and to let them run their own lives the writing essay way they chose. At first the Arabs proposed that there be a withdrawal of the IDF from the West Bank and that they would undertake responsibility for on jane austen, assuring that Jordanian forces would not cross the river into the West Bank. Autonomy would then be established and developed. Finally the territories would either be returned to Jordan under a peace agreement or would become a separate entity. Later on when they realized that whatever the result of the negotiations there would be no Israeli withdrawal, they expressed readiness to accept autonomy under Israeli rule. In such an autonomy they would manage all internal affairs except security and external affairs.

The negotiations had their ups and downs and century science help, dragged on for many months during 1968. Moshe Sasson, at the time advisor to the Prime Minister, conducted the research on jane negotiations on behalf of the essay fuel save Israeli government. Eventually a point was reached when a group of Arab leaders convened in Ramallah to answer certain questions that were put to research topics, them by the Minister of Defense, Moshe Dayan, on behalf of the government of essay plan Israel. Their answers were affirmative: they were ready to accept autonomy under Israeli rule; there would be a peace agreement; the IDF would not withdraw from the West Bank; they would be ready to participate in a solution of the refugee problem. Then there was the austen problem of Jerusalem. Papers! They proposed that Jerusalem come under a kind of condominium of paper dual sovereignty -- Israeli sovereignty and Arab sovereignty -- provided that Jerusalem would remain united. Further, to avoid the resume design sensitive problem of Jerusalem, it was suggested that instead of having a single administration for the whole area of the West Bank, a separate canton for Samaria and a separate one for Judea would be established. (In January 1968 Israel officially changed the name of the West Bank to Judea and paper topics on jane, Samaria.) This solution would allow the sample design question of Jerusalem to remain open without obstructing the autonomy. At a certain stage the leaders from Nablus stopped participating in the negotiations, and only the leaders from Ramallah and topics on jane, Bethlehem continued. On the other hand, leaders from papers for the, Hebron, who had not participated in the negotiations previously, came to join in the talks. The negotiations continued with all those leaders and focused on establishing either autonomy for the whole area or at first in the Ramallah-Bethlehem-Hebron areas (Judea) and research paper topics, later on save fuel energy in Bethlehem-Hebron only. Research Paper On Jane Austen! By July 1968, agreement had almost been reached on the establishment of sample resume autonomy in the area of Bethlehem and Hebron and details were already discussed.

Though these negotiations were being held in secret, they could not be kept secret for long from the government of Jordan. One day in July 1968 the Prime Minister of Jordan went on radio in Amman, revealed the whole story and warned and research paper on jane austen, threatened all the leaders on 21st the West Bank to stop. Research On Jane! After the exposure the local leaders broke off negotiations for several months, and resumed them again only in 1969. In 1969 the Hebronites initiated negotiations for establishing another form of autonomy by extending the 21st coursework help administrative powers of the Arab mayors to become similar to those of local governors under Jordanian law. These negotiations again went on for some time and then they too stopped because both the local leadership and topics on jane austen, the government of Israel became quite hesitant regarding their continuation. Sample Design! Two years of Israeli rule had already passed, law and order were by and large maintained, the research on jane economy expanded, unemployment disappeared, and a history exam, the population's cooperation with the Military Government increased. Some people in Israel began to believe that this situation could continue for many years to come in a fairly quiet way. Eventually it did, for over twenty years, until recently. Those early negotiations were accompanied by constant doubts as to their chance to succeed. We often felt that the leaders were not serious enough and their ability to conclude and implement an research paper on jane agreement was very limited, in view of Jordanian and later PLO objections. These doubts deepened under the laborious stages of the sample design negotiations.

Only in July 1968 were there some grounds to the belief that the efforts were not in vain and research paper topics on jane austen, that something might materialize. After that initiative had collapsed we became quite sceptical about save fuel energy, future prospects to strike a deal. However, whenever a chance to resume negotiations arise, we willingly joined. Notwithstanding the negative results, it is important to understand that at that time there was a genuine readiness on behalf of the West Bank leadership of the day to topics on jane, take the risk and negotiate with Israel in defiance of Jordan and the PLO. Component Essay! Since then, hardly a West Bank or Gaza leader has dared to resume the initiative. Later, whenever the question arose, the same leaders and others pointed to Jordan and the PLO as the only parties to such negotiations. It is important to emphasize that the national unity government of Israel at that time was ready to negotiate with the local leadership.

In the years 1968-69 all the parties that formed the government seemed to paper austen, be ready to negotiate territory for peace with King Hussein. But he did not come. After the Arab summit in Khartoum, he could not come even if he wanted to. Later in a history exam the early 1970s the local leadership used to say that they had learned their lesson from the liberal Israeli rule and when the time came to return to Jordan they would return on their own terms. When Hussein in March 1972 announced his plans for a confederation with the West Bank, this was considered as recognition on his part that the pre-1967 relationship with the paper topics austen West Bank would have to undergo a change and that a new deal would have to be concluded with the Palestinians of the West Bank. Some additional contacts took place in the early 1970s, but they were not of resume such intensity or form as the earlier negotiations. Practically speaking, from 1970 until December 1987, the research topics on jane austen Arab population of Judea, Samaria and Gaza never dared to try again to component essay, resume or respond to an initiative on their own. At first it was Jordan who quashed any sign of independent action. Then there was the upsurge of the PLO, mainly after the Yom Kippur War, when the Arab states recognized that organization's claim to research topics austen, be the for the sole representative of the Palestinian cause and people. The result was that the more than one million Palestinian Arabs living in Judea, Samaria and Gaza could no longer dare or try to express freely their positions and wishes.

Whenever a leader was skuspected by the PLO of acting independently, he would be threatened and sometimes murdered. We have asked ourselves all these years if we really missed an opportunity in research paper topics those first years after the Six-Day War to reach a settlement. I recall that when I received the reports of these negotiations, I doubted that they might really achieve serious results such as the establishment of autonomy or some other agreement that would lead to century science, a viable solution since there was always hesitation on research both sides. But mainly it was the West Bank leaders who were the sample resume design ones who hesitated and withdrew even when there were good prospects to succeed. In July 1968 and later on paper topics on jane in 1969 we were quite close to an agreement but they backed out, not we. Therefore, I do not believe that this really can be considered as a lost opportunity. Until the essay save save energy Yom Kippur War both sides believed that Israel would continue to research, rule the territories, not only the West Bank and Gaza but Sinai as well, for a very long time. After the 1973 war various Israeli governments tried to take the initiative and formulate a policy.

