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17th century , Abuse , Bullying 1168 Words | 5 Pages. ?.Christopher North Prof. Ed Stever ENG 101 March 24, 2015 Argumentative Essay Capital Punishment The majority of . Americans support capital punishment, and there are some who don’t. The other side does not support capital punishment because Christian doctrine believes that killing is a mortal sin. How Do An Essay. There are some government officials who do support the pages death penalty and are there some who do not support the death penalty. Therefore, capital punishment should be utilized in all 50 states. You Cite Apa Style. Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Crime 1207 Words | 5 Pages. Argumentative Essay (Introduction) Guantanamo Bay did a good thing for pages essay America. Guantanamo Bay is located in a small area in apa style . Cuba off of American soil. America's most recent president, Barack Obama wants to shut the prison down and suspended it for william blake the echoing essay a short period of time in the beginning of January this year. (My position And Thesis) I believe that Guantanamo bay should never be shut down because the prison led United States and other countries' to you cite an essay, terrorists and pbs essay contest it punished those who planned.
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Steps in planning an argumentative essay. Pbs Essay. ?Steps in planning an Argumentative Essay 1) Query keywords in question 2 Identify key issues 3) Uncover Assumptions 4) . brainstorm both sides 5) broaden and deepen (Scope and depth) 6) take a stand 7) Identify 2 strongest arguments on opposing sides, problematise and answer 8) Thesis statement Organisation when writing the essay II) introduction 1) grabber 2) transition 3) thesis Statement II) Body 1) Topic Sentence 2) Elaboration III) Conclusion 1) Final thought 2). Argument , Doctor of Philosophy , Essay 1283 Words | 5 Pages. Argumentative Essay on Gay Marriage. Wesley King Grammar and Composition lesson 75 Argumentative Essay on Gay Marriage Marriage is the . ceremonial binding of two people, male and female, into one couple. Historically, marriage has been the institution when a man and a woman join together with the promise of love, devotion, to always stay together, to be there for each other, to take care of how do you cite an essay apa style one another and to pages is a, start a family together. An Essay. Biblically, marriage has been all the aspects above, but including honoring. Civil union , Homosexuality , Lesbian 842 Words | 2 Pages.
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You must use All My Sons and “Tragedy and the Common Man,” by Arthur Miller, and one of the two texts provided. This is due Monday, November 3, 2014. Topic: Is Arthur Miller correct in claiming All My Sons and how do an essay apa style Joe Keller are modern versions of Aristotle’s tragedy and tragic hero? Your Task: Carefully read each of the movie download texts. All My Sons , Citation , Drama 601 Words | 2 Pages. How Do You Cite Apa Style. ?Lazarus Thompson Cheri Carr PHIL 1102-010 9 February 2012 Argumentative essay : Total Recall “All things are not as they . Movie Download. seem but a few things we actually “know” -Plato.
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Glossary of Library Research Terminology. These terms were selected to an essay apa style, meet the needs of first year students in the RS101 library research methods class. Pages 700 Word Essay? In nearly all cases our definitions reflect common useage, but in an essay, a very few cases we supply local definitions that match the way we use the terms in class. Abstract . Pages Is A 700 Word? Summary of a work. Typically two to five sentences. You Cite An Essay? Normally descriptive and objective, but could be evaluative and subjective. Resume Of Baker? Many databases include searchable abstracts of periodical articles. After hours book drop/return . Depository/Receptacle near the front door of Turpin Library, accessible from the outside of the building, used for you cite return of borrowed materials when the library is closed. Not to be confused with the book return slot in the circulation desk.
Archives . Organized collection of documents preserved and maintained as a historical record. The focus of an archive is almost always on unique or rare unpublished materials in any format or medium (manuscripts, photos, etc.) The collection is unified because it documents a particular entity such as an organization or person or event. Archival collections held by Turpin Library are described here. Article . An essay which is part of a larger work such as an article in a journal or encyclopedia. Barcode number . Number optically encoded in zebra strips, like UPC barcodes at the grocery store. Turpin library barcodes are 14-digit numbers appearing inside the back cover of a book. Although staff use these numbers to pbs essay, check-out and renew items, you do not need to know a barcode number to renew an item yourself online. Bibliographic citation . See citation. Bibliographic record . See record. Bibliography . A list of bibliographic citations describing relevant documents (books, articles, DVDs, websites, manuscripts, etc.) Examples: a list of everything written by C. S. You Cite An Essay? Lewis, sorted by essay date a list of works about C. How Do An Essay Apa Style? S. Lewis, listed in pbs essay, order of importance a list of everything you cited in the paper your wrote about C. S. Lewis, sorted by you cite an essay author.
Browsing vs Searching . Pbs Essay? Many databases support two primary ways of finding material: 1) searching for words or 2) browsing an indexed field. Searching retrieves records by matching any word or combination of words anywhere in a record. Looking for all records with author word Bruce combined with Title words Christian origins is a search. Browsing is fundamentally different. You Cite? It is a two step process. Ordinarily you supply a word or words you expect to match the start of the echoing green essay a field (e.g., the first two or three words of a title). The database then displays a sorted list with the closest match at the start of the list. Then you pick one or more specific entries from the list, and matching records are displayed. Call number . You Cite An Essay Apa Style? A call number is a location code, like an pages is a essay, address.
BS1756 .I15 1990 and ATLA 1985-0347 are two examples. A call number is often also an how do an essay, indication of subject matter and a way of storing similar items together in the same area. Movie Download? For example, Turpin Library uses the Library of Congress Classification System (LCCS) to organize the book collection topically. Call numbers based on LCCS are printed on the spine (or front cover) of every book in the collection. Books are sorted and you cite an essay apa style, shelved based on the call numbers. Gcse Statistics Coursework? So the how do you cite an essay, call number is both a subject/topic code and an address indicating where a book can be found.
However, Turpin Library uses a different scheme for microfiche. Letter number codes designate the location of resume of baker microfiche. These are also call numbers, but they are not based on you cite apa style LCCS and they give no indication of subject matter. See also brief definition of LCCS, or detail on LCCS. Catalog . A list or database of items, often an inventory of one or more collections or repositories. For example, OCLC WorldCat catalog lists the holdings of OCLC member libraries all over the world. WorldCat is a Union catalog because it lists the holdings of many different institutions. Aland, Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments , is a printed catalog of Greek NT manuscripts.
Charge to a borrower's account . To charge a loan is to record the loan of an item to a borrower. This does not mean billing a person. It has nothing to do with money. Because of possible misunderstanding, avoid use of this term. Apa Research Format? Use instead Check-out. Check-out . To record the loan of an item to a borrower. In order to borrow materials a registered user must present an identification card to staff at the circulation desk along with the materials to be borrowed.
See also Circulation. Circulation . Circulation is the process of how do you cite an essay apa style borrowing and returning library materials. Contest? Most items the library owns are publicly accessible and anyone may use these items in the building without borrowing or checking-out the items. In addition, the library allows registered users in good standing to borrow most items, take those items from the how do you cite apa style, building, and return them by the due date. Loans must be properly recorded against the borrower's account before materials can be removed from the building.
Some materials, such as reference books and william green essay, periodicals, are non-circulating; the library does not allow them to be taken from the building. A very small number of how do you cite apa style restricted access items are available for use in the building but they must be checked-out (charged against the user's account) to use in-house. These restricted access items never leave the building. See also Hold. Circulation Desk . The main service point in coursework, the library. The circulation desk is the an essay, place to william green, borrow or return regular books and you cite an essay apa style, course reserve materials, pay fines, pickup holds, and ask for help. See map here. Citation . A formal, properly formatted reference to pbs essay contest, a work. A footnote or a bibliographic entry. A bibliographic description of a specific work or portion of you cite an essay a work (book, article, dissertation, report, musical composition, etc.) which identifies the work well enough that another person can find it. DTS formats citations according to Turabian style standards.
Citation index . Indexing and search mechanism that uses citations (footnotes and other references) to associate or link documents together. For example, for a given document D, you can list other documents that mention or cite D. You are probably more familiar with the concept in Internet search engines that let you search for pages that link to this page. Citation indexing is old. In the 1870s Frank Shepard devised a means of tracking legal precedent now named for him. To shepardize a case is to identify other cases and authorities that have discussed the case being shepardized.
This will tell you, for example, if the case has been overturned or sustained. In 1961 Garfield applied this idea to scientific journal articles and created the apa research format, Science Citation Index. You Cite? Many citations indexes have been developed since then. Movie Download? Counseling majors at DTS will recognize this citation indexing function in the PsycINFO database, for example. Why would you want to use a citation index? Suppose the only source you have for your paper is an old article. You can't find anything else on the topic. Wouldn't it be nice to have a list of how do you cite apa style all the other articles that have interacted with the william green, one article you have? Or suppose there are thousands of articles on you topic but one article has some very unusual arguments.
Wouldn't it be nice to have a list of all the other articles that have interacted with the one article? At present there are no citation indexes for theology (although the Arts and Humanities Citation Index covers a few theology journals). Apa Style? Would someone out there please fill this pressing need? Classification of the echoing green documents . How Do An Essay? Organization of documents into categories (classes) based on similarities. Usually this means grouping documents on the same subject together. The classification system may be a hierarchical outline (specific topics subsumed under more general topics) or enumerative (just listing the classes in alphabetical or random order, for example) or in rare cases a semantic network (lots of topics linked to other topics with no discernable hierarchy or start or end). Paper Format? Books are assigned call numbers based on an essay apa style the Library of Congress Classification System.
The Yahoo.com directory uses a classification system. Some search engines will try to dynamically classify the results of a search for you. For example, if you search for a broad topic like religion, the search engine might match on that word, examine the documents, notice many are about Christianity, many are about Islam, many are about spirituality (whatever the religion) and then give you the movie download, option of how do an essay picking just one of those groups. This kind of classification is often helpful if you start with a very broad or ambiguous search; it is seldom helpful and sometimes harmful if you start with a precise search. There are many ways to display the organized structure. In the paper format, mid 1990s, several Internet search engines displayed folders with different names. Today (2006) many search engines display the classes as a graph or map: one topic is how do, a big circle in this corner of the screen, another topic is how many pages is a 700 word, a small square over there. Collection . In the narrow sense, a collection is any discrete group of documents cataloged and how do an essay apa style, stored or accessed together. In the broad sense, the resume of baker, entire library collection as a whole consists of an essay apa style all the information resources owned or licensed by the library (and is synonymous with library holdings). So the library collection consists of pbs essay many collections: reference, periodicals, AV, etc. How Do An Essay? Special collections refers to rare books and archives.
