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argument topics You’ve spent quite a bit of time in your English classes writing argumentative essays, and you’ve even gotten pretty good at writing on the topics your instructor assigns. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. It’s not that there aren’t any good topics to college essays choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Happiness! Chances are, all you need to do is relax and find a topic you’re passionate about and, of course, one that is debatable. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics? Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Ford Library. The name of the essay says it all– argumentative . It would be a lot easier to write an california college essays, essay on something that people generally agree on, but that’s not really the point of an argumentative essay. It’s important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points.
The world isn’t black and it case study interview white–there are a lot of gray areas, which is good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started. I’ve separated the essays topics into proposal page, five categories–legal, moral, social, media and california admission family–and included a helpful link for each topic. Feel free to how to conclude a sentence use the topics for california, your own essay, or as inspiration to create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about internet research paper, legal matters are a popular choice. College Admission! These types of topics can include laws that you would want to create, change or completely abolish. They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of existing laws. You don’t have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to do your research on essays love what the current laws about your chosen topic actually say.
After all, you don’t want to suggest a changing a law that’s already been changed in the way you want. Should cigarettes and other tobacco products be outlawed? Should prostitution be legal? Do the benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the United States put more restrictions on california college admission gun ownership and use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the consent of their parents? Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood?
In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics. Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the phd thesis page easiest to admission get carried away with. They can cover a variety of moral dilemmas, from shell essay animal testing to the death penalty. These topics tend to be very debatable because everyone has different opinions–and justifications for those opinions–on what they think is california college, right or wrong. If you’re talking about human or animal rights, and it’s something you’re very passionate about, it’s tempting to let your emotions take over. While it’s good to be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to how to a sentence in an keep your thoughts focused and organized. It’s definitely worth your time to california essays create an outline so you don’t stray off topic. Need Help Writing A Dissertation! Photo by John Snape via flickr.
Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide? Should children’s beauty pageants be banned? Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to the public? Should schools and businesses give more incentives for california college admission, people to do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists?
Does freedom of speech give people the right to how to a sentence in an essay use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to overlap with legal and moral topics, but deal more about how individuals act within society and what kinds of pressures society puts on individuals or groups of people. This is college admission, a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to phd thesis choose from and college admission essays even more that you could create on your own. It Case Study! If you get stuck on which topic to write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to you. Admission! This should make writing about happiness, that topic come more naturally. Just be sure to college rely on facts and not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to love the narrative essay realm.
Is there too much pressure on teenagers to go to college? At what age should citizens be allowed to california college admission essays vote in the United States? Should more rights be given to internet research immigrants? Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the United States make English the official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to curb men’s catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the right to vote? Should there be a legal curfew for minors? Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life?
10 Advertising and california admission Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Advertising and the media have become nearly inseparable from interview society as a whole. Essays written on these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and college admission advertisements. Phd Thesis Cover! Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn’t hard to find. Just turn on a television and don’t change the channel when the commercials come on. Pay close attention to college admission all things electronic, and you’ll be sure to a sentence find something debatable about what you see. Photo by college Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Internet Banking Research Paper! Should sex be allowed to be portrayed on prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for violence on television? Should news shows talk about celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible?
Is it acceptable for companies to advertise in schools? In what situations should advertisements for alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the college responsibility of being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics.
Argumentative essay topics covering family life and values are abundant. That’s because every family is different. Rules in families vary on a case-by-case basis, contrary to laws that govern a state or nation. Because each family is different, it’s hard to page generalize in these types of college essays, essays. However, if you look into research on child development and psychology, marital psychology, and internet banking research personal stories from parents and their children, you can get enough information to admission essays make an argument for any of the topics below (or for a topic of your own). Photo by Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Phd Thesis Proposal Cover! Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from (way more than are on college admission essays this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started.
Once you’re ready to come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples. When you are picking your topic, keep in mind that it’s much easier to write about something that you already have interest in–even if you don’t know a whole lot about it. Researching the it case study interview topic will allow you to learn more about california college admission essays, what fascinates you, and if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable. A Sentence In An Essay! If you’ve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in california your logic, send your essay over to the Kibin editors. Economist Essay Competition! They’ll help give you the winning edge in whatever you’re debating. Psst. Admission! 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over banking, 500,000 example essays. About the Author.
Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and california education. Need Help Writing A Dissertation! You can find her on college essays Google+. How To A Sentence In An! Thank you for these! I appreciate that you divided the california essays topics into type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about anti immigrants.
I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from immigrants, thanks for the help. Hi AbdulI#8217;m not sure *who you#8217;re proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook. A hook that makes the story of immigration a HUMAN story is conclude in an essay, a compelling story. Thank you for california admission essays, the help and the quick feedback! Please give me an example. Is the hook on the title or on the body? Thanks. The hook is the first sentence of it case, your intro paragraph.
Hey, I have an arguementative assay due and I have NOOO idea what to do it on can u help? Btw I#8217;m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya so I think the important thing would be to california college essays choose a topic that you are actually interested in. At 14, and economist essay sorry if I#8217;m stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to california college admission essays discuss the effects of video games on young people. Here is a great resource to help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the ideas but I#8217;m still not sure. What would be a good resource for proposal cover, supporting the opinion that physician-assisted suicide is california admission, morally wrong? I#8217;m having a hard time choosing a new topic for essays happiness, my argumentative essay. I was writing on how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn#8217;t help me on essays this and it was a hard topic to argue about.
Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to essays happiness get more specific than that topic (which, to california college be fair, is pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in proposal cover our near public places (look at laws in California and Colorado for example). I need to write an california, argumentative research paper about 3000 words. Do you have any suggestions for a topic that I can find so much things to write about? I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about shell economist, what you want to write about.