The trouble was and papers for the university, still exists that we could not agree among ourselves which way we should go. Will it be a territorial compromise or a certain form of autonomy annexation or keeping the situation as it is research paper on jane austen or something else? As long as we cannot agree among ourselves, there is no plan that may reflect the national consensus and may become a starter for serious negotiations. Time and again people have asked why the sample design refugee problem was not handled separately. Research Paper! In the first place, this happened because since 1948 all the Arab states, and the PLO later on, wanted the refugee problem to be kept alive and considered as a political problem, not as a refugee problem. The solution would come through the right of the refugees to return to their homes in Jaffa, Haifa and the rest of Israel. Israel had prepared some programs to solve the problem of refugees living in the camps. After the 1967 war we found in Judea and Samaria about 120,000 refugees out of a population of 800,000, as opposed to Gaza where out of 400,000, more than half of the population were refugees. Essay Plan! The refugees, except for paper on jane austen, several thousand, had refused to leave the refugee camps since according to UNRWA rules whoever left the camps lost his refugee status. We did not think it proper to compel them to leave the camps against their will though the alternatives we offered could improve their situation considerably. Facing this situation we tried to improve conditions as far as possible in the camps themselves, which we found in design 1967 in a most deplorable condition.

However, these improvements could not be very effective since UNRWA objected to plans which might have changed the camps' structure. In December 1987 the Arab population of the West Bank and Gaza made a move of their own to paper topics austen, try to save save energy, take their fate in their own hands. On December 9th they launched the research paper topics austen disturbances that gradually developed into an uprising. The PLO jumped on the bandwagon, but they did not lead the events, which are led by new, sporadic, local leadership. Component Essay! They decide what to do and when to do it.

They still adhere to the PLO and its directives but they might, when a conflict of interests should arise, act differently in their own way and make their own decisions. For the first time they have learned that they are in a position where they can, if they wish, form their own policies and even dictate them to the PLO. Research Austen! In the midst of stones and papers university, molotov cocktails a new leadership is topics on jane growing. There is no reason to expect that it will be moderate. If this leadership becomes strong enough to follow its own interests, then some schism may arise between it and resume, the PLO.

They may understand in research paper topics on jane austen the long run that nothing practical can be achieved through stones and molotov cocktails, and papers university, may try to find other ways, which include negotiating on paper topics on jane their own with Israel. One of the difficult problems facing the local leadership who may turn to negotiate with us is that they will be labelled as stooges of Israel, with tragic results. We had experienced this in the 1980s when the Military Government at the time tried to encourage the Village Leagues. Component Essay! In a situation where the population is hostile, on paper the one hand, and threatened by 21st century coursework help, the PLO, on the other, it was a sheer dream to paper topics on jane austen, believe that Israel could succeed in developing an alternative leadership. True local leadership has to sample resume, grow and rise naturally from the people and by the people. This cannot be achieved as long as the PLO or Jordan will try to crush any sign of independent leadership. This experiment in independent behavior has started the research paper uprising, but in the future in may culminate in some kind of negotiation.

Then we shall see if they have matured to follow their own best interests and not be led by the interests of the other parties including the external PLO. They too know very well that there are differences between their own public and personal interests and those of Arafat's PLO, despite their repeated declarations that they are all PLO and that the PLO is their sole representative. We have already observed occasions in which they disregarded instructions that had come from abroad. Major General Rephael Vardi was the principal figure in the government of component essay Judea, Samaria and Gaza in the decade after the 1967 war. He has been part of the Jerusalem Center's project on reaching a solution for research topics on jane austen, the future of Judea, Samaria and sample resume, Gaza.

This Viewpoints is based on his presentation at the Jerusalem Center Fellows Forum.

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Alex Shvartsman#039;s Speculative Fiction. As an editor I see a lot of bad cover letters. I can#8217;t help but think folks are following some bad advice out there, so I wrote a thing that might help. It#8217;s long and it#8217;s a little ranty and cranky (because I#8217;ve seen a lot of bad cover letters in the last month), but I hope it will also be helpful. Note that this advice is specific to genre magazines and anthologies and short fiction. Novel submissions play by a different set of rules, and there may be a slightly different etiquette in literary submissions and other genres. But, if you write and topics on jane submit science fiction, fantasy, and horror short stories, the following essay is for you. How to Write a Proper Short Story Cover Letter.

The most important fact to remember about cover letters is 21st century, this: the best cover letter in the world is research paper topics on jane, not really going to help you sell your story. An impressive list of awards and pro essay save, credits mighton a rare occasionentice a slush reader whoís already on the fence about a submission to bump it up to the editor. Austen? An editor or first reader might delve a little deeper into the story before they give up because your previously listed sales have demonstrated a certain level of 21st century science coursework help, competency. But, beyond that, the paper austen, story is going to sink or swim on its own. However, a bad cover letter is at least as likelyperhaps more likelyto undermine your chances. It can clue in the editor that youíre new and exam inexperienced or, worse yet, that youíve settled for being published in mediocre markets. (More on that below.) And if you manage to really put a foot in your mouth, you may end up with whoever is paper topics on jane, reading the story actively rooting against you. The cases where the cover letter will sway things either way are rare. Save Save Energy? Some of the industryís top editors wisely ignore cover letters altogether; they read the story first so whatever you put in the cover letter doesnít pre-bias them either way. But not all editors do that. And since a good cover letter is really easy to write, why not give yourself that tiniest extra edge?

Letís begin by talking about some of the most common mistakes one finds in cover letters. I write this at the tail end of a month-long submission window where my associate editors and I received nearly 640 submissions. Although the research paper austen, letter below is university, 100% fake, virtually every mistake and problem it features showed up in paper topics on jane one or more of the cover letters I saw this month alone . Papers? Without further ado, hereís a terrible cover letter: 123 Main Street. Cleveland, OH 44101. Attn: Mrs. Jane Smith, Editor. Iím submitting my short story ďTraveling Back in Time to Kill HitlerĒ to be considered for paper topics, publication in your magazine, Time Travel Tales . It is formatted in Standard Manuscript Format and saved as an a history essay, RTF file as per research on jane your guidelines. It is an original story not previously published anywhere and it is not on submission elsewhere. This story is about a pair of scientists who invented a time machine and decided to to travel back to 1905 and kill young Hitler while heís trying to make it as an artist in Vienna. They wrestle with the moral dilemma of killing a man before he committed any crimes as well as with the exam, potential pitfalls of a scientific paradox his death would cause. In a surprise twist ending, they decide not to kill Hitler and go home.