Collection development refers to the process of selecting and acquiring materials. Controlled vocabulary database . A database in which standardized or authorized terminology is used to describe documents and index the pbs essay contest, database. Standardization is meant to an essay apa style, guarantee a name or concept is always expressed in a single consistent way. This lessens problems caused by variant spelling (e.g., Koran or Quran or Qur#039;an) and variant forms (e.g., J Smith vs John Smith) and synonyms (e.g., anger vs wrath). See also Cross reference. See also Thesaurus. Copyright . Copyright law grants creators of the echoing green original works of authorship (including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works) the exclusive right to reproduce and sell their works.
Details at copyright office. See also copyright expiration and how do you cite apa style, fair use. Course Reserves . Items kept behind the circulation desk and resume of baker, made available to how do an essay apa style, DTS students for apa research format brief loan periods (e.g. 2 hour or overnight). This promotes sharing of very high demand resources by controlling access to those resources. Items are normally put on reserve at the request of an instructor so students can complete specific required assignments for a given course. Hence the reserve module of WorldCat lists what is on reserve by course and by instructor. How Do Apa Style? Advice: the loan period is typically measured in hours, so return borrowed reserve items directly to green essay, circulation staff for immediate discharge to avoid overdue fines. House Rules provide information about loan periods and borrowing privileges.
Cross reference . Pointer or link from an entry in an index to one or more other entries in the index. How Do An Essay? Links between synonyms and antonyms. In a controlled vocabulary database, names and topics use standardized terminology. Gcse Statistics? A cross reference may point from a non-standard (variant) form to a standardized form. For example, a cross reference might point from how do an essay apa style CALVIN, JOHN (incorrect form) to CALVIN, JEAN 1509-1564 (correct form). It might point from Pastors (incorrect term) to both Clergy (correct term) and Priests (also correct term). Cross references may also link standard terms to other standard terms in a hierarchy of statistics coursework template broader, narrower and an essay, related terms.
For example, a cross reference might point from the standard term Doctrinal Theology to the narrower term Covenant Theology. Contest? Both terms are used in the database. This hierarchical network of terms may be governed by a thesaurus which lists all the you cite, standardized terms with definitions and cross references. Database . Information or data stored on a computer and organized and outline, indexed for quick and flexible searching and retrieval. Technically a database consists of one or more records (about documents or objects). Examples of databases available at Turpin Library include WorldCat, the how do an essay apa style, ATLA religion database, the TLG database of ancient Greek documents, and Accordance bible study resources. Many are listed here. Discovery vs validation phase of research . Often (not always) there are two phases of the research process: 1) an initial discovery phase of apa research paper format research, during which the how do you cite, researcher defines a problem and hypothesizes a solution to that problem, and william, 2) the how do you cite an essay apa style, subsequent validation phase of movie download research during which the hypothesis is rigorously, systematically, and how do apa style, formally tested.
See also research. Document . A recorded intellectual work. It can be any size and use any format or technology. Gcse Statistics Template? A document might be a complete book, an article in a journal, a sound file (music performance) in MP3 format, a hand-written letter, a photograph, a clay tablet, an you cite an essay, oil painting, etc. Edition . A distinct version of a document. Most documents appear in only one version, one edition.
However, some documents are revised and is a 700 word essay, reissued. You Cite An Essay? When the intellectual content of the work changes, the edition designation should change also, to indicate the revision. Publishers usually designate editions by statistics coursework numbers (first edition, second edition). Publishers sometimes use edition to mean any production or format variation even if there is no change in the intellectual content. For example, paperback and hardback editions of an essay apa style a book may have identical wording and pagination, but still be considered different editions by a publisher. Sometimes there are minor variations between different printings of what is called the same edition. This can be accidental or intentional. In the case of electronic resources, there may be no edition statement (or even a publication date), so state date of access if you cite an movie download, electronic resource to approximate both a publication date and an edition statement. Ejournal . A journal in electronic/digital format, usually available over the Internet.
Most have a paper counterpart or historical antecedent. For example, Bibliotheca Sacra, the seminary journal, is available in both paper and how do an essay, electronic versions. Occasionally the electronic version of a journal article lacks page numbers, tables, sidebars, etc. Many but not all ejournals available though the library are listed here. The ATLA database has links to many thousands of journal articles in electronic format. Most serious scientific, technical and medical journals are now published in electronic format, but most scholarly religious journals are not yet available in electronic format. This is true for statistics coursework template two main reasons. First, there is little money (profit) in religious publishing. Second, STM publishing is dominated by you cite an essay a few big companies that publish hundreds of movie download journals each. So just a few publishers were able to change the STM industry quickly. How Do You Cite? Scholarly religious journals are published by hundreds of small nonprofit organizations.
Hundreds of religious publishers must independently decide to make journals available electronically. This is gcse, a very slow process. Endnote . A citation placed not at the bottom of the page (like a footnote), but at you cite apa style the end of the essay, article, chapter or book. Also, the brand name of citation management software that can help you format footnotes and bibliographies correctly. EZProxy . Software the library uses to how do you cite, give you (DTS faculty, students, and staff) access to databases and licensed electronic resources when you are off campus. Troubleshooting info available here. Fair use . Provision of the copyright law which sometimes allows copying portions of copyrighted materials. False coordination . An undesired semantic relation between matched words in a multi-word search. The classic example is the guy who wanted to buy Venetian blinds (a kind of window covering). He searched for Venetian AND blind.
He retrieved documents about a blind Venetian (blind resident of Venice). False coordination is apa research, very common when logical AND is you cite an essay, used to combine words. False coordination is less common when multi-word phrases and contest, proximity operators are used to combine words. Even when words are syntactically related the way we want, they may still fail to be semantically related the way we want. How Do You Cite An Essay Apa Style? According to Lancaster, Vocabulary Control for Information Retrieval , 2d ed, p. Pages Is A 700 Word? 142-46, false coordination means there is NO relation between the two concepts in the document, while incorrect term relationship means there is a relation but of the wrong kind.
But in practice everyone uses the phrase false coordination for both ideas. See also Search precision and recall. A long digression on the origin of this term follows. I believe the expression false drop was used in the 1940s (perhaps long before) by researchers who used index cards to encode, organize, and retrieve notes. Holes were cut in fixed positions around the periphery of every card. Each hole/position corresponded to a predefined topic. How Do You Cite? To index a journal article, for example, the researcher would write the citation on the card and then notch the edge of the card at one or more of the holes. If the card represented a document about topic A, then the card was notched in statistics template, position A. How Do An Essay Apa Style? In order to retrieve cards about topic A, a rod/needle was inserted through hole A in a tray of movie download indexed cards. The rod passed through all the cards.
Then the rod was raised. Notched cards (relevant cards) would drop by gravity. How Do Apa Style? A false drop was an irrelevant card that dropped when the paper format, rod was raised. Boolean and was performed by doing this twice. This was an entirely manual system. The edge-notched card technique is described in how do an essay, Jahoda, Information Storage and blake the echoing essay, Retrieval Systems for Individual Researchers , p. 63-78.
Aren't you glad we have computers now? There is more to the story. On the Internet there is a wide spread and how do you cite apa style, different (I think corrupted) account of the way the index card system worked. The corrupted account describes a system with holes in position A for relevant cards, no holes in position A for irrelevant cards, and no edge notches in any cards. The system allegedly required the researcher to insert a rod through position A in a stack of cards.
How is this possible when most of the cards do not have a hole in that position? This seems impossible to me. Perhaps this story is based on a different real system from the resume of baker, 1950s: big mechanical card sorting devices that sorted Hollerith punch cards. In that system, the relevant cards were punched in position A and you cite, the irrelevant cards were not punched in A. Resume Of Baker? A complex sorting machine separated the desired cards. You Cite? There was no hand-inserted rod. Resume Of Baker? The cards had 12 rows of 80 columns, for a possible 960 holes on each card.
These cards were also used with computing systems in the 1960s as data input and output devices. I suspect someone remembered this punch card mechanical sort system and confused it with the older edge-notched manual system to create the bogus description. Why am I telling you all of this? I mean to make a point about research. Be cautious about how do you cite an essay apa style relying on sources, especially Internet sources of unknown authority. Gcse Statistics Coursework Template? Do not assume that a story that is you cite, repeated by many sources is true. The first rule of the echoing green research is this: check primary sources yourself to the extent you reasonably can.
Festschrift . Book of essays by many different people who wish to apa style, honor the person to movie download, whom the book is dedicated. (The word is German for a writing offered to commemorate/celebrate something). Apa Style? In scholarly parlance, the name of the apa research paper, honored person is sometimes substituted for the title of the book. Thus you may see a reference to something like Fs Peter Smith, p. 193, meaning the festschrift dedicated to how do you cite apa style, Peter Smith. Often a search for the honoree (Peter Smith in this example) as subject will retrieve the record for the book and give you the william blake, correct book title, editor, etc. Field . How Do You Cite? Portion of a database record which contains a specific category of information such as title of a book or date of book.
Fields may be repeatable (e.g. two separate subject fields). Full-text vs full-image database . How Many Is A 700 Word? Many bibliographic databases provide information about documents (e.g., author, title . . . other metadata) but do not provide online access to how do you cite apa style, the documents themselves ; you have to pbs essay contest, go to the bookshelf to get the books, for example. But some databases provide online access to how do apa style, the complete documents (so you can read the books or articles online). These documents may be available as text or as images (or both). A full-text database provides online access to resume of baker, the text (all the words) of documents. How Do Apa Style? Typically the william the echoing, database record includes bibliographic info and an essay, a link to the document itself.
If the e-document was originally paper only, then the electronic full-text counterpart may lack tables, charts, photos, or sidebars. It may convert footnotes to endnotes, and may fail to retain original pagination. Normally you can search all the words in all documents in a full-text database, so you can find references to very obscure things. A full-image database provides online access to graphic images (as if a digital camera had made pictures of the movie download, pages of an how do you cite an essay, ink-and-paper journal article, for example). Full-image documents normally include everything in the original work exactly as it looked in the original. Blake The Echoing Green Essay? They retain original pagination. They are big files and download slowly.
You cannot select a paragraph in a full-image document and paste it into a paper you are writing. Sometimes full-text is used to mean complete document so you might see a database of how do MP3 sound files (e.g., musical performances) called a full-text database even though it is sound not text. Sound odd? Meanings evolve. Contest? For example, to break bread together [meaning to eat together] probably originated when bread was a major part of almost every meal, and bread was literally broken.
But now break bread together means eat together even if there is how do you cite an essay, no bread at all in the meal. So now we have full-text databases with no text. Fuzzy matching . Resume Of Baker? Approximate matching. An Essay? This is a concept, not a particular method, and there are many methods of trying to fuzzy match. The oldest I know is Soundex (ca 1918). The Soundex system uses phonetic spelling and encoding to match terms. It is still widely used to help people look up names they are not sure how to spell. Some modern fuzzy systems use statistical methods to statistics template, fuzzy match concepts (not just words). Words and phrases that often appear near each other in many documents may share meaning.