My biggest piece of advice is definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to essays struggle getting 3000 words down. Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day lifemaybe you can turn one of those topics into an argument. Speaking of 3k words, here#8217;s a good post on making an shell essay, essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/ I#8217;m sorry to hear that. California College Essays! Maybe you#8217;ll find this post to be helpful in your quest for essay competition, the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/ Same I have to do that. California! I need to write 3 essays and I 5 days to do it need HELP and I#8217;m 15.
Hi Dysoneep that#8217;s a lot of essays in a short amount of time. You#8217;re going to want to research stay organized. Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for that it really helps me. You#8217;re welcome. Thanks for reading! Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on an argumentative essay. California Admission! My argument is broad and happiness about Self-harm and college admission essays Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only have 2 days to study interview write a 6 page essay. Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to write 7-10 page argumentive essay and i don#8217;t have any idea can you help me what is it good to write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay.
I will appreciate. College Admission! sweet! Thanks for the comment. Hi there. My name is Lisa. Cover! Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for help and I will be glad to help. California Admission Essays! Contact me for non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and always on time. Thank you in advance. I have to right a research essay that will end up over the course be a 7 to help a dissertation 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to be arguable#8230;. Have any idea what topic would be good?
The 50 topics in this post should lead you to something good. The trick is to choose a topic that you are interested in california college admission so that you have a chance to essays happiness love possibly even *enjoy the process of california, researching and writing. Remember, an essay, arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). This post covers writing an argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is california college admission, literally the same thing i#8217;m going thru for english 202. It has to end up being 7 to 8 pages and it has to be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough. Don#8217;t despair. Phd Thesis Proposal Cover! You can do it. California College Essays! #128578; Hi Naomi. Study! I am looking for admission, help in formulating a thesis (a good argument) for a 3000 word research paper on the following #8221; Discuss the social and happiness love cognitive consequences on bilingualism and multilingualism#8221; . Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Thank you #128578; A basic framework for your thesis statement will outline the points that you want to defend throughout your paper.
It may look something like this: The social and cognitive consequences of bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to take it a step further and admission essays argue that biilingual is socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and study interview cognitive benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism are many and california include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to discuss research related to multilingualism and conclude aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Once you have the college essays points you want to defend in place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. Need Help A Dissertation! #128578; Hi Naomi. I have started writing the college paper. However, I am having difficulties with the organization of my paper. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and give me tips on how to properly organize the economist essay essay?
It would be greatly appreciated. It#8217;s fantastic that you understand the value of having someone proofread your essay. While I can#8217;t do this for you (not enough time in my schedule), you have come to the right place. College Admission Essays! Our editors are available 24/7 to check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and essay more. You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and I loose my nerve a lot. College Essays! but trust me, it can be worse#8230; Good luck on your writing though!I#8217;m sure you need it more than me#8230; i have to do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Need Help! Pinterest tells me that if you want an essay to college admission seem longer, highlight all the periods, and change the font size from 12 to shell economist competition 14. I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick! If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. So true! If you#8217;re armed with plenty of sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, it#8217;s much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the basic steps you need to take to execute an california essays, argumentative essay: 1) pick your topicthis post is a good place to research start.
2) do your researchhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statementhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an california, outlinehttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ 5) draft your paperhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Proposal Cover Page! Yes, three claims is california college, a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the specific requirements and phd thesis cover page length of college admission, your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on internet banking inspiration vs infringement and so far I#8217;ve written only college admission essays, 200.
Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like #8220;tomorrow afternoon#8221; has arrived. I hope that you were able to come up with some good points. This makes me think of Walt Disney and how all of his characters came from previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and how later on (in the 90s) Disney led the charge in more restrictive copyright laws. That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. Proposal Cover! That is awesome to hear. Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for this. California College Admission! hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on our courses. A Sentence In An Essay! I#8217;m studying entrepreneurship and essays she is studying computer science. it has been 2 months and phd thesis proposal page yet we cannot come up with an idea on admission what will be our topic. please help us for we are desperate. we would be so thankful if you#8217;l help us a little bit.
I#8217;m not quite sure what you are asking for. Conclude A Sentence In An! Are you trying to find a topic for a research paper that is related to both computer science and entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the college question I#8217;m attempting to answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are. You two would do well to sit down and brainstorm a list of potential ideas and study interview then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to support your project. For example, my initial brainstorm of california college, topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in business? -what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup?
-will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to competition a new type of job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then I#8217;d do some initial research on admission essays my favorite two ideas to find out if any of them have enough material to support a full research paper. For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because #8220;computer science#8221; and #8220;entrepreneurship#8221; or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. You might find this post helpful for you to banking narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is great and also helped me a lot for college, my project#8230;.but i am currently writing a novel and i need some pointers for it#8230;..would you be able to help. The novel is a fan-fic on study the original series Percy Jackson#8230; Congrats on california college starting the rewarding project of writing your own novel. The best advice for writing a novel is just sitting down and writing it. You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it#8217;s coming out phd thesis proposal cover page, as you want it to, but if you#8217;re serious about this, you#8217;ll set those excuses aside and just write.
Your first draft does not have to california college essays be perfect. Competition! In fact it won#8217;t be perfect. It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to be okay with that fact and just get through it. California College Admission! Set a word count goal for every day, and every week. A final novel is economist essay competition, about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in mind! It#8217;s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and california admission essays revise it#8230; again and again until it#8217;s right. were recquired to do 1500 word essay and need help a dissertation i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for this, it gave me an idea. I#8217;m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for reading.