I am a graduate of DeVry University where I earned my MFA. Research Paper Topics On Jane Austen? I then studied physics at essay save fuel, Phoenix University Online and paper on jane earned a PhD. My thesis was on time travel paradoxes. Iím also a Taekwondo black belt, and an award-winning cat breeder. Iíve been previously published in For the Luv Review , Cat Breeder Quarterly , Obscure magazine, The Poetry Diges t, Daily Movie Reviews website, and the comments section of the Cleveland Times . This manuscript is a disposable copy. Save Fuel? Let us now examine this bit by topics on jane, bit: 123 Main Street. Cleveland, OH 44101.

Attn: Mrs. Jane Smith, Editor. 1985 called and it wants its business correspondence formatting back. Your contact information should appear at the top of your manuscript, and while there are still a small handful of markets that ask you to include it in sample design the cover letter as well, most donít. Unless they specifically ask for it, donít duplicate it in topics the cover letter, and certainly donít include ďAttn:Ē or ďFrom the desk ofĒ lines they may have taught you about in eleventh grade typewriter class. The first line of fuel energy, your cover letter should be the salutation.

At the very least, this should be addressed to research paper, Ms . Smith because sheís the editor and not merely an extension of her husband. If you know who the component essay, editors are, generally address the most senior editor at the market. Dear Ms. Smith or Dear Jane Smith would do nicely. But, really, Dear Editor(s) will do just as well. You could even go with my personal favorite (and a form of paper on jane austen, address Iíve actually seen in my slush pile): Gentlebeings . If you use any of these, you avoid the possibility of misgendering your correspondent, misspelling their name (Shvartsman here; I know a thing or two about papers that), and maybe sidestep the effort of trying to decipher the hierarchy of a specific market. Most editors wonít care, but unless youíve communicated with the editor in the past and they signed their e-mail to you with their first name, itís marginally better to avoid addressing them by research paper topics, their first name (aka Dear Jane. ) For the record though, ď Dear Alex Ē is fine by resume, me. Iím submitting my short story ďTraveling Back in Time to Kill HitlerĒ to paper, be considered for publication in your magazine Time Travel Tales . It is papers for the university, formatted in Standard Manuscript Format and saved as an RTF file as per your guidelines.

It is an original story not previously published anywhere and it is not on research, submission elsewhere. The same rule applies to persuasive writing, cover letter as does to fiction: donít overwrite. Before you include any specific bit of information, ask yourself: is this necessary and relevant? Jane Smith knows that the name of on jane, her magazine is Time Travel Tales . Papers University? She can reasonably make an assumption that youíre sending the story to be reviewed for research topics, publication there. If Time Travel Tales asks that you format your story in SMF (Standard Manuscript Format) and does not accept reprints or simultaneous submissions, then she will assume your story is 21st century coursework help, neither a reprint nor a simultaneous submission, because youíre a human being who is capable of paper topics on jane austen, reading and processing information stated in her guidelines. Which brings us to my personal favorite: writers letting me know that they formatted the manuscript in resume design RTF or DOC or whatever, as specified in the guidelines.

First, again, I know which formats are requested in my own guidelines. And second, I can see your file right there . Either you formatted it correctly, in which case I donít need a reminder as I will not be awarding you a gold star for this since we arenít in kindergarten, or you sent me a PDF, ZIP file or some other strange beast I didnít ask for, and paper topics on jane then we have a different problem altogether. If you follow any advice at all from component essay this text, let this be it: Do not summarize your story in your cover letter. Let me repeat that. On Jane Austen? In your cover letter. This practice likely comes from the world of novel query letters where you do have to summarize your book in a few paragraphs. However, this need does not translate to short fiction. Virtually every editor I know hates when authors do this with a passion. University? We want your story to speak for research topics on jane, itself. Component Essay? We donít want any sort of a preview, a summary, or anything else that will spoil it in some way. In fact, when I see a sentence that opens with ďThis story is aboutĒ I immediately skip to the next paragraph.

So please, do yourself a favor and donít include one. Paper Austen? Once in awhile, a market will actually ask you to essay writing plan, include a summary. And while I donít really get how this is helpful to paper topics on jane, them, always abide by sample, what the guidelines say over topics on jane austen, what I write here. Having said this, it can occasionally be helpful to include the storyís genre and length, especially for markets that review different genres. It may help the editor assign it to the right reader or to budget proper amount time to review it themselves. So itís perfectly okay to papers university, say ďPlease consider my dark fantasy storyĒ or ďEnclosed is a steampunk flash fiction story of research topics on jane, 900 words.) Just donít get into essay save, the details of plot and sure as hell donít tell the editor how wonderful and great your story is.

Thereís one other notable exception to talking about your story in topics austen the cover letter, and weíll cover it in the next section. Or, perhaps you can spot it in the next paragraph yourself. I am a graduate of essay fuel save energy, DeVry University where I earned my MFA. I then studied physics at Phoenix University Online and research paper topics on jane austen earned a PhD. My thesis was on component essay, time travel paradoxes. Iím also a Taekwondo black belt, and an award-winning cat breeder. Generally, you should not include your non-writing related accomplishments in the cover letter unless your experience directly correlates to what the story is about. In our example, the author is austen, absolutely right to mention their physics background and their thesis. Sample? It is directly relevant to the story they are submitting and to topics on jane, Time Travel Tales as a market.

The other tidbits, however, should not be included unless the component essay, author is presenting a story about research topics a Taekwondo tournament or about breeding cats. Century Help? So yeah, if youíre a NASA scientist mention that in your space exploration story. If youíre a history professor, this will be relevant if youíre writing historical fantasy. If you write a story set in Japan and you have lived in Japan for research paper on jane austen, a few years, you can mention that. But your advanced degree in save energy Windchime Studies is likely not helpful when trying to sell a cyberpunk story. Research Paper On Jane Austen? Then thereís my personal pet peeve, and for the university thatís authors mentioning their MFA (a creative writing degree) in their cover letters. To me, this is an equivalent of saying ďtrust me, I write goodĒ and is not relevant to your story, unless it happens to be about an MFA program. In fact, seeing this in a cover letter almost always correlates to something I can quit reading after a page because the writing is subpar. Paper Austen? Which is not to say MFAs are bad, or writers with MFAs are bad.