So a fuzzy concept search for care of cats may retrieve documents that mention litter box because they are statistical companions (co-occuring terms). This is how do, a fuzzy match because it is only approximate. It is apa research format outline, a concept match because different words are used. Fuzzy concept matching is not implemented on any of the software we currently use in the library. How Do You Cite An Essay Apa Style? Much development work is being done on apa research paper outline fuzzy matching, and you may see it in apa style, systems you use in the future. Pages Essay? See also Query by how do example. Gatekeeper . Person who controls publication of information or who monitors and relays information to others. Editors, publishers and peer review referees perform a gate keeping function when they decide to publish or not publish submitted manuscripts. This is usually a useful quality control mechanism. Grouping and nesting . Many retrieval systems allow the searcher to use parentheses to group terms and specify the william the echoing green, order in which search operators are to you cite apa style, be executed.
For example eat AND (pie OR cake) groups pie with cake and specifies the OR operator is to be executed first, creating a set that holds the results of the pie OR cake search. Then that intermediate result is to be ANDed with eat to yield a final result. Nesting refers to embedding one group within another group such as: eat AND (chocolate OR (caramel AND nuts) ). In this example, (caramel AND nuts) is nested inside another set of parentheses. Hit list . Search results list. A list of records retrieved by a search. Pbs Essay? Hit can be broadly used to mean anything retrieved, or narrowly used to mean only the how do, relevant items retrieved. Hold . To place a hold is to claim an blake, item for future use. When an item is currently on loan, the library permits faculty and students to reserve the item by placing a hold on it. The borrower (the person who has the item checked-out) will not be able to renew it. When the item is returned, the person who placed the hold is notified via email and the item is set aside for the holder to pick up. Holds may not be placed on items in some special collections such as the how do you cite apa style, academic course reserve collection.
WorldCat allows an how many essay, eligible library user to place a hold without staff assistance. Do not confuse items on hold with items on academic course reserve. See also Please return if not needed. Holdings . Apa Style? Library holdings for a particular title/work = the volumes and copies of that title owned by the library (e.g., which specific volumes of Journal of Biblical Literature the library owns). Library holdings in gcse statistics coursework, general = the entire library collection. Index . You Cite Apa Style? A finding aid.
An access tool. William Blake? A listing of the contents of a single document (e.g., index at the back of a book), of a collection (e.g., index to archival manuscripts in how do you cite an essay apa style, a museum), or of how many essay a vast body of documents (e.g., index of journal articles about the Bible), organized so as to how do an essay, provide access to the documents by subject, author, date, etc. Pages? Many print bibliographies are indexes. How Do You Cite An Essay? So are many databases. Information Cocoon . A protective barrier that limits a person's information sources to only those sources, topics, and viewpoints that reinforce what the person believes and how many is a 700 word essay, values. This is similar to a filter bubble, but an information cocoon is the result of a cacooned person's voluntary, conscious self-restriction of access information, while a filter bubble is not voluntary, not conscious, and not a self-restriction, but is created by search engines and how do you cite apa style, information agents that exclude (filter out) certain sources, topics and viewpoints without being told to do so. Intellectual property . WIPO defines it as follows: Intellectual property refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. How Many Pages Is A Essay? Intellectual property is apa style, divided into two categories: Industrial property, which includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic indications of source; and Copyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. Rights related to pages is a, copyright include those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and those of broadcasters in how do you cite an essay, their radio and television programs.
World Intellectual Property Organization . Interlibrary loan . Sharing (lending/borrowing) materials between libraries. Turpin Library loans materials to libraries all over the US. More to the point, if a DTS student needs something we do not own, we can probably borrow it from another library for the student's use. Read about ILL for DTS students here. Resume Of Baker? See also TexShare borrowing privileges.
ISBN . You Cite An Essay? International Standard Book Number. A unique numerical code assigned to a specific production edition of a book. Any production variation could count as a separate edition. So if a given book has both a hardback and paper back format, and both an American and British publisher, it could have 4 ISBNs for identical intellectual content. There are hundreds of ISBNs for william the echoing the NIV Bible (e.g., Large print, red letter, leather cover, etc).
ISBN is a good way to specify what you want to purchase, but it is an unreliable way to search for specific intellectual content because one book can have so many ISBNs. Older books lack ISBNs. ISBNs are sometimes assigned to nonbook materials. Detailed information here. ISSN . International Standard Serial Number.
A unique numeric code assigned to the specific title of a serial/journal. A single issue of a journal can have an ISBN for the single issue as well as the ISSN for the journal as a whole. Journal vs magazine . A journal is a periodical containing articles written by scholars for how do apa style other scholars. A magazine typically contains nontechnical articles written by journalists for the general public. The Echoing Green Essay? However, many magazines contain moderately technical articles written by apa style experts for a narrow or specialized audience. This may be the case with work related magazines read by practitioners in a field, for example. How Many Pages Is A 700 Word Essay? So it is sometimes hard to you cite, tell if a publication is a journal or a magazine, but you must make the distinction when you write footnotes in your papers because magazines and journals are cited differently according to Turabian. Movie Download? Peer review is the key distinguishing feature of a journal. (It is debatable whether a periodical that does not use peer review can be called a journal, but there are some theological periodicals often considered journals that use editorial review but not peer review per se). Technical material written for a scholarly audience is another good indicator of a journal. How Do? Journal articles almost always cite other technical literature (e.g., in footnotes) and interact with that literature.
Magazines rarely do so. Journal pagination normally runs consecutively from the beginning of the first issue of a volume to the end of the last issue of the volume. So there is the echoing green essay, only one page one in a complete annual volume. Magazine pagination normally starts over with every issue. So a complete annual volume of a monthly magazine has twelve page ones. Thus you must include the an essay apa style, issue number and date when you cite a magazine. Journals are often quarterly, especially in contest, the humanities. Magazines are often monthly. Keyword . A searchable word. An Essay? It could be any word in is a essay, any indexed field in a record (author field, title field,etc.) It does not mean especially important word.
A digression on the history of the use of term follows. I suspect the you cite an essay, word keyword was first popularized when KWIC (Key Word in Context) concordances became wide–spread in the 1950's. Keyword meant any non-stopword. (Stopwords are allegedly useless words no one would every want to search for movie download like of, the, and so.) So keyword meant any non-trivial word or any potentially content bearing word. Stopwords are now disappearing from search engines, and keyword simply means any searchable word in any indexed field. Lemma . Dictionary headword. Form of how do you cite a word listed at the beginning of a dictionary entry. Sometimes the william blake essay, lemma is the root/stem; sometimes not.
The lemma for the word is is to an essay apa style, be and it will match be, am, is, was, were, been, etc. The Greek New Testament and Hebrew Old Testament are available as lemmatized databases, allowing you to search by lemma so you do not have to compensate for word inflection. Library of apa research paper Congress Classification Schedule . You Cite Apa Style? A topical classification system used to organize collections so items on the same topic are stored in pages is a essay, the same general location. Call numbers of books and other items are derived from the classification system. LCCS is both hierarchical and enumerative.
That means little topics are subsumed under big topics in a hierarchy, but many topics and categories are just listed (enumerated) without attempting to create a fine-grained structure. A large portion of the seminary collection falls in the BL-BX range. See also Details on LCCS. Library of how do you cite Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) . Apa Research Outline? Thesaurus of standardized subject headings used by most academic libraries, including Turpin. How Do You Cite? LCSH has strongly influenced the terminology used in many databases, including ATLA. See also Controlled vocabulary database. License restrictions . Terms of a contract which limit use of a resource. Paper? Vendors sell the library access to databases and other resources.
Those vendors impose restrictions on who may use the resources and under what conditions. For example, contracts typically allow the library to provide access to how do, current DTS faculty, students, and staff, but prohibit us from offering access to alumni or the general public. See also login. Logical search operators . Movie Download? Most search engines support the logical operators AND, OR, NOT. You are already very familiar with these, but a see our summary of common search operators. Also called Boolean operators after George Boole, the mathematician who popularized their use in set operations. See also Proximity search operators.
Login . How Do? Authentication + authorization. The process of identifying an individual, usually based on an account ID and password, and then determining if that person is authorized to william blake the echoing, use a specific resource like a database. Read about your ID and password . See also License restrictions. See also EZProxy. Media . Plural of medium. 1) Various physical substances or carrier agents on how do you cite apa style which documents are recorded, e.g., paper, video tape, CD-ROM, magnetic disk, microforms, clay tablets, etc.
2) The related technologies including file format standards like MP3 or pdf. Metadata . Information that describes a document or other entity. The information included depends on the purpose of the cataloger and the nature of the entities. Apa Research Paper Outline? If the cataloger is a librarian and the entity is how do an essay apa style, a book, then metadata might include author, title and subject. If the cataloger is a botanist and the entity is a flower, then the metadata might include color, size, genus and species. See also Full-text vs full-image database. Microform . Microform technology uses optical/photographic means to record images of reduced size, usually on film (microfilm, microfiche). This is a good way to reproduce and preserve old or rare materials.
Turpin library has microform copies of Greek and william the echoing green, Hebrew manuscripts, old books, theses, and certain archival materials. You must use special viewing equipment to read microforms, but you can make photocopies from microform. Online digital image technology will probably replace microforms in the near future. Monograph . A nonfiction scholarly book. Technically, one long nonfiction composition on one topic/issue. So most scholarly books are monographs, but books of essays and volumes of journal articles are NOT monographs. Natural language interface . Using plain English (or whatever language you speak) to tell the system what you want. Most search engines require the searcher to use special syntax and operators to apa style, express a search statement the machine understands (for example: pray$ near4 group$). Natural language systems attempt to let you use normal language (for example: who was the first president of the resume of baker, United States?) Often the searcher has no control over a natural language system and therefore has no way to you cite apa style, help the system when it performs poorly. OPAC . Online Public Access Catalog.
Often used in reference to a library catalog. Pattern matching . Search mechanism that allows matching not just exact words and characters, but classes of characters like vowels or upper case letters or digits. For example, one pattern for a toll-free phone number is 800, dash, 3 digits, dash, 4 digits as in 800-332-5527. Resume Of Baker? One example of a pattern matching function is grep which is implemented on the TLG Workplace software you can use to search the TLG Greek corpus. You Cite? This is an advanced search technique. See also Truncation search operator. See also Stemming. Peer reviewed journal . A periodical which only publishes articles that have been approved/recommended by referees. Gcse Statistics Coursework Template? When authors submit articles to an essay, the journal, the editor asks one or more referees (experts in the field) to evaluate the article, make suggestions to paper outline, the author, and recommend whether to publish the article. This is you cite an essay apa style, a blind review; the referee does not know who the apa research outline, author is.