Naomi help me please? i#8217;am looking for the disadvantages of a physical store and found only minor things. California Admission! i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the disadvantages of shopping at a physical store or of owning one? I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of my head: Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to travel there (gas, wear and tear on shell your car). There is a higher risk that the store will be out college admission essays, of the need help writing a dissertation item you need (or won#8217;t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to limited inventory. College Admission! Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. Shell Competition! thank you Erin. this is such a big help. Happy to help!
Thanks for reading #128578; I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing #8212; just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in admission a month so any advice on how to get it done without killing myself. Hey, a month is a good long while. I#8217;d definitely break it down into lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at a time #8212; brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. The outlining step will save you a ton of work; I#8217;d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for some pointers. You might also check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to make an long af essay and interview english is california essays, not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of essays up to conclude a sentence in an 2k words everything you need is imagination and california college admission essays nothing else. Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier.
Thanks for the comment! Hello, I#8217;m need to write a thesis for my uni#8217;s project this year. But, I#8217;m having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not? I#8217;m not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, #8220;Students#8217; perception on integrity, as one of the NDUM characteristics.#8221; *NDUM is my university, so I want to conclude know how this integrity give an college, effect to the students, in the way of education. I think you#8217;re off to a good start, but you still need to take a stance on your topic. Here is an example of what I mean: #8220;Students#8217; perception of integrity, which is one of NDUM#8217;s characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in education.#8221; In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of interview, integrity impact success.
Another approach, if you want to focus only on positive impacts, might be: #8220;Students who have a strong perception of integrity, one of NDUM#8217;s core characteristics, tend to be more successful in their educational endeavors.#8221; I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit! Hello everyone? I am an college, online tutor. I do a wider array of assignments from it case study essays, projects and research papers. I produce quality and original papers that are payable after receiving the assignments. All the assignments are done in college essays 12-24 hours. Proposal Cover Page! Be free to inquire more. Email: [emailprotected] . I#8217;m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don#8217;t know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an advice on this? I#8217;m writing a 10-12 page essay about california college admission, mental health.
I don#8217;t know specifically what to write about essays happiness love, because the topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an california college admission, advice on this? You#8217;re right that #8220;mental health#8221; is a really broad topic. Internet Research Paper! If you#8217;re writing an argumentative essay, you need to come up with an approach/stance that#8217;s a) debatable and b)provable. Here are a few examples of possible approaches: Argue that the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to essays increase funding for a dissertation, mental health initiatives.
Should free mental health therapy be offered in schools? Argue in favor of/against. Does the mental health of parents impact their children? Why or why not? There are a lot of california essays, possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for how you can narrow your topic to be more specific. Happy writing!
Thank you. I started my essay on government should increse the fundings. Now I#8217;m on my thesis statement. i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem. It Case Interview! I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. College! #128577; That#8217;s a long one, but you can totally do it. Just make sure to love organize your ideas before you start. You might want to check out essays, https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ . This outline template can work just as easily for a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on how many claims you#8217;re making and how much evidence you use to back them up. Much respect for your decision to go back to school! What an awesome example you#8217;re setting for your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of our (many, many) other blog posts for writing help. I#8217;m obviously biased, but they#8217;re a fantastic resource for getting un-stuck.
As for this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the subject of autism. Off the top of my head: 1. Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. For instance, some suggest that it#8217;s simply a type of neurodiversity and should not be treated as something #8220;wrong,#8221; just different. 2. Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors. Conclude A Sentence Essay! The vaccine debate is perhaps the california college admission essays most popular example of conclude essay, this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and parents have considered too.
3. Argue that Asperger#8217;s syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.
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College admission essays for …
Question : Write a 750- to admission essays 1,250-word paper in which you complete one of the following options: Option 1: F. Write a 750- to essays happiness love 1,250-word paper in which you complete one of the california essays following options: Option 1: Food Webs Case Study. Explain the theory in your own words based on the case study and suggested readings. Include the following in your explanation: Give an example of how this could be applied in other real-world applications. Format your paper according to APA guidelines. All work must be properly cited and referenced. Submit your assignment to the Assignment Files tab.
Author: Robert A. Need Help Writing? McGuigan, Department of Mathematics, Westfield State. Prerequisites: The prerequisites for this chapter are basic concepts of graph. theory. See Sections 9.1 and 9.2 of Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications. A food web is a directed graph modeling the predator-prey relationship in an. ecological community. We will use this directed graph to study the college essays question of. the minimum number of parameters needed to describe ecological competition. For this purpose we will consider how graphs can be represented as intersection.
graphs of families of sets. We will also investigate the axiomatic description of measures of status in. In an ecological system, the various species of plants and animals occupy niches. defined by the availability of resources. The resources might be defined in terms.
of factors such as temperature, moisture, degree of acidity, amounts of nutrients, 226 Applications of how to essay, Discrete Mathematics. These factors are subject to constraints such as temperature lying in a. certain range, pH lying within certain limits, etc. The combination of all these. constraints for essays, a species then defines a region in n-dimensional Euclidean space, where n is the number of factors.
We can call this region the ecological niche. of the species in question. For example, suppose we restrict ourselves to three factors, such as temperature, nutrients, and pH. Assume that the temperature must be between t1. and t2 degrees, the amount of internet banking research, nutrients between n1 and n2 and the pH between. a1 and college essays a2. Then the ecological niche these define occupies the region of. 3-dimensional Euclidean space shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. An ecological niche.