Itís just that the good writers with MFAs do not generally feel the need to include this particular accomplishment in their cover letters. The other thing that is perfectly okay (but unnecessary) to component essay, include are your professional writing association memberships: SFWA, HWA, and the like. Instead, focus on including your publishing credits and awards or achievements in creative writing, if any. Iíve been previously published in paper topics on jane For the Luv Review , Cat Breeder Quarterly , Obscure magazine, The Poetry Diges t, Daily Movie Reviews website, and the comments section of the 21st science coursework, Cleveland Times . First of paper topics austen, all, let me say that listing no publishing credits if you donít have them will never hurt you. Itís even okay to persuasive essay writing plan, say youíre a new/unpublished writer. Really!

Every editor I know loves discovering new talent and loves being the first to publish someone, or first to publish someone in a pro venue. No one is going to hold a lack of on jane austen, past credits against you. Itís also perfectly fine if youíre new and you only have a couple of token credits to your name. Although I advise authors not to submit anywhere that pays less than semi-pro rates, thatís a different topic and a couple of token credits wonít hurt you. There are two things that can hurt you, however: First, listing a ton of credits that are all lower on papers, the totem pole than the paper austen, place youíre submitting to. When a pro essay fuel save, editor sees a list of twenty non-paying or token-paying markets they wonít be impressed.

In fact, this will have the opposite effect as the editor might assume that you either canít write work publishable at better venues or, worse yet, youíve settled for the minor leagues and arenít seriously trying to improve your writing. Either way, youíve just pre-biased the editor/first reader against your work. So, even if you have 20+ small credits, only paper topics on jane austen, list three or four of component essay, them. In fact, even if you have 20+ professional credits, only list three or four of them anyway. Research Paper On Jane? Name-dropping your top 3 markets is better for papers for the, establishing your bona fides than name-dropping your top 10 markets.

The second way to torpedo your chances is to mix in your non-fiction credits with your fiction credits to make the overall list more impressive. Itís cool if you wrote an article for Clarkesworld , had a poem published in research topics austen Strange Horizons or a book review at Apex magazine. Century Coursework Help? You can even include those credits in your cover letter if you really want to. But if the editor thinks youíre intentionally trying to obfuscate things by paper topics, bundling them with your actual fiction credits with statements like ďIíve been published at For-the-Luv Review , Obscure magazine, and component essay Clarkesworld Ē they will notice that one of paper topics on jane, these things is essay save save energy, not like the others, use their Google-fu, and research on jane then they will raise an eyebrow. Science Coursework? This manuscript is a disposable copy. This is a thing I actually saw in a cover letter this year. Research Paper? Back in the days when dinosaurs roamed the Earth and the price of return postage for a stack of component essay, typewritten pages was cheaper than the cost of photo-copying an research paper on jane austen, extra set, some authors wanted their rejected manuscripts back. Magazines required that these authors include a SASE (self-addressed stamped envelope) either way, and enough postage if you wanted your precious pages back (coffee stains optional.) If you didnít want them back, it was expected to mention in the cover letter that the manuscript copy you included was disposable.

In fact, I remember doing this as recently as a couple of sample resume, years ago, until FSF became the last of the respectable genre Ďzines to stop requiring print submissions. Fast forward to today. Paper Topics On Jane Austen? All submissions are electronic. (Some venues still accept print subs, but if youíre reading this, you probably arenít among the authors who avail themselves of this option.) So, what is the point of adding this line to the cover letter? None, other than blindly following conventions from the resume design, bygone era. To summarize, your cover letter should be short . In e-mail cover letters include story title, genre (if applicable), length, and any relevant credits/awards. Consider including word count in email header as this may be helpful to topics on jane, the editors as they often choose to read stories based on how much free time they have available. In webform that already makes you fill in the basic info, stick to credits/relevant info; no need to repeat info from the formís fields. Resume Design? Optimal cover letter for Clueless Writer submitting to Time Travel Tales would be: Please consider ďTraveling Back in Time to research topics, Kill HitlerĒ (SF, 3000 words). 21st Century Science? My short fiction has appeared in For the Luv review and Obscure magazine. I have a physics PhD from Phoenix University Online.

My thesis was on time travel paradoxes. Itís simple, itís basic, and it highlights the research paper topics on jane austen, relevant accomplishments this writer has. This is the actual cover letter I currently use: Dear Editor Name, Please consider Story Title (SF, 2000 words). I#8217;m the winner of the 2014 WSFA Small Press Award for Short Fiction and a finalist for the 2015 Canopus Award for Excellence in Interstellar Writing. Over 80 of my short stories have appeared in Nature, Galaxy#8217;s Edge, Intergalactic Medicine Show , and other venues. Thanks very much in advance for your consideration. If anything, I feel like mine is on the longish side. Note the URL at the end of the letter. If they really care about for the my other credits or just want to make sure Iím not unhinged lunatic who writes 3000-word rants about paper topics on jane austen cover letters on papers university, his blog (Ahem!), they can click through. But, chances are, they wonít.

Because this cover letter has, hopefully, done its job of introducing me briefly and will not get in the way of the story . Which is, really, all you can ask of an research topics on jane, optimal cover letter. I#8217;ll be presenting a workshop on 21st century science coursework help, the business of short fiction at topics, Balticon, where in essay save energy addition to talking cover letters I#8217;ll discuss contract review and negotiations, the etiquette of queries, finding viable markets for your work and submission strategies, reprint and foreign rights, and much more. The funds raised by this and other workshops will go to support Balticon 50 and there are great many other reasons to research, attend this convention. Check out mine and other premium workshops here. Small note: I once heard a couple of editors at a con disparaging cover letters with a generic #8220;Dear Editors#8221;. Maybe they were the exception; but after that, I always do the research to essay writing plan, include the editor#8217;s name.

I#8217;d say there#8217;s an research paper on jane, exception to most of what I#8217;m saying above. #128578; Knowing the name of the 21st century science coursework, head editor is nice and one should use it, but if it#8217;s unclear, #8220;Dear Editor#8221; is preferable to getting it wrong. And some markets, like Strange Horizons , actually prefer this salutation. This was very helpful! I have notice there are some exceptions, but usually those markets say so directly on their website or even include examples of what they think are good cover letters. Shimmer even tweets regular complaints about paper submissions that don#8217;t follow their guidelines. The one thing that surprised me in this was you saying that it might be better to have no credits than a long list of non-paying ones. Usually after a story gets 4 or 5 paid rejections, I down grade to #8220;whatever market take sim subs and 21st science help look like the paper topics on jane, might like the story#8221; regardless of pay. I might be more selective for papers, here on out.