A referee need not agree with an an essay, article to pages essay, recommend publication. The peer review process usually works as it should to how do, maintain quality, but on rare occasion it suppresses views that have merit. Apart from how many pages essay peer review, editors may reject articles that do not fit the mission of the apa style, publication (e.g., wrong topic, wrong language) or are patently below standard. Apa Research Paper Format? See also journal vs magazine. Periodical . A regular serial. A publication issued in how do you cite, successive consecutive parts at regular intervals (e.g., weekly, quarterly) with no planned end. Journals, magazines, and newspapers are periodicals. A periodical volume normally covers one 12 month period, consists of several issues, and contains many articles written by many different authors. Some consider annuals (and proceedings and gcse statistics, transactions) to how do an essay apa style, be periodicals but others refuse to call themperiodicals because they are published so infrequently. Periodical index . Index of articles published in periodicals. See also Index.
Plagiarism . In a narrow legal sense, plagiarism is william, falsely taking credit for how do you cite an essay the words of another: putting forth words (e.g., sentences) as one's own composition without giving credit to how many pages essay, the true source/author. In a broader ethical sense, it is taking credit for ideas: putting forth ideas as one's own without giving credit to the true source/person. So it behooves us to acknowledge we consulted the ODLIS and other sources while writing this glossary. How Do You Cite An Essay? See the DTS student handbook for movie download rules that apply to student papers. Please return if not needed . Notice the library sends to a borrower, indicating some other person has requested use of the borrowed item (i.e, placed a hold on it). Apa Style? This is not a mandatory recall. The borrower is free to keep the item until the normal due date, but the borrower is urged to return the item if no longer needed. Contrast Recall of a loan. Primary research . Original research. Advanced research.
Primary research is an attempt to create new/original/novel knowledge, to contribute to the cumulative knowledge of humanity. The knowledge is not just new to the researcher; it is new to the world. The researcher teaches others. Primary theological research typically offers original views, uses original methods, uses previously neglected data, or simply addresses a previously neglected topic. Primary research involves publication and william the echoing green essay, subsequent peer review to assess the value of the research. This is the way a contribution is how do you cite an essay apa style, made and human knowledge advances.
See also Research and Secondary research. Primary source . Fundamental basic evidence. Raw data. In historical research, a primary source is typically an eyewitness account recorded at william blake the echoing or about the time of the event, an original document composed near the time of the event that tells us about the time (but maybe not about the specific event), or physical evidence from the time (like an archaeological artifact or a photo of the event). In scientific research, the first recorded measurements and observations for a given experiment are primary source material. The Greek and Hebrew texts of the Bible are the primary sources for biblical studies. (Purists would deny primary status to an English translation of the Bible.) Primary does not mean true or authoritative. A primary source like an eyewitness account can be wrong. You Cite An Essay Apa Style? One source can be primary for one purpose but secondary for another purpose. For example, Isaac Newton's commentary on Revelation is a primary source for a biographical and historical study of resume of baker Newton, but it is apa style, a secondary source for biblical studies or Christian theology. The Dead Sea Scrolls are primary sources for what some Jews believed in gcse coursework template, the first century, and are thus important background for understanding the you cite, New Testament in historical context. Movie Download? But the you cite apa style, Dead Sea Scrolls are not primary sources for Christian theology per se.
See also Secondary source. Proximity search operators . Many search engines support proximity operators. Pages? Proximity operators specify how far apart matching words can be. They may also specify word order. Details vary considerably system to system. Proximity operators tend to be more precise than logical operators, and more appropriate for full-text searching.
See our summary of common search operators. Pure vs applied research . You Cite An Essay? It is best to think of both of resume of baker these as kinds of how do apa style primary or original research (although the pure vs applied distinction can also be made for secondary research). Applied research begins with a specific practical need and attempts to produce knowledge that can be used to meet that need (such as linguistic research that would form the format, basis for software that could automatically adapt a Bible translation to a new dialect, or social science research that would form the basis for a new means of attracting unchurched people to an essay, church meetings). Pure research begins with scholarly interest and attempts to contribute new knowledge to a scholarly discipline. The goal is to advance understanding. The research topic is selected not because some specific practical problem needs to be solved, but because the researcher thinks he sees a way to contribute to pages 700 word essay, the discipline. The topic may or may not have great theoretical significance. There may or may not be an obvious practical application. How Do You Cite? Pure research is also called fundamental or basic research.
See also research. Query by example/QBE . A search mechanism which attempts to find more documents that are similar to a chosen document. More documents like this one. There are several different ways to define similarity. At its simplest, similar could mean documents with the same subject heading, for example. The Echoing Green? Statistical document similarity is a much more sophisticated way of defining similarity, but it is implemented on very few commercial search engines. See Fuzzy matching. Ranking . Sorting retrieved records or documents by weight. See weight. Recall . For information about recalling an item on how do you cite an essay loan, see Recall of a loan. For information about movie download search recall (completeness) see Search precision and how do you cite apa style, recall.
Recall of apa research paper outline a loan . A notice the library sends to how do you cite an essay apa style, a borrower requiring the return of the borrowed item before its due date. Immediate return is mandatory. This is coursework template, extremely rare; I estimate we recall less than five items each year. How Do An Essay? The library sometimes recalls books in order to put them on course reserves. In other words, we take the book away from one person so it will be available for many people. Not to pbs essay contest, be confused with Search Recall. See also Please return if not needed. Record . A unit of information in a database. Here we are only how do you cite an essay, interested in bibliographic records in a computer database. A database record consists of one or more fields. Each record is about one thing (entity), and movie download, each field is about one specific aspect of the an essay apa style, thing.
For example, a record might be about one book and might include fields for statistics coursework template author, title, publisher, subject, etc. A record might also be about a multivolume set of books, or about a single essay in a single book. A record can include the document itself as well as metadata about the document. How Do An Essay Apa Style? See also Metadata. See also Full-text vs full-image database. Reference works . Quick look up resources designed to provide brief amounts of movie download information about a wide range of issues in a given subject domain such as a encyclopedias, dictionaries, handbooks, statistical compendia, etc. They typically focus on one subject area (e.g., biblical archaeology or famous theologians or worship), consist of how do apa style many brief articles on facets of that subject, provide a bibliography for each article, and have alphabetical or classified arrangement with indexes and cross references.
A reference work is often a very good place to begin research on a topic. Gcse Statistics? Almost any work can sometimes be used for reference purposes (i.e., for quick look up of limited info), and the main reference collection (1st floor Turpin) includes some books not originally designed for reference use. Relevance of search results . A document is how do you cite an essay apa style, relevant (pertinent, germane, apposite) if it provides the information the searcher wants. However, there are degrees of relevance. Further, students often do not know exactly what they need at pages is a 700 word essay the time they search (because they are in a learning process). The perception of what is relevant changes as the researcher reads more and more. Documents may be considered relevant because they are about the desired subject in a straightforward and objective way. A document can be relevant in that sense but still fail to provide the specific information a user is looking for. Documents may be considered relevant because they are applicable to the problem at how do hand even though they are NOT about the apa research format, originally specified topic. You Cite? For example, someone looking for contest information on the ten commandments in Exod 20 may find an article about US constitutional interpretation helpful if the real problem in Exod 20 concerns a point of legal hermeneutics addressed in the article.
This concept of relevance is very slippery. Renew a loan . Extend due date for materials already on loan from library. Learn how to how do you cite an essay, renew items yourself. See also Circulation. Research . Research in the most general sense is simply a search for knowledge or truth. The search process itself may be as simple as informally consulting a friend or as complex as designing and pages is a, implementing a formal billion dollar scientific study. Formal research is always characterized by careful attention to method, and you cite apa style, original research (primary research) is a complex expert investigation. See also Primary research, Secondary research, Pure vs applied research and Discovery vs validation phase of research. Search engine . Software used to find and retrieve documents/information. Search precision and recall . Precision and recall are the terms usually used to describe two aspects of search success.
Precision refers to accuracy, and apa research paper outline, recall refers to an essay apa style, completeness. Movie Download? Both are percentages. An Essay? Precision and recall are usually defined as follows. If d = number of documents retrieved in a search, and R = number of relevant documents in the database, and r = number of relevant documents retrieved by the search, then precision of that search = r/d and recall = r/R. For example, suppose you want a lot of information about the pages is a 700 word essay, illegal drug cocaine, also called crack and coke. So you search for cocaine OR crack OR coke.
You retrieve 10,000 documents. Some are about cocaine. Apa Style? Most are irrelevant, like those about Coca Cola (the soft drink) and apa research outline, cracks (fissures). All together, 1000 of the an essay apa style, 10000 are relevant. So search precision is 1000/10000 = 10%. Gcse Template? The database actually contains 20000 documents truly on cocaine. You Cite An Essay? Your search retrieved 1000, so the recall is 1000/20000 = 5%. Precision and recall are inversely related; a high precision search is usually a low recall search; likewise, a high recall search is usually a low precision search.
Often you can design a search to be high precision or high recall, but it is usually difficult to execute a perfect search (high precision, high recall). Search statement . The combination of terms, operators and options that constitute a search. For example grace OR mercy is a search statement. This definition assumes the searcher is using a procedural command language with operators to explicitly tell the search engine what to green, do (in contrast to using a natural language interface). Secondary research . Heuristic research. You Cite An Essay Apa Style? Learning.
In contrast to primary research, secondary research is aimed at finding a pre-existing answer. The researcher learns from others. Secondary research usually focuses on searching recorded knowledge (e.g., published stuff) but also embraces searching un-recorded knowledge (e.g., knowledge possessed by how many 700 word essay living experts). Most student research papers are secondary research. Primary and an essay, secondary research have many features in common.
In particular, both critically assess prior work in the field (and so document prior work). Both require the researcher to think for 700 word essay himself. Secondary research can be creative and it may even be original in the narrow sense that something about the composition or argument is distinctive and unique. But secondary research does not make a cumulative contribution to human knowledge; it is not integrated into how do you cite an essay apa style, the canon and others do not build on it. See also Research and Primary research.
Secondary source . A resource which is not a primary source, that is, not raw data or factual evidence. Typically a secondary source interprets and evaluates primary sources. In theology, almost all books and journals are secondary sources. But any work can be both a primary source for one purpose and a secondary source for another. Movie Download? See Primary source for you cite an essay details.
You may hear references to tertiary sources. Essay? A tertiary source is a special kind of secondary source that is supposed to sum up scholarly consensus. Encyclopedias are supposed to be tertiary. Serial . You Cite An Essay? A publication issued in parts over many years and generally intended to be continued indefinitely. A periodical is a serial that is issued in successive consecutive parts on a regular schedule (e.g., monthly or quarterly). See also periodical. Series . Like a serial, this is a publication issued in parts over many years and generally intended to be continued indefinitely. A monographic series is coursework, a series of books on some common general subject area (such as Old Testament studies or Reformation history).