Euclidean space which has as dimensions the various factors of temperature, pH, etc., is called an ecological phase space. Generally, no two distinct. species will have the same ecological niche in phase space; however, two species. compete if their ecological niches have non-empty intersection. A basic principle. of ecology, known as the principle of competitive exclusion, dictates. that species whose niches are too similar, or overlap too much, cannot coexist. If the factors defining the niche are independent, then the niche in phase space. would be a box such as that in Figure 1. If the factors are not independent, i.e. the level of writing a dissertation, one depends on levels of others, then the niche would be some.
other type of set, e.g. College? convex, but not a box. For example, consider the two factors temperature (t) and per shell economist competition cent humidity. (h). We might have constraints such as: t must be between 0 and 100, and h. must be between 0 and 100t ? t2. In this case temperature and humidity are. not independent; the possible values of h depend on the values of t. The region.
in two-dimensional space defined by california college, these constraints is not a rectangle. Our discussion of internet banking, ecological communities and related concepts such as. Chapter 13 Food Webs 227. species, food webs, and competition will be somewhat oversimplified in order. to make a brief presentation possible. Interested readers should consult reference.  for an in-depth treatment of california admission, these topics.
Our mathematical treatment. follows that of reference . It may be difficult to know all the factors which determine an ecological niche, and some factors may be relatively unimportant. Help Writing? Hence it is useful to start with. the concept of competition and try to find the minimum number of dimensions. necessary for a phase space in which competition can be represented by niche. One approach to this question is to consider the notion of the college food web of. an ecological community. Definition 1 A food web of an ecological community is banking, a directed graph. with a vertex for each species in the community and a directed edge from the. vertex representing species A to the vertex representing species B if and only.
if A preys on B. Figure 2 shows a simple food web for a community of seven species: robin, fox, grasshopper, raccoon, salamander, milksnake, and toad. Figure 2. A simple food web. We can define competition using the food web. Two species compete if and.
only if they have a common prey. Thus, in the example of california, Figure 2, raccoon and. fox compete (since robin is a common prey), milksnake and raccoon compete, 228 Applications of phd thesis cover, Discrete Mathematics. while salamander and robin do not compete. California Admission? We use this competition relation. to define a graph called the competition graph.
Definition 2 The competition graph of a food web is a simple graph with a. vertex for each species. Essays Happiness Love? Two vertices are joined by an (undirected) edge if and. only if the species they represent have a common prey. Example 1 Find the college essays competition graph for the food web of Figure 2. Solution: The competition graph for this food web is a sentence essay, shown in Figure 3. Figure 3. A competition graph. To represent the competition relation in phase space we want to assign to.
each vertex of the competition graph a subset of Euclidean space of california essays, some dimension. in such a way that two vertices are joined by an edge in the competition. graph if and only if the internet banking research paper sets assigned to california essays these vertices have non-empty intersection. Figure 4 shows a representation of the competition graph of Figure 3, using an interval for essays, each vertex. We have thus represented the competition. graph using only california admission essays one dimension. Figure 4. Interval representation of a competition graph.
We can now state a general mathematical problem, but first we need to. develop some terminology. Chapter 13 Food Webs 229. Definition 3 A graph is an intersection graph for a family of sets if each. vertex is assigned a set in such a way that two vertices are joined by an edge if. and only if the corresponding sets have non-empty intersection. Definition 4 A graph is called an interval graph if it is the intersection. graph for interview, a family of closed intervals.
Our goal is the college admission essays representation of competition graphs of families of sets. in Euclidean n-space. Clearly the simplest case would be that of economist essay, competition. graphs that are interval graphs. This would mean that only one ecological. factor is necessary to describe niche overlap. Example 2 Find the interval graph for the family of closed intervals A = Solution: We use the definition of intersection graph to obtain the graph of. Figure 5. California College Essays? An intersection graph. Example 3 Prove that the 4-cycle graph C4 of Figure 6 is essays happiness, not an interval. Solution: The proof depends on the order properties of the real numbers.
Let. the interval corresponding to california essays vertex n be [nl, nr]. Since the intervals for vertices. 1 and 2 overlap, we must have either 1l ? 2l ? 1r ? 2r or 2l ? 1l ? 2r ? 1r, Assume for specificity that 1l ? 2l ? 1r ? 2r.
The argument for interview, the other case. Since the interval for vertex 3 must meet that for vertex 2 and must not. meet that for vertex 1, we must have 1l ? 2l ? 1r 3l ? 2r. California College Essays? Now the interval. for vertex 4 must meet those for both vertices 1 and essays happiness 3, so we have to have.
1l ? 4l ? 1r and admission 3l ? 4r ? 3r since interval 1 lies entirely to the left of interval. 3. However, since 2l ? 1r 3l ? 2r, the intervals for a dissertation, vertices 2 and 4 overlap, which is forbidden. 230 Applications of Discrete Mathematics. Figure 6. Essays? A graph that is need help a dissertation, not an interval graph. The 4-cycle can, however, be represented as the intersection graph of a. family of boxes in Euclidean 2-space, as shown in Figure 7. There are several methods known for determining whether a simple graph. is an interval graph. A detailed discussion of this topic may be found in Roberts’ book . We simply state the characterization due to Gilmore and Hoffman.  without proof. Essays? Before the characterization can be stated, we need some.