I need to be more persistent with paid markets. Research Paper Topics? What I suggest is essay energy, only listing your best credits. Research Paper On Jane Austen? If you happen to component essay, have a lot of topics austen, small market credits that#8217;s okay, but don#8217;t list more than 3 or 4 of them as it will not impress the editors (for the reasons I discussed above.) Also, downgrading your submission to token venues after only essay save energy, 4-5 rejections may be too fast. I#8217;ve sold stories to pro or higher-tier semi-pro venues even after 20+ rejections. It only takes one editor who will love the research paper topics on jane austen, story to find it a home! Sage advice, sir. Sage advice#8230;thanks. One other caveat: I edit for a number of different venues, and sample resume design it helps me immensely when the topics on jane austen, cover letter specifies the name of the a history, publication submitted to. Obviously, this is not necessary via submissions managers or e-mail addresses in the form of #8220;; Good point.

I suppose this depends on the method of the submission. If it#8217;s a web form tied to a specific magazine/project, one probably doesn#8217;t need to name the venue, but if it goes to the editor#8217;s e-mail address then it might be helpful. Unless I have a good relationship with the editor, my standard opening is: Attached please find #8220;[STORY]#8221; (approximately [COUNT] words) for your consideration for [MARKET]. I paste it in, edit it, double check to be sure I edited right, and move on to my recent/top credits in the next paragraph. It saves me from having to think too much. I read the cover letter last.

It has now switched from research paper topics austen something that might put me off a story to something that might encourage me to give it a second chance.

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essays hook The Hook: Scene Transitions in Classical Cinema. How do movies carry us from research topics on jane austen scene to scene? The question is simple, but not many people have explored it. I’m especially interested in how transitions are managed in component essay, mainstream, mass-audience movies, but I’ll have some things to say about other traditions too. I’ll also be talking a lot about unity, which can make the whole exercise seem fairly old-fashioned and Aristotelian. Yet examining how films create internal patterns reminds us that those patterns are almost always aimed at the audience. We’re supposed to register those patterns, consciously or not, and they prompt us to react in particular ways.

As so often, when we talk about form we’re actually talking about the psychology of research topics on jane spectators. If we want to know how mainstream movies take us from essay writing plan scene to scene, I suggest we start by acknowledging three different levels of architecture. First, we can consider our film as having large-scale parts. Call this macrostructure the way those biggish parts fit together. We might treat reel lengths as the salient parts, as silent filmmakers and Hong Kong filmmakers sometimes did.

More recently, we’re urged to research paper topics, think of the large-scale parts as acts , either three in the current Hollywood advice books or four, as Kristin Thompson and I have suggested. But these more or less material divisions tally up with phases of the story action. Writing A History Exam. So, for example, the traditional conception of three-act structure depends on the main characters choosing goals, being blocked in achieving them, and at the climax decisively achieving them or not. In National Treasure (2004), Benjamin Gates is topics, searching for the treasure of the Knights Templar. He’s kept from achieving this goal by conflicts, obstacles, and delays.

In the film’s first part, he and his assistant Riley learn that directions to the treasure are inscribed on the back of the essay fuel save energy, US Declaration of Independence. But Ben’s former backer Ian is paper on jane austen, also on a history essay exam the trail of the map, so our heroes acquire another goal: to protect the Declaration. At the research topics austen, turning point of the first part, Ben decides that the essay, only way to on jane, achieve his goals is to steal the Declaration. In the second part, Ben and Riley make off with the document, picking up archivist Abigail along the way. The third part consists of following the trail of clues laid out in the coded message, as our three are pursued by Ian’s gang and by the FBI. The film’s fourth part constitutes a climax. The trail leads to Manhattan, where Ian takes our heroes hostage and they plunge into a lair underneath a church.

The treasure is discovered, Ian is a history exam, defeated, and in research topics on jane, an epilogue the resume design, protagonists are rewarded. For more on research paper on jane macrostructure, see the essay, “Anatomy of the essay, Action Picture” elsewhere on on jane this site. At a lower level, we can think of the film as having midsize parts, usually called scenes or sequences . These parts, usually 30 to century science, 50 in a modern feature, are tied together in particular ways. Typically the scenes develop and connect through short-term chains of cause and effect. Characters formulate specific plans, react to changing circumstances, gain or lose allies, make appointments, act under deadlines, and otherwise take specific steps toward or away from their goals.

Part of the screenwriter’s craft is to find ways to fit the short-term actions into paper topics, the overarching movement toward resolution. In National Treasure , for example, the first large-scale part consists of concrete actions that flow naturally out of the goals. To find the save energy, treasure, Ben and research topics on jane, Riley and their opponents need the map. The map is on the Declaration of Independence. Ian will try to steal it, so Ben tries to alert the FBI, but he’s considered a crank. He tries to get permission to look at the Declaration, but that effort fails too. So he is obliged to protect it from Ian by stealing it himself. This cascade of choices, actions, and reactions flows logically out of his double goals: to find the treasure and to protect the Declaration. This second level of century science help structure isn’t quite as linear as I’ve made it out, since well-constructed plots interweave various elements from earlier scenes into the development of later scenes. Appointments and deadlines illustrate this strategy.

So does a causal chain that’s left unresolved in one scene. On Jane Austen. Kristin and I have called this device the dangling cause , and it is very common in Hollywood dramaturgy. 21st Century Help. For example, in National Treasure , when calling on Abigail to research paper on jane, seek permission to examine the sample resume, Declaration, Ben notices a folder advertising an archive reception. Paper Austen. Several scenes later we learn that that reception will be the occasion on which Ben and Riley pull off their heist. Because of this weaving of causes and component essay, effects, we might best call this midlevel architecture the level of plot coherence : each scene is research paper, designed to advance the action but also to develop or tie off lines of activity set off earlier. A third, still finer-grained level of organization is what I’ll call microstructure . This is the tangible, moment-by-moment texture, conceived as a pattern of images and sample resume design, sounds. For example, within a scene, we often find patterns of cuttingan establishing shot, reverse angles, close-ups, and so onmeshed with the developing dialogue. The audiovisual patterning carries the story along bit by bit, and these bits we take in and assemble into larger patterns of intelligibility, such as Ben and Riley fail to persuade Abigail to let them study the Declaration . Likewise, in action sequences, cutting, composition, point of view, sound-image interaction, and the like carry the discrete developments of the action, which we intuitively pull into a larger unit, such as Ben, Riley, and Abigail escape Ian and keep custody of the Declaration . Global macrostructure, midlevel plot coherence, and audiovisual texture or microstructure: we can study a film’s narrative at topics on jane austen any of these levels.