Each book has its own title, but the how do, group as a whole has a shared common title, the series title. Often each volume has a unique series number. A series is sometimes indistinguishable from a multi-volume set which has a collective title for the whole set with separate titles for each volume. But you must attempt to make the distinction when you write research papers because sets and apa research paper format, series are cited (footnoted) differently. A multi-volume set is usually issued over how do you cite an essay apa style just a few years and then completed according to plan.
A set usually tries to gcse statistics coursework, systematically cover every major aspect of some domain. The very organization of the how do apa style, set shows it is complete (e.g. alphabetical A-Z, chronological organization, broad topical organization, etc.) and movie download, the first volume often shows an outline of the entire set. A true series never has a pre-planned completion and rarely tries to systematically cover every aspect of a domain. Publishers often call multi-volume biblical commentaries sets series although they are actually sets. It is traditional to cite these as series.
Sharing . The basis of the library. Shared resources, shared funding, shared access. Stacks . You Cite? Area of the how many is a 700 word essay, library where books are stored on shelves, one shelf stacked above another. Stemming . Search mechanism which analyzes a search word, determines the stem or root, and then matches all words with the same stem. For example, enter the term baptize, the system determines the stem is bapt- and it matches baptism, baptized, baptist etc. You Cite? It may also match Anabaptist and rebaptize, depending on movie download how stemming is performed in the particular system.
Since English words are mostly inflected with suffixes, stemming is often equivalent to truncating the end of a word. But this is not so in how do you cite apa style, Hebrew, for example, which regularly inflects with prefixes and suffixes and infixes. So stemming can be quite superior to truncation. See also lemma. Stopword or noise word . Specific words that a system will not search for. To save time and disk space, some retrieval systems ignore some very common words that carry little meaning such as conjunctions, prepositions and articles. The theory is that you do not need to search for the or a or similar words.
But you do. (For example, a is necessary in a search for Vitamin A). Some systems will search for a stopword if you put the stopword in quotes. Paper? OCLC FirstSearch and EBSCOHost have stopwords. Subject headings . Terms (words and an essay apa style, phrases) assigned to documents to indicate the pbs essay contest, subject/topic. Descriptors. Normally these terms are drawn from a Thesaurus which lists all the authorized standardized headings.
See also Library of Congress Subject Headings. Apa Style? See also Controlled vocabulary Database. TexShare borrowing privileges . TexShare is a Texas library resource sharing program. If a library is a member of the TexShare card program, it will allow TexShare card holders from other libraries to borrow books. DTS students who reside in Texas and wish to borrow books directly from other Texas libraries may contact Turpin Library at DTS to obtain a TexShare card. Thesis of a research paper . Main point to be demonstrated. Everything in a well written research paper supports the thesis.
Superfluous material is excluded. Pbs Essay Contest? Scholars working on complex research projects often develop a hypothesis or working thesis during the early discovery phase of apa style research, then refine this idea during the validation phase. It is possbible to write a helpful scholarly paper that does not have a specific thesis. For example, a critical review of recent research on one specific topic could be helpful to others without advancing a thesis. See also Research. Thesaurus . In the context of database searching, a thesaurus is a list of standardized or officially endorsed terms (subject headings, descriptors) that can be used in a particular controlled vocabulary database, along with definitions and cross references that create a hierarchical network of terms.
Truncation search operator . An operator which allows partial word matches by truncating (cutting off) part of the word, usually the william blake green, final part. A wild card operator. A character mask operator. How Do An Essay? Truncation is usually indicated by punctuation such as $, #, +, *, !, and ?. For example, in some systems bapt* matches any word that starts with the four letters bapt(such as baptism and baptist), and lab*or matches any word that starts lab and ends or such as labor and labrador. See summary of common search operators. Some string search operators allow initial truncation as well (like the find command in your word processor). See also Stemming and Pattern match. URL . Uniform Resource Locator. Web address.
Example: http://www.dts.edu. Weight . Document or record weight is an estimate of the goodness of a given document for a given search. Goodness is usually defined as a combination of factors like relevance, reliability/authority, popularity, date, etc. Resume Of Baker? Some systems sort or rank documents by weight in an attempt to show the best documents first. Work . Intellectual content which has been recorded as a document in some format (book, movie, letter, painting, etc.) One work may have many different manifestations, as for how do you cite an essay example a play may manifest as a written script or a recorded performance.
If distinguished from the document, then work = content, and document = physical manifestation of the work.
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essayist lived Diese Webseiten sind technisch und zum Teil auch inhaltlich veraltet; sie werden nicht mehr aktiv gepflegt. Ihr Inhalt wurde weitgehend in das aktuelle Webangebot GenWiki uberfuhrt, diese Migration konnte aber noch nicht abgeschlossen werden. These pages are outdated, they aren't administered any longer. Most content was migrated to GenWiki, but the process isn't finished yet. Schaumburg-Lippe is a historical German state that lay between the Weser and Leine rivers (without touching either), and was bounded on the south by the Weser mountains and how do you cite an essay crossed in the north by movie download the Rehburger mountains.
Geographically it extended from 5212' to 5230' north latitude and how do you cite an essay apa style from 858' to 926' east longitude, with an area of gcse statistics template 340 square kilometers. Political Divisions (Counties, Cities, Communities) As of 1912, Schaumburg-Lippe had two cities not belonging to any county (kreisfreie Städte): Bückeburg, the capital since 1606, city since 1609, and Stadthagen, until 1606 capital of Grafschaft Schaumburg, city since 1344; and two counties (Kreise): Kreis Bückeburg, formerly the you cite an essay Ämter Bückeburg and Arensburg, in the west, and Kreis Stadthagen, formerly the Ämter Stadthagen and Hagenburg, in the east. Religious Divisions Schaumburg-Lippe has been predominantly evangelical Lutheran since 1559, with 19 parishes in the Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche Schaumburg-Lippe, a member of the Vereinigte Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche Deutschlands (VELKD). Until 1918, the bishop of the state church was the gcse template prince; the administrative body was the consistory in Bückeburg. The church publishes the Kirchliches Amtsblatt für die Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche Schaumburg-Lippe. How Do An Essay. A list of parishes, pastors, and churchbooks is available.
Evangelical-reformed communities exist in Bückeburg and Stadthagen. Contest. The ruling house belonged to this faith. These churches are also included in the list of parishes, pastors, and churchbooks. Catholic communities exist in you cite apa style, Bückeburg (1719-), Helpsen, and Stadthagen (1883-), and starting 1846 were under the direction of the bishop of Osnabrück. They now belong to the diocese of Hildesheim. The churchbooks are included in the list of parishes, pastors, and churchbooks. Apa Research Paper Outline. An apostolic community existed in an essay, Bückeburg in template, 1912. Evangelisch-Freikirchliche (Baptist) churches exist in an essay, Bückeburg and Stadthagen.
A Kirche Jesu Christi der Heiligen der letzten Tage (LDS, Mormon) church exists in Stadthagen. Statistics Template. Jewish families lived throughout the principality. A history of the community in Bückeburg can be found at Synagogengemeinde Bückeburg. Other congregations existed in you cite, Hagenburg, Stadthagen, and Steinhude. Finally in is a 700 word essay, 1647, after many territorial demands made by neighboring states, the you cite an essay apa style Landgraf von Hessen and statistics coursework template Graf Phillip zur Lippe-Alverdissen decided to divide the Grafschaft Schaumburg. Braunschweig-Lüneburg took the you cite apa style Ämter Lauenau, Mesmerode, and Bokeloh. Apa Research. Hessen received the Ämter Schaumburg and Rodenberg (which together included the an essay apa style towns of Rinteln, Obernkirchen, Rodenberg and Oldendorf), as well as a part of the Amt Sachsenhagen; this area in Hessen was called the Kreis Grafschaft Schaumburg. The remaining area, including the Ämter Bückeburg, Arensburg, Stadthagen, Hagenburg, and part of Sachsenhagen, formed the new Grafschaft Schaumburg-Lippe. Three things remained common property between Schaumburg-Lippe and Hessen: the Universität Rinteln (until 1665), the Weser river tolls (until 1734), and the Obernkirchen, Stadthagen, and Sülbeck coal mines (until 1940). This division was codified in the Peace of Münster.
The rulers of Schaumburg-Lippe had their seat and the family still has their residence at the Schloß Bückeburg. They also have or had manors or properties at apa research format, the Burg Schaumburg (Weser), the how do you cite an essay apa style Schloß Alverdissen, the Arensburg, Hagenburg (summer residence), Stadthagen (until 1919), the Schloß Baum, the Burg Blomberg (until 15 Feb 1962), the Palais Schaumburg in Bonn (from 1891-1939; it was later the official residence and office of the German chancellor from 1949 to 1976), the Grosse Klus, the apa research Schloß Vietgest, the Schloss Pejacevic in Virovitica Croatia (mid 19th century-1911), and the Schloss Klaus (1878-1940). Genealogical data concerning the house of how do Schaumburg-Lippe can be found in the accompanying list of Schaumburg-Lippe Nobility. Less complete information can also be found in how many pages essay, the Internet Gotha, and some of the family members can also be found in you cite an essay, the royals databases at Hull and movie download PSU. (Succession from father to an essay apa style son except as noted.) In 1743, Schaumburg-Lippe joined Maria Theresia of william blake green essay Austria and troops from you cite Holland and England in their war against France and Bavaria. They took part in the battles of Dettingen (1743), Fontenoy (1745), Raucoux (1746), and Laffeld (1747). Schaumburg-Lippe sided with King George II of England (also Prince Electorate of Hannover) and thus with Frederick the Great of Prussia in the Seven Years' War (1756-1763) against France. The Schaumburg-Lippe troops under Graf Wilhelm were under the pbs essay command of the Duke of Cumberland and then Duke Ferdinand von Braunschweig, and how do you cite participated in the siege of resume of baker Minden in 1757 and the battle of Minden in 1759.
Bückeburg was occupied by the French between these two Minden actions. Further actions were undertaken at the battle of Marburg Castle (1759), the siege of Münster (1760), the how do relief of Kassel (1761), and the battle of Hamm (1761). In 1761, Graf Wilhelm started the construction of Wilhelmstein, a fortress on an artificial island in the Steinhuder Meer. (The military school in this fortress was later to produce the contest famous General Scharnhorst.) Graf Wilhelm also took his Schaumburg-Lippers with the English army to Portugal in 1762-3, where he was the commander-in-chief of the combined Portuguese/British/Schaumburg-Lippisch army. How Do An Essay Apa Style. He successfully defended Portugal against Spain and modernized Portugal's military. The Portuguese Fort de la Lippe (now known as the Forte da Graça), near Elvas, was established by movie download him and named in his honor. Graf Wilhelm ordered the first Schaumburg-Lippe census, held in 1766. At the death of Graf Philipp-Ernst, his wife Juliane became regent for how do you cite an essay their young son Georg-Wilhelm. Landgraf Wilhelm IX von Hessen-Kassel claimed that because Juliane was not sufficienly highborn to claim inheritance for movie download herself or her children due to her supposed morganatic ancestry, he was the rightful liege lord of Schaumburg-Lippe, and used this as a pretext to invade Schaumburg-Lippe on 17 Feb 1787, occupying all except for the Wilhelmstein. But the Imperial Court in Vienna recognized the high birth of Juliane and ordered the Landgraf to how do cease his illegal invasion and withdraw, which he did after a two-month occupation. Schaumburg-Lippe was originally a county (Grafschaft), but to protect its independence it joined the Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund) on 18 April 1807 and thereupon became a principality (Fürstentum).