Figure 7. A box representation. Definition 5 A graph H is a generated subgraph of a graph G if the vertices. of H are a subset of the vertices of G and vertices in H are adjacent in H if. and only if they are adjacent in G. Definition 6 The complement of a graph G is the graph G where the vertices.
of G are the vertices of G, and two vertices in G are adjacent if and phd thesis proposal page only if they. are not adjacent in G. Definition 7 An orientation of a graph G is an assignment of a direction to. each edge in G (which makes G into a directed graph). An orientation is transitive if whenever (u, v) and california admission (v,w) are directed edges, then (u,w) is a directed edge. Chapter 13 Food Webs 231. The characterization due to Gilmore and Hoffman is happiness, given by the following. Theorem 1 A graph G is an interval graph if and only if it satisfies the.
following two conditions: (i) The four-cycle C4 is not a generated subgraph of college admission essays, G, (ii) The complement of G is how to a sentence in an essay, transitively orientable. Our goal in our study of ecological competition is the representation of. niches in Euclidean space and competition by niche overlap. It seems desirable. in an ideal representation that the factors determining the dimension of the ecological. phase space would be independent and the niches would be represented. as “boxes”, or Cartesian products of intervals. Admission Essays? This leads us to the next part.
of this discussion, namely, when can we represent a graph as the intersection. graph of a sentence essay, a family of boxes in n-space. Definition 8 The boxicity of a graph G is the smallest n such that G is the. intersection graph of california admission essays, a family of boxes in it case study interview, Euclidean n-space. Note that an interval graph is simply a graph with boxicity equal to 1. It is not entirely clear that every simple graph has a boxicity. The following. theorem resolves this difficulty. Theorem 2 Every graph G with n vertices is the intersection graph of college admission essays, a. family of boxes in Euclidean n-space.
Proof: Let v1, v2, . Proposal? . . College? , vn be the vertices of G. A box in help, Euclidean n-dimensional. space is the set of all n-tuples of real numbers (x1, x2, . California Admission? . . , xn) such that. each xi is in some closed interval Ii. Now, for each k = 1. Competition? . . , n and each vertex. vi, define closed intervals Ik(vi) as follows. [1, 2] if i = k and is an edge in G. [2, 3] if i = k and is not an edge in california college, G. For each vertex vi define a box B(vi) in Euclidean n-space by. 232 Applications of Discrete Mathematics. Thus, the box B(vi) corresponding to vi is the Cartesian product of the intervals. Ij(vi) for j = 1, . Economist Essay Competition? . . , n.
Now we show that vi and california essays vj are adjacent in G if and only if B(vi)?B(vj ) = ?. Thus the graph G is the study interview intersection graph of the family of college admission, boxes B(vi). Shell Economist Essay Competition? First, suppose that there is an edge joining vl and vm. If k is different from both l and. m, then according to the definition, Ik(vl)? Ik(vm) is [1, 2]? [1, 2], [1, 2]? [2, 3], or [2, 3] ? [2, 3]. In any case we have Ik(vl) ? Ik(vm) = ?. If k=l or k=m then. Ik(vl) ? Ik(vm) = [1, 2] ? [0, 1] = ?. Essays? So, if there is an edge joining ve and vm, then for all k, Ik(vl) ? Ik(vm) = ?. Hence B(vl) ? B(vm) = ?. Now suppose that B(vl)?B(vm) = ?. Then for banking research, each k from l to n, Ik(vl)? Ik(vm) = ?. Set k = l then Il(vl) = [0, 1] and Il(vm) must be [1, 2] for the. intersection to be nonempty. By definition of Il(vm), vl and vm are adjacent. Thus G is the intersection graph of the family of boxes B(vi).
This theorem shows that boxicity is well-defined. Unfortunately, there is. no efficient algorithm known for california college admission essays, determining the boxicity of essays happiness love, a general graph. There is no characterization known for graphs of any specific boxicity other. In fact, there are not many general classes of graphs for california college admission, which the boxicity. is known.
It is it case interview, not hard to see that the boxicity of the n-cycle Cn is 2 for n = 4. or larger, and college admission essays this is left as Exercise 6. Another general class of graphs for which. the boxicity is known is the complete p-partite graphs. These are the graphs. Kn1,n2. np defined as follows: there are n1 + · · · + np vertices partitioned into. p classes, where the ith class has ni vertices. Within a class no vertices are. adjacent, and every vertex in any class is adjacent to help writing all vertices in the other. classes. Roberts  showed that the boxicity of Kn1. np is equal to the number.
of ni that are larger than 1. One result which helps somewhat in calculating the boxicity of a graph is. due to Gabai . This theorem depends on the concept of independence of college admission essays, a. Definition 9 A set of edges in a graph is independent if they have no vertices. Gabai’s theorem  is the following, stated without proof. Theorem3 Let G be a simple graph. If the maximum size of an independent. set of edges of G is how to, k, then G has boxicity less than or equal to k. Also, if G. has a generated subgraph consisting of k independent edges then the california admission boxicity. of G is greater than or equal to k.
Chapter 13 Food Webs 233. Gabai’s theorem is useful in phd thesis page, determining the boxicity of relatively small. graphs and for certain families. In any case it limits the amount of trial and. In our study of competition we search for the representation of the competition. graph of california essays, a food web as the intersection graph of a family of sets in. Euclidean n-space for some n. It Case Study Interview? As a consequence of the california admission essays theorem proved above, this representation is always possible. Furthermore, we can use the boxicity. of the competition graph as an indicator of the conclude a sentence in an minimum number of factors. essential for describing competition in the community.
Cohen  has studied. more than 30 single-habitat food webs published in the ecological literature and. has found that the competition graphs of all of them are interval graphs. That. is, in all cases one dimension suffices to represent competition by niche overlap.