Usually we hop back and forth among them, searching for coursework, patterns that yield significant effects on the viewer’s experience. I’ll try to convince you that transitions play an important role in those patterns. Most scene transitions facilitate the first and second levels of unity. In many films, a fade-out marks the end a discrete “act.” At the midrange level of coherence, the paper topics austen, end of one scene and the beginning of another will often be marked in a conventional way, by a disjunctive cut or a burst of music. Usually, however, the 21st century science help, immediate blow-by-blow action of topics on jane scene A and component essay, its audiovisual texture aren’t linked directly to that of Scene B. Research Paper Topics On Jane. Take an example from National Treasure . 21st Century Coursework Help. Kicked out by the FBI, Riley says that they have no one to research on jane, turn to, but Ben says that they need someone who’s “passionate.” Cut to 21st century science, the exterior of the National Archives building, then a close-up of the flyer for the gala that will be so important in the second part. After several more shots, Ben and Riley are ushered in to meet Abigail. The first part of the scene has left the causal line of the men’s search dangling in order to research paper austen, wedge in the motif of the reception brochure. Now their hunt for a helper resumes.

But suppose things were presented differently. Suppose that after Ben says they need someone passionate, we cut directly to the close-up of component essay Abigail on research the phone. That would be an example of the sort of transition that most interests me in papers for the, this essay: The hook. In our book The Classical Hollywood Cinema , we called it that, and nowadays some screenwriters use the term too. 1 Here the audiovisual texture links a specific causal element the end of one scene to that at the very start of the next. The second, in a concrete way, completes the element we see or hear at research on jane austen the end of the component essay, first scene. At a later point in National Treasure , driving away from the scene of their robbery, Ben mentions the clues in “those letters.” “What letters?” asks Abigail, over a shot of the research topics austen, van. Cut to an extreme long shot of the component essay, van parked, Ben pacing outside it. Abigail is saying, “You have the original Constance Dogood letters.” Scene A ends with a question; scene B opens with the answer.

This is a common way a hook is paper topics, used, though we’ll see that principles of continuity or contrast can work as well. But first, let’s map the possibilities. Confining ourselves for component essay, the moment to sound cinema, we can ask: What can hook to what? There are four simple possibilities. 1.) A sound can hook to another sound. Paper. Typically, a line of dialogue at the end of scene A links directly to a line at the start of scene B. Save Energy. That’s what happens in the Constance Dogood instance. Here’s another example from National Treasure . Riley is research, insisting that the Declaration is impossible to steal. On the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, he says, “Let me prove it to you.” Cut to the dome of the Library of Congress.

At the visual level, this might seem not to be a tight link; isn’t it like the component essay, exterior shot of the National Archives in the default example? What creates the hook is the paper austen, second shot’s use of Riley’s voice, which says that he has brought Ben to the Library of Congress to convince him to “listen to Riley.” This is the sample, proof he proffered in his final line of the previous scene. So this first type of hook is easy to test for. Paper Austen. Just ask: Would it work on radio? 2.) A sound can hook to an image. Usually the sound is a line of dialogue. Persuasive Writing Plan. In CHC , we called this a “dialogue hook.” Lewis Herman, in his indispensable book on research paper topics austen screenwriting, calls it a “dialogue transition.” 2.

This is the most common sort of hook in National Treasure , and it provides some clever transitions. When Ben and Abigail are trying to bring out the cipher on the back of the sample resume, Declaration, they squeeze on lemon juice and blow fervently on the paper. The image clarifies. Ben: “We need more juice.” Abigail: “We need more heat.” Cut to a bowl of lemons, then to a drawer opening to reveal a hair dryer.

Ben and Abigail proceed to coax the paper topics on jane, code out of the paper. This is component essay, a double dialogue hook, “juice” answered by the lemons and paper topics on jane austen, “heat” answered by the dryer. The double entendre adds a nice twist, for the scene captures the persuasive essay writing, erotic energyjuice and heatBen and Abigail share in making a historical discovery. 3.) An image can hook to paper austen, an image. For The. This is rarer than the first two types, but the research paper on jane austen, first hook in National Treasure illustrates the possibility. Component Essay. In the prologue, as a boy Ben learns of the Templars’ treasure from his grandfather. Research. Grandpa Gates asks him to take on the duty of protecting the treasure and the family name. “I so swear.” The young Ben raises his head as the music starts to rise as well. Cut to Ben, now a man, raising his head as he and Ian drive across the arctic wastes to find the buried ship, the Charlotte . The match-on-action across years is driven home by a rhythmic shift in the score and a new, urgent brass theme.

The image-based hook is save fuel energy, somewhat more common in the 1920s and research paper on jane austen, 1930s, I think. Help. Ozu uses it a lot, and here is an example from Fritz Lang’s You Only Live Once (1937). We dissolve from research on jane a cluster of parcels in an office to the same parcels, now opened at science coursework help home. Lang, as we’ll see below, is one of the early masters of the hook. 4.) An image can hook to a sound. This seems to be the rarest sort of research paper on jane audiovisual transition, and fuel save energy, pure examples are hard to find. Imagine a shot of a commander signing an order for a prisoner to be shot by a firing squad. Cut to darkness and the sound of a fusillade; fade up to show the prisoner lying dead against research on jane the wall. I don’t find an instance in National Treasure , but Kristin suggests one example from persuasive essay plan Groundhog Day . Phil the weatherman has already been through one day’s repetition of events. He tests whether tomorrow will be the same by breaking a pencil and putting the research topics, pieces on his bedside table. He lies there propped up and watching the save, digital clock face.

He evidently intends to stay up all night to see what happens around six o’clock. Cut to an extreme close-up of the clock face changing to 6:00 and the tune, “I’ve Got You Babe.” Cut to Phil, who has fallen asleep, snapping bolt upright. Although the shot of the clock indicates a new scene, the basic logic of the transition moves us from an austen image posing a question to a crucial sound that answers the resume, question. After all, 6:00 AM comes every day, but “I’ve Got You Babe” doesn’t, thankfully. Director Harold Ramis could just as easily have cut to a black frame and simply let us hear the tune, and we’d know that Phil’s fears are now confirmed. Interestingly, we don’t see the pencil at first; it’s the research topics on jane, sound that tells us that the day is repeated, and the restored pencil confirms it. Playing games and finding functions.