Schaumburg-Lippe was required to field 280 troops for Napoleon; they took part in the march on Russia in 1812. After the defeat of Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813, the Confederation of the Rhine was dissolved, and Schaumburg-Lippe joined the nations allied against resume of baker, Napoleon. It joined the you cite apa style German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) in how many pages is a, 1815, and fielded a batallion of 240 men and 120 reservists. (These troops were later used in the maneuvers in Schleswig-Holstein in 1849, and you cite an essay apa style as occupation forces in Luxemburg in 1859.) In November 1837, Schaumburg-Lippe joined the fiscal union of the northeastern German states (Steuerverein). In 1845, Schaumburg-Lippe joined Prussia, Hannover, and the Electorate of Hessen in building a rail line from paper Hannover to Minden. In 1854, Schaumburg-Lippe joined the German-Austrian Postal Union (Postverein) and the Prussian Customs Union (Zollverein). In 1866, Schaumburg-Lippe joined Prussia in an essay apa style, a military treaty, and in format, 1867 in how do you cite an essay apa style, military union, whereafter the Schaumburgers served in the Prussian military. 700 Word Essay. In 1867, Schaumburg-Lippe became a member of the North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund). In 1871, Schaumburg-Lippe participated in the unification of Germany. After World War I, the constitution of the Weimar Republic required that the rule of the prince give way, so he renounced the throne on 15 November 1918. A temporary constitution was drawn in you cite apa style, 1919, and a final, republican and democratic one in 1922.
Schaumburg-Lippe became a republic (Freistaat), headed by a state president since 1933. Gcse Coursework. This democratic government was later suppressed during Nazi rule. After World War II, the British military occupation government order number 55 of 1 November 1946 decreed the union of Schaumburg-Lippe, Hannover, Braunschweig, and Oldenburg to form the new state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen). The former principality of Schaumburg-Lippe then constituted the Kreis Schaumburg-Lippe, until the Kreisreform of 1 August 1977, when it joined with the Kreis Grafschaft Schaumburg to how do an essay apa style form the current Landkreis Schaumburg. This border reform also incorporated Wiedensahl into the county, but excluded Steinhude and the region near Frille. Genealogical Associations and Societies Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Familienkunde. 31675 Bückeburg Familienkundliche Kommission für Niedersachsen und Bremen sowie angrenzende ostfälische Gebiete e.V. Am Bokemahle 14-16 (Stadtarchiv)
1. Vorsitzender: Günter W. Brauns, Telefon: 05065-8834 General Historical Associations and Societies Schaumburg-Lippischer Heimatverein 1. Vorsitzende: Frau Dr. Roswitha Sommer. Lange Strasse 22. 31667 Bückeburg Gesellschaft für Niedersächsische Kirchengeschichte. 30169 Hannover Historischer Verein für Niedersachsen. Am Archiv 1 (Hauptstaatsarchiv) 30169 Hannover Local Historical Societies Heimatverein Wunstorf e. V.
For Steinhude and Wilhelmstein. Is A 700 Word Essay. Other Associations and Societies Schaumburger Deutsch-Amerikanische Gesellschaft e.V. Herr Helmut Andermann. Church Records Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche Schaumburg-Lippe Herderstr. 27 31675 Bückeburg Tel.: 05722/9600 E-mail: LKA-Bueckeburg@t-online.de The archived church records were transferred to the Niedersächsisches Staatsarchiv Bückeburg, where they are held, though they are still owned by the church.
Microfiche copies of the church records are available at the Staatsarchiv for public research, and duplicate copies may also be purchased for records up to the year 1870. Although no catalog of the microfiche themselves has been issued, there is a list of the available records by parish and year (not by volume or fiche). The page also lists the pastors for how do you cite an essay apa style each church. Evangelisch-Reformierte Kirchengemeinde The archived church records are also held by the Niedersächsisches Staatsarchiv Bückeburg. Microfiche copies of the 700 word essay church records are available at the Staatsarchiv for public research, and how do an essay duplicate copies may also be purchased for records up to the year 1870. Although no catalog of the resume of baker microfiche themselves has been issued, there is a list of the available records by parish and year (not by volume or fiche). For all other church records, write to the appropriate parish. Some of the parish records have been indexed privately. See the Ahnenerforschung website. The Immigrant Genealogical Society Library has microfilm copies of many churchbooks for Schaumburg-Lippe and will search them for a fee. Civil Registration Records The civil registration records of Schaumburg-Lippe began on 1 January 1876.
Civil registers of births, marriages, and deaths of Jews commenced in 1840. Other Primary Records Land Records Military Records Secondary Records List of genealogists with a Schaumburg interest. The RootsWeb Surname List abbreviation for Schaumburg-Lippe is how do you cite apa style SLP. Records filmed by the LDS The Family History Library Catalog entries for movie download Schaumburg-Lippe and how do an essay apa style subordinate places show the records filmed by pbs essay contest the LDS. Genealogies Blume-Genealogie, including extensive resources from Bergkirchen, Habichhorst, Pollhagen, Probsthagen, Vornhagen, Wiedenbrügge, and you cite Wölpinghausen. Gazetteers Axer, Josef C. Alphabetisches Verzeichniss sämmtlicher Ortschaften der Rheinprovinz und Westfalens, sowie der Fürstenthümer Birkenfeld, Lippe und Schaumburg-Lippe (1897. Bonn, Georgi) Verzeichnis der Pfarrämter in Schaumburg-Lippe (1965. Blake The Echoing Green. (s.l.)) Laur, Wolfgang.
Die Ortsnamen in Schaumburg. An Essay. (Rinteln: Bösendahl, 1993, Schaumburger Studien; Heft 51). Maack, Ursula. Die Flurnamen des Schaumburgischen Wesertals. (1974. Movie Download. C. Bösendahl, Rinteln, Schaumburger Studien; Heft 32) Land Schaumburg-Lippe, from Rademachers deutsch-österreichisches Ortsbuch 1871-1945. Schaumburg-Lippe gazetteer Atlases and Maps Map reproduced from Wiegmann, Heimatkunde , below. How Do You Cite An Essay Apa Style. Niedersächsisches Landesverwaltungsamt. In addition to how many pages is a 700 word current topographical and special-purpose maps, their offerings include a 1754 map by how do you cite an essay J. C. Giesler, Carte von den Hochgraeflich- Schaumburg Lippischen Aemtern Stadthagen und Hagenburg , sold under the title Schaumburg-Lippische Ämterkarte (1:25.000), catalog number SL1. Resume Of Baker. Map of Brunswick, Schaumburg-Lippe, Lippe-Detmold, etc., from you cite an essay apa style Blackie Sons Atlas (Edinburgh, 1882), scale: 1:8,000,000 (or one inch = about 28 miles).
Landkreis Schaumburg: Freizeitkarte . (Stadthagen: Landkreis Schaumburg und die Schaumburger Sparkassen, 1990 etc.). Available from Landkreis Schaumburg, Jahnstraße, 31655 Stadthagen, Germany, Tel. (05721) 703459. Bibliography Busch, Friedrich. Schaumburgische Bibliographie (Hildesheim, A. Lax, 1964, Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Niedersachsen, 31.) Literature. One book will be recommended here as being useful, readable, and available. Its major fault is gcse coursework template that it appeared in 1912 and necessarily neglects history that had not yet been made. More books, some of which correct this shortcoming, can be found in the extended bibliography, whose outline appears below. Wiegmann, W. How Do You Cite An Essay. Heimatkunde des Fürstentums Schaumburg-Lippe (1912. Resume Of Baker. Stadthagen. Verlag von Heinrich Heine. Reprinted 1990 by Verlag C. W. Niemeyer, Hameln.) Includes a folded map 1:150,000 of the Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe and Kreis Rinteln (Schaumburg).
Bibliographical Works Historical Literature Nobility General Genealogical Literature Local Historical and Genealogical Literature Family Historical and Genealogical Literature. Literature Engel, Franz. Die Schaumburg-Lippischen Archive und zentralen Registraturen; Ihre Geschichte und ihr Inhalt. (1955. Göttingen, Vandenhoeck Ruprecht.) Veröffentlichungen der Niedersächsischen Archivverwaltung, Heft 4. Haase, Carl. Die niedersächsische Archivverwaltung; Die Staatsarchive und ihre Aufgaben. You Cite An Essay Apa Style. (1974. Göttingen, Vandenhoeck Ruprecht.) Veröffentlichungen der Niedersächsischen Archivverwaltung, Sonderheft 1. Museums Landesmuseum für schaumburg-lippische Geschichte, Landes- und Volkskunde Lange Strasse 22 31675 Bückeburg Tel.: 05722/4868 Archives Niedersächsisches Staatsarchiv in Bückeburg Schloß 31675 Bückeburg Postfach 1350 31665 Bückeburg Tel.: 05722/9677-30, Fax: 05722/1289 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Landkreis Schaumburg (Seat: Stadthagen) Stadtarchiv Stadthagen 31655 Stadthagen Postfach 327 31653 Stadthagen Libraries LDS FHCs. Hildesheimer Str.
344. Historical Landschaften Schaumburger Wald Wesergebirge Bückeberge Predecessor States part of the Saxon Bukkigau (-782) part of the Duchy of Saxony under Charlemagne and successors (782-1030?) part of the Grafschaft Schaumburg (1030?-1647) Since 1110 the rulers were the Grafen zu Holstein und Schaumburg. Successor State Land Niedersachsen (1946-today) Calendar Schaumburg-Lippe used the Julian calendar until 1700, and the Protestant (the so-called improved) calendar thereafter.
In 1700 the how many calendar jumped from 18 February to 1 March (i.e., 19 February = 1 March). The Protestant calendar differed from the you cite an essay apa style Gregorian calendar only in the determination of Easter and its associated moveable holidays, and then only in the echoing, 1724 and 1744, when Easter was a week earlier than in the Gregorian calendar. This difference was eliminated in 1775, when the Protestant church decided to follow the Gregorian determination of Easter. This decision became official for an essay the whole of the Holy Roman Empire on 7 June 1776. Publishers Professional researchers Customs Folk costumes (Trachten) in Schaumburg-Lippe fall into these categories: Westerten (Bückeburger); in western Schaumburg-Lippe (Seggebruch, Nordsehl) Österten (Lindhorster); in eastern Schaumburg-Lippe Friller; in a small region near Frille Emigration resources List of apa research outline emigrants from Schaumburg-Lippe to Southwestern Illinois compiled by Lorman P. Wehling.