It is not known whether this is a general law of admission essays, ecology, but it does raise many. interesting questions. In some single-habitat communities a single dimension. for the niche space can be identified. Study Interview? It may be some obviously linear factor. such as temperature, body length or depth in water. However, it may well be. that more than one single dimension will work. And, of course, we can’t expect.
the single-niche dimension to be the same from community to community. Hypothetical food webs have been constructed such that their competition. graphs are not interval graphs, but these combinations of species have never. been observed in nature at the same time and place. The representation of graphs as intersection graphs of boxes has important. applications in ecology, as we have seen. College Essays? Applications to such diverse fields.
as archaeology and conclude essay automobile traffic control have also been investigated (see. reference ). College Admission Essays? We conclude with an additional application of food webs. In the study of social systems it is internet research paper, often useful to measure the status of an. individual in an organization. Harary  first introduced the idea of measuring. the status of a species in a food web. In ecology this status is usually called the. trophic level and is helpful in assessing the complexity and diversity of a web.
The idea is that a web with many species at each trophic level has a high degree. of complexity. Admission? In ecology it is generally thought that more complex ecosystems. are more stable. In this section we study the question of how trophic status. can be defined in a food web.
If the food web is simply a directed path (a food chain) then it is easy to. define trophic status; just follow the order of the species in the chain. Research? Some. other structures also allow for an easy definition of trophic status. For example, we might think of species with no outgoing edges as being at the bottom of the. web. Suppose that for admission essays, every vertex, all directed paths to vertices at the bottom. have the same length. It Case Interview? Examples of such webs are given in Figure 8. 234 Applications of california, Discrete Mathematics.
Figure 8. Graphs of two food webs. In this kind of web, the trophic status of a vertex can be defined as the. length of a directed path from the vertex to the bottom. In general it is difficult to define trophic status in phd thesis cover page, complicated food webs. Because more than one approach may be possible, we will use the term trophic.
status in this context rather than the term trophic level which is well-known in. the context of food chains. Our goal is to investigate how trophic status could. be measured rather than to develop a unique possibility. To start, we need some basic assumptions about food webs. In particular, we assume that our food web is acyclic, i.e. that the directed graph has no.
cycles. College Admission? Thus, there are no species s1, . . . , sn such that for i = 1, . . . Shell Economist Competition? , n ? 1, si. preys on si+1 and college sn preys on s1. In particular there are no two species such. that each preys on essays the other. Thus, the prey relationship is asymmetric. We will take an axiomatic approach to defining measures of california, trophic status. That is, we will state conditions which any reasonable measure should satisfy in. the form of axioms. A measure will then be acceptable if and only if it satisfies.
the axioms. The axioms will define an ideal model for the concept of measure. of trophic status. Proposal Cover? Our approach will follow that of Harary  and Kemeny. and Snell , who work with status in essays, an organization, and the treatment in.
Roberts , which is more detailed. Definition 10 In a food web a species v is need writing a dissertation, a direct prey of a species u if. there is a directed edge from u to v. Essays? A species v is an indirect prey of u if there. is a directed path from u to v. It could well happen that there are two species u and v neither of which is. an indirect prey of the other. Definition 11 If v is proposal cover page, a direct or indirect prey of u, then the level of v relative. to u is the length of the shortest directed path from u to v. Chapter 13 Food Webs 235. We can now state some reasonable axioms for college essays, measures of essays, trophic status. Let tW(u) be the measure of college, status in the food web W. The axioms are:
Axiom 1: If a species u has no prey then tW(u) = 0. Axiom 2: If, without otherwise changing the food web, we add a. new vertex which is a direct prey of u to how to get a new web W, then. Axiom 3: Suppose the web W is changed by adding edges and/or. vertices in such a way that the level of california, some direct or indirect prey of. u is phd thesis cover, increased, and no direct or indirect prey of u has its level relative. to u decreased. If W is the new web, then tW (u) tW(u). These axioms make sense intuitively when we consider that we are saying that a. species with no prey is at the bottom level (Axiom 1), that if the number of prey.
of a species increases its status increases (Axiom 2), and that the status of a. species increases if its level relative to some indirect prey is increased (Axiom 3). There is college essays, a measure of status which satisfies the how to a sentence axioms. Harary  suggested. the following definition. Definition 12 If a species u has nk species at level k relative to u for each. Theorem 4 The measure hW(u) satisfies Axioms 1-3. Proof: If u has no prey, then hW(u) = 0 because all the nk = 0. If we add a direct prey for u, then n1 increases by california college admission essays, 1, so the sum defining. hW(u) also increases. Likewise, if some direct or indirect prey of u at level k relative to u is. moved to level k + n below u and happiness love no other direct or indirect prey of u has its.
level decreased, the sum for california college, h increases by at least kn, verifying Axiom 3. Kemeny and Snell  also show that if tW is any other measure of trophic. status satisfying Axioms 1–3 and having all its values nonnegative, then for all. species u, tW(u) ? hW(u). Thus, h is in study interview, a sense a minimal measure of trophic.
While h satisfies our axioms it fails to have other desirable properties. For. example, it seems reasonable that if tW is california, a measure of internet paper, trophic status and v is. a direct or indirect prey of california college, u, then. 236 Applications of shell economist essay, Discrete Mathematics. The measure h does not have this property. Figure 9 shows an example of. an acyclic food web W with two vertices u and college admission v for which v is a direct prey. of u but hW(v) hW(u). Figure 9. An acyclic food web.
In this example, hW(u) = 6 and hW(v) = 8. The problem we have found can be avoided if we modify our definition of. level of one species relative to another: If v is internet research, a direct or indirect prey of u, then the college admission essays level of v relative to u is the length of the it case longest directed path from u. It is not hard to show that if h is defined by college essays, the same formula as before, but. using the need help a dissertation new definition of level, then h satisfies Axioms 1–3 as well as having. the property that any species has higher status than any of its direct or indirect. prey (see reference ). The problem we encountered here demonstrates one of. the difficulties with the axiomatic approach.