This catalogue is component essay, merely a first effort to pick out the possibilities. Research On Jane Austen. But we need to writing essay exam, recognize that the hook need not be literal or on the nose. It can be ironic or nugatory, metaphorical or misleading. We find a deflationary negative hook in one episode of The Simpsons . Homer: “I predict that this is the last we’ll be hearing about prohibition.” Cut to enraged women chanting: “We want prohibition!” National Treasure creates a playful narration by means of some misleading hooks. Riley is parked outside the National Archives, checking on some video installations he’s made that will monitor Ben’s theft. When he finds they work, he says, “Game on.” Cut to a digital readout counting down from 3 to End . A timer in his equipment? Nope; a microwave oven in which Ben is preparing lasagna before he settles down to studying plans. What we took as a continuity cut within a scene was a hook between scenes. A similar effect arises in a transition from Donnie Brasco , pointed out by paper austen Jeff Smith.

Lefty is headed out of his apartment, knowing he’ll be killed. Cut to a black frame. Over the black frame we hear a gunshot. Cut to a target on a shooting range, then to Donnie firing. It’s a rare case of an image/sound hook, but it’s made ambiguous by the two ways we can take the pistol shot.

The sound of the shot indicates Lefty’s death, although it is for the university, retrospectively linked to the firing range (it sounds the same as the other rounds Donnie fires). Metaphorically, of course, it underscores the fact that Donnie is responsible for Lefty’s death. And hooks can be combined and embedded. We’ve already seen one instance in National Treasure , the paper topics austen, double hook on resume juice and research paper topics austen, heat. Here’s another from the resume, same movie.

Sadusky, the FBI officer, is questioning Ben’s father and assures him, “Don’t worry, Mr. Gates. Topics. We’ll find your carand your son.” Cut to for the, the Cadillac hood ornament, and tilt up to research paper on jane, show Ben driving. The two dialogue elements, car and writing plan, son, have been linked to the visual ones, and in that order. With the redundancy characteristic of Hollywood, Riley, dozing in the back seat, murmurs, “Your dad’s got a sweet ride.” We’ll consider some other complicated cases later, but we should have enough examples to begin to ask about functions. What purposes are fulfilled by the hook?

Why should we have the hook at research paper on jane all? Lang, who used sound/sound hooks extensively in M (1931), explained two reasons behind his choice. First, breaking off a line and completing it with another in essay plan, the next scene “not only accelerates the tempo of the film but also strengthens the dramaturgically necessary association of thoughts between two successive scenes.” 3 So we gain pacing, an topics austen impression of rapid narration, as if there were no time wasted on establishing shots and other padding. We also gain emphasis: the core motifs of a scene can be brought directly to the viewer’s attention. In many cases, however, this second condition isn’t met; in many of the National Treasure examples, the component essay, hooking elements are peripheral to the scene (the lasagna, the Cadillac).

An implication of Lang’s point is on jane, that hooks create a more overt narration. They address the audience more or less directly, letting us put the scenes together without benefit of character exposition. Century Science. This sort of direct address can work in classical films because the beginnings and endings of scenes are typically the research on jane austen, most overt portions. (Some theorists have claimed that Hollywood storytelling is “transparent,” but this quality actually fluctuates across the film and across individual scenes.) This overt narration can build up a sense of papers university cleverness or resourcefulness or sophistication. In some of the more complex cases, the hook also functions as useful disorientation. Research Paper Topics On Jane. It provides a bump, asking us to be alert and find a fresh way to fit together what was just said or shown. One of the most interesting functions of the hook is that the strong audiovisual cohesion it yields can give the impression of a tightly unified film. This could be valuable in the case of a movie that lacked plot coherence or a balanced macrostructure. That is, clever hooks can mask a weakly plotted movie. You might argue that the strong local connections among scenes in National Treasure distract us from the massive improbabilities of the action. Most rarely, I think, reliance on essay energy hook-transitions can feed into a larger strategy of narrational manipulation. The key example would be, again, You Only Live Once . I must speak generally so as not to research paper topics austen, spoil the film if you haven’t seen it.

Here the hooks are part of a larger system of ellipses between scenes. Save Energy. At first those ellipses don’t conceal important story information, but at a crucial point they do. Paper Topics. Lang trains us to see the hooks as innocent, if flamboyant, gestures, but in fact they lull us into trusting this narration, which brutally betrays us. Where, finally, did the hook come from? We can find it in literature, although exact analogies are complicated.

Certainly hooks are common in today’s popular fiction; I append some examples at the end of this essay. But did the device originate in the nineteenth-century novel? I leave that for literary researchers to component essay, determine. In cinema, it’s clearly a device of classical filmmaking. Research Austen. It flourished in the 1930s, not only in You Only Live Once but in Penthouse (1933) and university, The Case of the Lucky Legs (1935; discussed in The Classical Hollywood Cinema ). Research Topics Austen. It can be seen in Hitchcock’s The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934) as well, and of course Welles makes much of for the hook tactics in what he called the “lightning mixes” of Citizen Kane (1941). How far back can we trace it? Noël Burch argues that Lang in effect invents the hook in Dr. Mabuse der Spieler (1922), especially in the way that intertitles work with the research topics austen, images that precede and follow them. 4 When the police inspector von Wenk speculates that all the mysterious men might be the same person, we cut to Mabuse in his laboratory; the shot confirms von Wenk’s hypothesis. But we ought to note that the “hooking” transitions in component essay, Mabuse tend to occur not between scenes but between two crosscut threads of a single long sequence.

Silent films were typically built out of long sequences, often crosscut ones that trace parallel lines of action. When talkies came in, sequences grew shorter and more numerous, and crosscutting was chiefly assigned to situations of suspense. In any case, before Mabuse , other films were using the sort of hooks that Lang did. For instance, in austen, The Penalty (1920), the cops discuss Blizzard, the gangster played by writing plan Lon Chaney, and the dialogue hooks are aligned with shots identifying him. Other examples can be found in research paper topics on jane, The Whispering Chorus (1919) and A Delicious Little Devil (1919).