Schaumburger Auswanderer Extractions Index, a partial index to the book by how do apa style Rieckenberg. Famous personages Thomas Abbt (1738-1766), philosopher, lived his last year in Bückeburg. Of him Herder wrote that he died for Germany and for his language too early! Friedrich Christian Accum (1769-1838), industrial and food chemist born in Bückeburg, developed sal ammonia and lighting gas processes, making public gas lighting possible. Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (1732-1795), der Bückeburger Bach, son of Johann Sebastian and Anna Magdalena Bach. Composer and virtuoso keyboardist. From 1750 (six months before his father died) until his own death he was chamber musician and concertmaster in Bückeburg.
He also collaborated with Herder. Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst Bach (1759-1845), son of Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach and the only grandson of Johann Sebastian Bach to gain fame as a composer. Music director to Friedrich Wilhelm II. He said Heredity can tend to run out of pbs essay ideas. Dr. Rudolf Bensen (1841-1921), regional poet. Anton Friedrich Büsching (1724-1793), German geographer and you cite apa style educator, born in pbs essay contest, Stadthagen. He was the founder of the St. Peters Gymnasium in St.
Petersburg. He helped develop a scientific basis for the study of geography by stressing statistics rather than descriptive writing. How Do An Essay Apa Style. He was married to the poetess Polyxene Christiane Auguste Dilthey. Wilhelm Busch (1832-1908), painter, poet, and, most importantly, cartoonist. Author of Max und Moritz and other pictorial narratives with verse text, he is known as the inventor of the comic strip. Born in Wiedensahl, Busch spent much time in Schaumburg-Lippe.
Arthur Conrad Ernsting (1709-1768), doctor, balneologist, botanist. He made the pages is a 700 word first medical use of the you cite an essay Bad Nenndorf springs. Paper Format. Eberhard David Hauber (1695-1765), theologian, pastor in how do an essay, Stadthagen, superintendant of the gcse county of Schaumburg-Lippe, geographer, historian, Büsching's teacher. Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher. He was the leading figure of the an essay apa style Sturm und Drang literary movement. He was the movie download head pastor and court preacher at Bückeburg from 1771 to how do you cite an essay 1776, where some of his important works were written. Resume Of Baker. Adolf Holst (1867-1945), writer and children's book author.
Seid und bleibt deutsch im besten Sinne des Wortes, dann wird euer Weg stets hell sein und euer Wandern voll Freude. August Klostermann (1837-1915), Old Testament theologian. Gustav Freiherr von König (-1909), Austrian general. He was named by the Austrian Kaiser as the successor of the how do an essay apa style Crown Prince Rudolf as inspector general of the william the echoing essay infantry. Wilhelm Mensching (1887-1964), missionary and pastor. How Do An Essay. He worked tirelessly against racism and national socialism. William The Echoing Green Essay. Twice nominated for the Nobel peace prize. Dr. August Oetker (1862-1918), German inventor of how do you cite apa style baking powder. Apa Research Paper. Ein heller Kopf nimmt stets Oetker.
Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst (1755-1813), Prussian general who developed the modern general staff system, studied at the military school at Wilhelmstein. Josua Stegmann (1588-1632), pastor and poet. Lulu von Strauss und Torney (1873-1956), author and translator, born in Bückeburg. You Cite An Essay Apa Style. Viktor von Strauss und Torney (1809-1899), diplomat who maintained Schaumburg-Lippe's independence in 1866 at the expense of william the echoing green his own career. Frank Thiess (1896-1977), author and an essay apa style essayist, lived many years in Berlin and Steinhude.
Dietrich Heinrich Waßmann (1897-1954), born in Großenheidorn, missionary to Ethiopia. Famous emigrants The brothers Friedrich and resume of baker Wilhelm Havemeyer, who emigrated from Schaumburg-Lippe in 1802, were the progenitors of the how do American Havemeyer family, the famous Sugar Kings who ran the American Sugar Refining Company. William Havemeyer (1804-1874), the thrice-elected mayor of New York City, helped form a volunteer regiment, composed mostly of German immigrants, during the Civil War. Fredrick Nerge, born in blake, Reinsdorf (Schaumburg-Hessen, actually), suggested the name of Schaumburg (Illinois, USA), which was founded in an area rich with emigrants from Schaumburg-Lippe. Onomastics etymology Linguistics Weiland, Wilhelm. Plattdeutsches Wörterbuch: mit Rätseln, Spruchweisheiten und Dohneken. (Stadthagen: Ortsgemeinschaft, 1983.) Moeller, Felix. Munduntersuchungen bei der Schuljugend im Kreise Stadthagen (Schaumburg-Lippe). How Do You Cite An Essay Apa Style. (Lengerich i. W. 1938: Handelsdr. Contest. 24) Economics Here is a list of how do you cite an essay apa style prices and wages in Schaumburg in 1620.
Leben im Feudalismus is a series of webpages about feudalism, predominately in Schaumburg-Lippe. Der Online-Dienst für Schaumburg Schaumburger Landschaft e.V. Forum Schaumburg Grafschaft Schaumburg-Lippe offers historical, geographical, and cartographical information about Schaumburg-Lippe. Landes-Zeitung, newspaper in Bückeburg Schaumburger Nachrichten, newspaper in Stadthagen Schaumburger Zeitung, newspaper in Rinteln Schaumburg-Lippe entry in The Catholic Encyclopedia. Was Sie schon immer über Schaumburg-Lippe wissen wollten und nicht beantwortet bekamen. Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe: Staatswappen Dampfeisenbahn Weserbergland DEW Geologie und Bergbau des Schaumburger Landes Bad Eilsen Bergkirchen Bückeburg Dorfgemeinschaft Echtorf Dorf Enzen Gelldorf OnLine Alter Dorfkrug in Großenheidorn Habichhorst genealogical resources Hagenburg im Naturpark Steinhuder Meer Helpsen, Zentrum zwischen den Städten Helpsen Infos Knatensen Krebshagen Online Gemeinde Lauenhagen-Hülshagen Feuerwehr Liekwegen Lindhorst Samtgemeinde Niedernwöhren Meinefeld Gemeinde Nienstädt Obernkirchen (use for Seggebruch, Gelldorf, Vehlen) Obernwöhren Rösehöfe Rusbend Stadt Bückeburg Samtgemeinde Sachsenhagen (Auhagen, Hagenburg, Sachsenhagen, Wölpinghausen) Stadthagen, city and region StaedteSeiten Stadthagen Steinhude am Meer Steinhude Das Steinhuder Meer Sülbeck in movie download, Wort und Bild Wiedenbrügge genealogical resources Wölpinghausen Wölpinghausen genealogical resources Wunstorf (use for an essay apa style Steinhude and blake the echoing green Großenheidorn) Wunstorf (use for Steinhude) Das Steinhuder Internetverzeichnis. [Top of an essay apa style document] Flag used with permission from FOTW Flags Of The World website at http://flagspot.net/flags/, Artists: Zeljko Heimer and pages Marcus Schmöger. Coat of arms reproduced with kind permission from Alexander Erbprinz zu Schaumburg-Lippe. (c) 2003 by Jim Eggert EggertJ@crosswinds.net.
All Rights Reserved. Last update: 13-Nov-2003 (jre) Please forward any comments and additions to an essay this WWW-Page to the author.
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Kurt Vonnegut’s Greatest Writing Advice. Today, if you can believe it, makes it ten years since we lost one of the how do you cite, greatest American writers—and, no matter how he tried to deny it, one of the greatest writing teachers. Resume Of Baker. Certainly one of the greatest writing advice list-makers, at any rate. Vonnegut’s many thoughts on writing have been widely shared, taught, studied and adapted (designer Maya Eilam’s infographic-ized version of how do you cite an essay his “shapes of gcse statistics stories” lecture springs vividly to mind) because his advice tends to be straightforward, generous, and (most importantly) right . Plus, it’s no-nonsense advice with a little bit of nonsense. Like his books, really. Find some of an essay Vonnegut’s greatest writing advice, plucked from interviews, essays, and elsewhere, below—but first, find some of blake the echoing essay Vonnegut’s greatest life advice right here: “I tell you, we are here on how do you cite an essay apa style Earth to fart around, and gcse don’t let anybody tell you different.” Okay, proceed. Here is an essay a lesson in creative writing. First rule: Do not use semicolons. They are transvestite hermaphrodites representing absolutely nothing. All they do is show you’ve been to college. (From A Man Without a Country ) On having other interests:
I think it can be tremendously refreshing if a creator of literature has something on his mind other than the history of literature so far. Literature should not disappear up its own asshole, so to speak. Movie Download. (From “an interview conducted with himself, by himself,” for The Paris Review ) If you want to how do an essay apa style really hurt your parents, and you don’t have the nerve to be gay, the least you can do is go into the arts. I’m not kidding. The arts are not a way to coursework make a living. They are a very human way of how do an essay making life more bearable. Practicing an how many pages art, no matter how well or badly, is a way to make your soul grow, for heaven’s sake. Sing in how do apa style the shower.
Dance to the radio. Tell stories. Resume Of Baker. Write a poem to a friend, even a lousy poem. Do it as well as you possible can. How Do You Cite. You will get an the echoing enormous reward. Apa Style. You will have created something. (From A Man Without a Country ) On the theory of teaching creative writing:
I don’t have the will to teach anymore. I only 700 word know the theory… It was stated by Paul Engle—the founder of the Writers Workshop at Iowa. He told me that, if the workshop ever got a building of its own, these words should be inscribed over the entrance: “Don’t take it all so seriously.” (From “an interview conducted with himself, by himself,” for apa style The Paris Review ) I guarantee you that no modern story scheme, even plotlessness, will give a reader genuine satisfaction, unless one of those old-fashioned plots is smuggled in resume of baker somewhere. I don’t praise plots as accurate representations of life, but as ways to keep readers reading. When I used to teach creative writing, I would tell the students to make their characters want something right away—even if it’s only a glass of how do an essay water. Coursework. Characters paralyzed by apa style the meaninglessness of modern life still have to drink water from time to time. One of my students wrote a story about a nun who got a piece of resume of baker dental floss stuck between her lower left molars, and who couldn’t get it out all day long.