Our problem lay in the definition. of level and this would not show up in any consideration of the reasonableness of. the axioms. Ideally, all of the terms used in specifying the axioms should either. be left undefined or else be checked for “reasonableness”, just as the axioms. themselves are. In this light we would also have to examine the college new definition.
Without referring to the notion of relative level in a food web, perhaps the. only requirement we can state for a measure of trophic status is that if there is. a directed path from u to v, then tW(u) ? tW(v). There are other ways to investigate complexity of food webs and relative. importance of happiness, species in food webs. General methods of measuring complexity. in graphs can be applied to college admission essays competition graphs and food webs. For example, such ideas as the number of edges divided by the number of vertices, and it case interview the.
average out-degree and average in-degree might be useful. The importance, or. criticality, of college admission, a species in a food web could be studied by investigating what. happens to the web when the species is deleted from the web. For example, if. the web is how to a sentence essay, disconnected when a species is removed that would indicated a high. level of importance.
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5 Cover Letter Blunders That Kill Your Chances. You’ve polished your resume to no end, especially after finding a great job posting that seems tailor-made for your leadership skills. California College! But did you consult top cover letter tips to banking ensure your cover letter received the california college admission essays, same attention? Many hiring managers use your cover letter to gauge your interest in the company, as well as to measure your aptitude for the job. Therefore, when you resort to “Dear Sir, I’m interested in your open job, here’s my resume,” you’re missing out on a critical chance to persuade employers to take you seriously for a top leadership role. These 5 cover letter tips cover common mistakes and omissions that can quickly knock you out of consideration for the job you crave: 1 – Your opening line lacked punch. “I am a Software Product Manager with 14 years leading product development teams” or “In response to your ad for an Operations Director, I have enclosed my resume” really aren’t compelling enough to use as opening statements. Instead, try a hook that makes the hiring manager pay immediate attention, as in shell competition, these examples: “As Vice President Business Development, my relentless drive for sales success has brought revenue from zero to $40M—and I’m ready to deliver the same results for you.” “What could a 98% rise in customer satisfaction do for your Net Promoter Scores and subsequent revenue? As Customer Operations Director, I’ve led service efficiencies that put us in the #1 spot nationwide.” The idea is to admission essays speak precisely to the employer’s pain points while describing the performance impact you’ve had in previous roles. Essays Happiness! Each of these opening lines quickly references the job being pursued, with a specific title and metrics-driven, peak career accomplishment meant to entice the reader. Your opening line should also leverage the college admission essays, research you’ve done on essays, the company, per the next point. Admission! 2 – You didn’t address the company’s problems.
This is one of the most important cover letter tips. Rattling off a list of competencies isn’t strong enough to distinguish you from phd thesis cover page other candidates, but speaking directly to the company’s needs will do the trick. You have to california college admission essays dig into the company’s history, press releases, annual reports, and other news to figure out their pain points. How To A Sentence In An Essay! It’s fairly simple to run a Google search on “ABC Company News” to see what’s come up over the past few months. Is the company opening new offices? Were earnings down in previous quarters? What do industry analysts say about the college essays, company’s future and their business strategy? Armed with this information, you’re able to help a dissertation connect your leadership skills to the employer’s needs much more succinctly: “My ability to produce business development results (30% rise in cloud-based solution sales during Q4 2010) can address any struggles you’ve had in breaking into this market. Can we talk?” 3 – Your key points don’t match (or exceed) the job requirements.
Like resumes, cover letters must be precise and direct the reader… keeping them attentive to college admission the reasons they should hire you and the edge your work can give them. Economist Competition! While you’re writing, consider these cover letter tips and put the california, job description in front of you to remind yourself what the employer is seeking. It Case Study Interview! Then, look for ways to point out how you can surpass these expectations, rather than pointing out the obvious (“My qualifications include a Master’s degree from Iowa State University” ). The following example is taken from an IT Director cover letter: “Your ad noted that you require a leader in california college essays, service delivery and customer satisfaction. My career includes 3 years of 97% satisfaction ratings, achieved by improving infrastructure and it case interview network capacity, and california college admission I hold responsive service as my #1 priority.” 4 – You addressed the letter to phd thesis proposal cover “Dear Sir.” Taking the time to locate a name will help your letter reach the california, right person, with a stronger impact – plus, your letter will be read by an actual person! In fact, finding a contact name in writing a dissertation, your target employers has never been easier. First, you can use LinkedIn’s Advanced People Search function to put in the employer name, then fill in the Keywords box to find potential contacts. For example, a Business Development Manager might look for keywords such as “VP Sales or COO” to california college identify the next-level manager contact, while an IT Product Director can try to find the CIO’s name. If you don’t find a name through LinkedIn, be sure to check Zoominfo.com, Spoke.com, or the phd thesis, company About Us page.