Granted, these passages are not quite as crisp and curt as Lang’s juxtapositions, but they might be considered intermediate steps toward what Lang would do. In the Penalty passage, it isn’t difficult to see that you could cut straight from the dialogue title to a close shot of Blizzard interrogating his minion. University. Changes in stylistic history can arise from tightening up a schema, making it less redundant. Lang applied the research paper austen, tighter version to component essay, M , and it’s likely that that film was influential in popularizing these practices for Hollywood in research paper topics, the 1930s. Filmmakers of the sound era started to take audiovisual texture very seriously, and as scenes became shorter, cohesion tactics became more valuable. Hooks are today written into the script, even if they aren’t used or are replaced by different ones. 5 A remark of Elmore Leonard’s about writing screenplays confirms the importance of transitions in save energy, modern cinema. “I like to add scenes, but then when it comes to research on jane, the transitions you’re in big trouble. You can’t just stick a scene in because you feel like it.” 6. Because the hook is a classical device, we might be inclined to expect that other traditions don’t make use of it. This belief isn’t wholly wrong.

Maurice Pialat asked a would-be editor: “Do you like films in for the university, which the guy says, ‘Let’s go to the sea,’ and the next scene is on the seashore?” 7. It isn’t hard to find films outside the mainstream that deny us such hooks. Paper Topics. A notable example is Michael Haneke’s 71 Fragments of a Chronology of Chance (1994), in which each scene is separated off from the others by black leader and silence, refusing the persuasive essay writing plan, forward tug of the action. But more interestingly, we find that “art movies” use hooks too. Bresson does it in an effort to be laconic. At the beginning of Au hasard Balthazar (1966), Marie’s father refuses to research paper topics on jane, buy the donkey, but in the next shot we see him leading it off. Hooks can also be comic, as in Tsai Ming-liang’s What Time Is It There? (2001). What we get is a process not of resume design simple refusal but of borrowing and transformation, schema and revision.

A lot of art cinema takes Hollywood devices and repurposes them. This isn’t to say that classically constructed films don’t revise their inherited devices too. This can sometimes occur in those virtuoso moments so beloved of contemporary Hollywood. Research On Jane Austen. One last time, consider National Treasure . Ben, Riley, and century science coursework help, Abigail are in a mall shop when they realize the import of a clue issuing from the topics austen, Declaration. It steers them to the clock tower on Independence Hall, which is represented on the hundred-dollar bill. Ben realizes that the clock and the time indicated on it point to essay save save, the next clue in the hunt.

But today, they believe, the research topics, appointed hour has passed. But Riley reminds them that daylight savings time began after the revolutionary period, so as per the clue’s dictates, they have an extra hour today. The couple rush off and call out the name of the man who first suggested daylight savings time: “Benjamin Franklin!” Cut to Ian, offering a hundred-dollar bill to the little boy who had helped Riley crack the design, clue leading to Independence Hall. In a movie that relies so heavily on hooks, this transition intertwines them in felicitous ways. On Jane. The mall scene ends with Ben and Abigail calling out Franklin’s name. This is an oblique sound/ image hook to the second shot in essay save energy, the following scene, when a reverse angle picks up the bill and Franklin’s portrait on it. It’s not irrelevant that our hero’s full name is Benjamin Franklin Gates. Even more subtly, earlier in the first scene, Ben’s optical point-of-view shot underscored the clock motif as he began to understand the clue. On Jane. (The framing of Ben and the bill will be mirrored by a reverse shot of Ian, his adversary.) The clock motif is picked up in the initial shot of the following scene, as the little boy examines the bill. But Ian is blind to the significance of the clock that is literally staring him in the face.

He will soon have to resort to the duffer historian’s tool, a Yahoo! search. As a storytelling device, the hook affects both narrative design and stylistic patterning. Studying it helps us grasp some basic mechanics of classical storytelling. Just as important, these devices display tacit knowledge and decisions on the part of filmmakers, who adapt traditions to 21st, the needs at hand. And filmmakers’ tacit knowledge corresponds to that of audiences, the research paper, skills you and component essay, I exercise unawares. We can follow the research paper, corrugations of sound/ image organization because we know about the world outside cinema, we know how conventions reshape that world, and we’re alert for narrative and audiovisual organization. Analyzing how movies are put together helps us understand how we experience them. Appendix: The hook in literary texts. George Pelecanos, The Night Gardener (New York: Little, Brown, 2006).

Scene change within Chapter Twenty-Five, p. 231: “Let’s get a beer or something,” said Holiday. “Drop me at papers for the university my car,” said Ramone. “C’mon, Ramone. Research Paper Topics Austen. How often do we see each other? Right?” Ramone looked over component essay, the bench at research paper on jane austen Cook. He seemed small, leaning against the door in the front seat of the car. Ramone was finishing his third beer as Holiday returned from the bar with three more and resume, some shots of research paper topics austen something on a tray. Elmore Leonard, Unknown Man #89 (New York: Harper, 2002). End of Chapter 12, p. 144:

Ryan saw the manager. The manager said he had just talked to the police. Who was this girl, anyway? What’d she do? She certainly hadn’t worked for essay, Uncle Ben.

Maybe not, but for some reason she had used the address. She was around, somewhere. That was on paper topics a Monday. Chapter 13[p. 145]: Wednesday afternoon, Ryan was sitting in a bar on Saginaw Street in Pontiac. Ian Rankin, The Naming of the Dead (New York: Little, Brown, 2007). Scene change within Chapter 3, p. 62:

Rebus finished the essay save, call, decided to paper topics austen, check for messages. There was only the one. Persuasive Essay Plan. Steelforth’s voice had gotten just a dozen words out before Rebus cut it off. The unfinished threat echoed in research on jane austen, his head as he crossed to the stereo and filled the room with the Groundhogs. Don’t ever try to outsmart me, Rebus, or I’ll “break most of the major bones,” Professor Gates was saying. He gave a shrug. Persuasive Writing Plan. “Fall like that, what else can you expect?” 3 : “Fritz Lang on M: An Interview,” Criterion DVD booklet for M (1998), trans. from Gero Gandert interview in Fritz Lang: M-Protokoll (Hamburg: Marion von Schroeder, 1963). 4 : Burch discusses these matters in several places. See “Fritz Lang: German Period,” In and Out of Synch: The awakening of a Ciné-Dreamer (Aldershot, England: Scolar, 1991), 331; “Notes on Fritz Lang’s first Mabuse ,” In and Out of Synch , 205227; and paper, “De ‘Mabuse’ à ‘M’: Le travail de Fritz Lang,” in Cinéma: Théories, lectures , ed. Dominique Noguez (Paris: Klincksieck, 1973), 227248.

5 : A late script draft of a history exam National Treasure , dated 9 April 2003 by paper topics Cormac and Marianne Wibberley, includes some intriguing hooks that were not used in the final film. have comments about the state of this website? go here.

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