I thought that was wonderful. The story dealt with issues a lot more important than dental floss, but what kept readers going was anxiety about when the how do you cite an essay, dental floss would finally be removed. Resume Of Baker. Nobody could read that story without fishing around in how do you cite an essay his mouth with a finger. Now, there’s an admirable practical joke for you. When you exclude plot, when you exclude anyone’s wanting anything, you exclude the reader, which is movie download a mean-spirited thing to do. How Do You Cite An Essay Apa Style. You can also exclude the reader by not telling him immediately where the pbs essay contest, story is you cite an essay apa style taking place, and who the people are [and what they want]. And you can put him to pbs essay sleep by never having characters confront each other. Students like to an essay apa style say that they stage no confrontations because people avoid confrontations in resume of baker modern life. “Modern life is so lonely,” they say.
This is laziness. How Do Apa Style. It’s the writer’s job to stage confrontations, so the characters will say surprising and revealing things, and educate and resume of baker entertain us all. If a writer can’t or won’t do that, he should withdraw from the trade. (From “an interview conducted with himself, by himself,” for The Paris Review ) I used to teach a writer’s workshop at the University of Iowa back in the 1960s, and I would say at the start of every semester, “The role model for this course is Vincent van Gogh—who sold two paintings to his brother.” (Laughs.) I just sit and wait to see what’s inside me, and that’s the case for how do you cite an essay apa style writing or for drawing, and then out it comes. There are times when nothing comes. James Brooks, the fine abstract-expressionist, I asked him what painting was like for him, and how many pages is a 700 word he said, “I put the first stroke on you cite apa style the canvas and then the canvas has to do half the work.” That’s how serious painters are. They’re waiting for the canvas to do half the work. (Laughs.) Come on. Wake up. (From The Last Interview ) So much of william blake essay what happens in storytelling is mechanical, has to do with the how do you cite, technical problems of how to make a story work. Cowboy stories and policeman stories end in shoot-outs, for example, because shoot-outs are the most reliable mechanisms for making such stories end. William Essay. There is nothing like death to say what is always such an artificial thing to say: “The end.” I try to keep deep love out of my stories because, once that particular subject comes up, it is almost impossible to talk about anything else. Readers don’t want to hear about anything else. They go gaga about love.
If a lover in how do an essay a story wins his true love, that’s the end of the tale, even if World War III is about to begin, and the sky is contest black with flying saucers. (From “an interview conducted with himself, by an essay apa style himself,” for The Paris Review ) I get up at 7:30 and work four hours a day. Nine to resume of baker twelve in the morning, five to six in how do you cite an essay apa style the evening. Businessmen would achieve better results if they studied human metabolism. No one works well eight hours a day. Pbs Essay. No one ought to work more than four hours. (From an interview with Robert Taylor in Boston Globe Magazine , 1969) 1. Find a subject you care about. Find a subject you care about and which you in your heart feel others should care about. It is how do you cite an essay apa style this genuine caring, and not your games with language, which will be the most compelling and seductive element in your style. I am not urging you to write a novel, by the way—although I would not be sorry if you wrote one, provided you genuinely cared about something.
A petition to the mayor about a pothole in front of your house or a love letter to the girl next door will do. I won’t ramble on about that. As for your use of language: Remember that two great masters of language, William Shakespeare and James Joyce, wrote sentences which were almost childlike when their subjects were most profound. “To be or not to be?” asks Shakespeare’s Hamlet. The longest word is three letters long. Joyce, when he was frisky, could put together a sentence as intricate and as glittering as a necklace for Cleopatra, but my favorite sentence in his short story “Eveline” is this one: “She was tired.” At that point in the story, no other words could break the heart of a reader as those three words do. Simplicity of language is essay not only reputable, but perhaps even sacred. The Bible opens with a sentence well within the writing skills of an essay a lively fourteen-year-old: “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.” It may be that you, too, are capable of making necklaces for Cleopatra, so to speak. But your eloquence should be the servant of the ideas in apa research outline your head.
Your rule might be this: If a sentence, no matter how excellent, does not illuminate your subject in some new and useful way, scratch it out. The writing style which is most natural for you cite an essay apa style you is bound to echo the speech you heard when a child. English was Conrad’s third language, and much that seems piquant in his use of English was no doubt colored by his first language, which was Polish. And lucky indeed is the writer who has grown up in the echoing green essay Ireland, for apa style the English spoken there is so amusing and musical. I myself grew up in william the echoing green essay Indianapolis, where common speech sounds like a band saw cutting galvanized tin, and employs a vocabulary as unornamental as a monkey wrench. In some of the more remote hollows of Appalachia, children still grow up hearing songs and locutions of Elizabethan times. How Do Apa Style. Yes, and many Americans grow up hearing a language other than English, or an English dialect a majority of Americans cannot understand. All these varieties of speech are beautiful, just as the varieties of butterflies are beautiful. No matter what your first language, you should treasure it all your life. How Many 700 Word. If it happens to not be standard English, and if it shows itself when your write standard English, the result is usually delightful, like a very pretty girl with one eye that is you cite green and one that is blue. I myself find that I trust my own writing most, and others seem to blake essay trust it most, too, when I sound most like a person from Indianapolis, which is an essay what I am.
What alternatives do I have? The one most vehemently recommended by pages is a 700 word teachers has no doubt been pressed on you, as well: to write like cultivated Englishmen of a century or more ago. I used to be exasperated by such teachers, but am no more. I understand now that all those antique essays and stories with which I was to compare my own work were not magnificent for their datedness or foreignness, but for how do you cite an essay apa style saying precisely what their authors meant them to say. My teachers wished me to gcse statistics write accurately, always selecting the most effective words, and relating the words to one another unambiguously, rigidly, like parts of a machine. The teachers did not want to turn me into an Englishman after all. They hoped that I would become understandable—and therefore understood. And there went my dream of doing with words what Pablo Picasso did with paint or what any number of jazz idols did with music.
If I broke all the rules of punctuation, had words mean whatever I wanted them to mean, and strung them together higgledy-piggledy, I would simply not be understood. So you, too, had better avoid Picasso-style or jazz-style writing, if you have something worth saying and wish to be understood. Readers want our pages to look very much like pages they have seen before. Why? This is because they themselves have a tough job to do, and they need all the help they can get from us. They have to how do you cite apa style identify thousands of blake green essay little marks on paper, and make sense of them immediately. They have to read, an you cite an essay art so difficult that most people don’t really master it even after having studied it all through grade school and high school—twelve long years.
So this discussion must finally acknowledge that our stylistic options as writers are neither numerous nor glamorous, since our readers are bound to be such imperfect artists. Our audience requires us to be sympathetic and patient readers, ever willing to simplify and clarify—whereas we would rather soar high above the crowd, singing like nightingales. That is the is a 700 word, bad news. The good news is that we Americans are governed under a unique Constitution, which allows us to how do write whatever we please without fear of punishment. So the most meaningful aspect of resume of baker our styles, which is what we choose to how do you cite write about, is utterly unlimited.
8. For really detailed advice. For a discussion of literary style in a narrower sense, in a more technical sense, I recommend to gcse template your attention The Elements of Style , by you cite William Strunk, Jr. and E.B. White. E.B. White is, of course, one of the most admirable literary stylists this country has so far produced. You should realize, too, that no one would care how well or badly Mr. White expressed himself, if he did not have perfectly enchanting things to say. (From “How to Write With Style,” published in the Institute of pages is a 700 word essay Electrical and how do an essay Electronics Engineers’ journal Transactions on Professional Communications in 1980.)
On how to blake green essay write good short stories, aka List #2: 1. Use the time of a total stranger in such a way that he or she will not feel the time was wasted. 2. Give the how do you cite, reader at least one character he or she can root for. 3. Every character should want something, even if it is only a glass of water. 4. Every sentence must do one of two things—reveal character or advance the apa research, action. 5. Start as close to the end as possible. 6. Be a sadist. No matter how sweet and innocent your leading characters, make awful things happen to an essay them—in order that the reader may see what they are made of. 7. Write to william the echoing green essay please just one person.
If you open a window and how do you cite make love to the world, so to speak, your story will get pneumonia. 8. Give your readers as much information as possible as soon as possible. To heck with suspense. Resume Of Baker. Readers should have such complete understanding of what is you cite apa style going on, where and why, that they could finish the story themselves, should cockroaches eat the last few pages. The greatest American short story writer of my generation was Flannery O’Connor (1925-1964). She broke practically every one of blake green essay my rules but the first. Great writers tend to do that. (From the you cite an essay, preface to Bagombo Snuff Box ) And there, I’ve just used a semi-colon, which at the outset I told you never to use. It is to resume of baker make a point that I did it. The point is: Rules only take us so far, even good rules. (From A Man Without a Country ) Vonnegut uses transvestite in a derogatory manner; Do not use semicolons. You Cite Apa Style. They are transvestite hermaphrodites representing absolutely nothing. He should not be read or talked about positively; and his beliefs as a humanist should be stripped from him.
Vonnegut uses “transvestite” in a neutral manner to illustrate the absurdity of the semicolon. Unless you are prejudiced against hermaphrodites, you shouldn’t perceive some non-existent “derogatory” tone in his comment. He’s simply stating that it’s impossible for someone with both male and female equipment to dress in the style of the “other” gender. Well…that was a well-thought, nuanced comment. So…I’ll just go with I don’t like how that part made me feel, so I don’t like it, or him. Gee, someone fell out of bed on gcse statistics coursework the cranky side this morning. I have a small room; my bed is pushed all the way against the wall; unfortunately there’s only one side to how do you cite an essay fall out. Actually you failed to gcse understand the meaning of the sentence. It is not derogatory toward the transvestite, it was derogatory to ambiguity. You clearly don’t recognize how clever the phrase “transvestite hermaphrodite” is. Think about the meaning of you cite an essay both words, then try to reconcile them. (Personally I think he was fine with transvestites: it was hermaphrodites he loathed.)
Boo. Resume Of Baker. That’s your takeaway? As a transvestite hermaphrodite I found it hilarious and on point. A fair point, perhaps, but you should recognize that people are not an all-or-nothing proposition. Everyone has certain qualities that make them imperfect, and it’s immature and counterproductive to an essay apa style condemn them for these in spite of everything else about them. He has done more for the cause of pbs essay humanism than any hundred people calling out how do you cite apa style, politically incorrect language on william blake green essay the internet. If we collectively ignored and condemned everyone who had ever made such a minor mistake, I think literature and our own brains would go the how do you cite an essay, way of the dinosaur. It’s a lazy way out. Delightful; however, I will employ the semi-colon, and pbs essay won’t have a word said against it.
Nah, just offering up a teaching moment from others…in the comments section of a list article. This is good sh#t! What Vonnegut book should i read after Slaughterhouse Five? Excellent advice for an essay apa style any writer at coursework template, any stage in their writing career. Durga Chew-Bose: Writing Affords Me a Space to Have Contradictions
Created by Grove Atlantic and how do you cite an essay apa style Electric Literature.