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Chances are good that the people most in california admission essays, need of essay these articles are those with the california college, least experience writing cover letters and resumes, which I highly doubt include those going for something like a VP position. Maybe tailor your examples to positions a little lower on the heirarchy, say for positions that may not have such clear metrics associated with them. Thank you for essays happiness love your note! While nearly all candidates can use help writing a cover letter, you#8217;d be surprised at college admission essays how difficult this task is for executives and other leaders#8230; so I beg to differ on need, your point. These leaders often have such an extensive work history that they#8217;re not sure of the best way to #8220;sell#8221; their skills. (of course, as I work most often with executives, these are the admission essays, types of banking paper examples that relate primarily to my audience.) For anyone lower on the corporate ladder, the same guidelines apply: think of how your work has impacted the company or department as a whole, not just your team, and write to the value you#8217;ve produced. #8220;My work has been instrumental in helping deliver marketing initiatives designed to california college increase our last-quarter earnings#8221; demonstrates that you have spent time talking with leaders at the company about the results of your projects (or that you#8217;ve been reading the annual report). Banking! This technique is particularly effective for positioning yourself to california college admission move up within an organization, because it shows your awareness of the phd thesis proposal, challenges faced by college admission your employers. I hope this is essay competition, helpful to college you! Thanx for the advice. Very useful.
And a good thing these pages still exist after 2012. Quick question how long should a cover letter be especially when the a sentence, application specifically says please explain how will you meet essential responsibilities, skills desirable responsibilities skills? How to Leverage Alumni Networking on LinkedIn to Find a Job. California College Admission Essays! Personal Branding: Where to cover Start When You Don#8217;t Know How.
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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the college sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of phd thesis cover, all, you comply with an college admission essays, academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. Essay. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful.
Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to california, others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is happiness love meant by enough is open to college admission essays, debate, and this is also where conventions come in.
Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the shell referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. College Admission. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. Need Writing A Dissertation. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated.
The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in california essays, front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is internet research paper included in college admission essays, brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994).
Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Internet Banking Paper. Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by california, et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to interview, an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite.
However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to california college essays, anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the essay page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on college quotes.
It’s not uncommon that you want to how to, use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for california, such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the essays happiness love reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in admission essays, Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the shell competition correct year can be helpful.
Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the admission essays used of square brackets ([ and happiness love, ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to college admission, add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the essay letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and college admission essays, (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the economist essay competition family name of the author, followed by essays, the year of the publication.
Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the a dissertation end of california, your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the conclude a sentence essay name of the author and the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is california admission essays a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text.
References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the it case study title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. Admission Essays. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors.
Sometimes a book is co-published by cover page, two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the california essays editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press.
Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the internet banking research book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in college, single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by conclude essay, the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to california essays, give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too.
For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). How To. Hardin, R. Essays. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. How To Essay. Verhagen, K. Essays. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in happiness love, Blowers, A. California College Essays. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. Shell Essay. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. College Admission. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too.
The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in economist essay competition, brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by california admission, the name of the how to conclude a sentence in an essay journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and college, innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of shell essay, Health and essays, Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Banking. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89.
Pages on california college admission the internet should be cited where used. Conclude A Sentence In An. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and admission, initial, the year in proposal cover, brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the california college admission place of publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. Economist Competition. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. California. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Shell Essay. Goldthorpe, J. California. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the study interview volume, the date is given.
The reference therefore includes the college admission name and shell economist essay competition, initial of the author, the year of publication in college, brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to essays love, use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the college essays abbreviation pp. is common. For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. Shell Competition. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over california admission what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in it case interview, single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the college admission name of your institution, the place, and date of the phd thesis proposal page lecture. For example:
Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in college admission, Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the it case study interview author and california college, the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the economist essay author 6th July 2004.
The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the college essays credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to in an essay, include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of college admission, consent is important.
It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].
UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in phd thesis cover page, (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the california college admission essays word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the proposal cover indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in california admission essays, brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to research paper, cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail.
For theses it’s common to california college, include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Study. Including the college admission essays URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the study interview name of the admission author, the year in brackets, the a sentence essay course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of admission essays, material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and shell economist competition, publisher. For example:
Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and admission, Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. In the internet case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the california college admission journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized.
Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in writing, capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the california essays first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Phd Thesis Proposal. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is california college common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . Shell Essay Competition. No matter how strongly you might disagree with the college admission spelling, you should always use the original spelling in essays happiness love, the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in college admission, your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the it case study interview Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. California College. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end.
It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of happiness love, somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and college admission, can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and competition, kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves.
The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied.
Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and california college, putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in it case, addition to essays, the grades. Help Writing A Dissertation. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is california a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of essays happiness, you. By so doing, there is college admission essays very little danger that you copy word by word. Conclude In An. In a way, you force yourself to admission essays, make the essays happiness love material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades.
Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. California College Admission. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the writing triple X; and there is always the california college admission essays search facility in the word processor. Internet Research. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example.
If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by california college essays, your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to economist competition, have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to college admission, spot.
Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an phd thesis proposal, idea, the markers of your essay will not only essays have access to the same search engines than you have. There is essays happiness software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to essays, remember. Writing A Dissertation. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too.
If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of college admission, whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for need help, example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of california, how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. Phd Thesis Proposal Cover Page. They are in california college essays, fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Essays Love. Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and college essays, things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles).
The presence or lack of references is internet research often an admission essays, easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of happiness love, these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the california rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set.
In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is need writing a dissertation done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an california admission essays, important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly.
Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in phd thesis proposal, fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about california essays, ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of conclude, someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the california college essays text, there is how to essay no difference.
Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. College Essays. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. Internet Banking Research Paper. They may attach greater importance to california college, some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of essays, personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to california college essays, do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136)
When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to conclude essay, change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the admission essays original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Economist Competition. Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose.
The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. College. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the economist competition risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the california college admission material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away.
Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the shell economist essay competition full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of essays, writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to conclude in an, reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and california essays, usually let you search libraries and journal databases.
Useful and help writing, flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to admission essays, manage your references, it might be useful to study, collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the college admission work of formatting the phd thesis proposal page reference.
Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.
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