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bdp s300 resume off Article ID:494533(modified 12-Apr-2012) Please read all information thoroughly before downloading and installing any files. What does this download do? Sony is offering a firmware update for Sony Blu-ray player BDP-S300. This utility updates the BDP-S300 firmware to version 6.20 and provides the following benefits: Improvements over firmware version 5.90: Improves BD-Java compatibility to enhance interactivity with some BD-ROMs. Additional improvements over movie download original firmware: Improves BD-Java compatibility to enhance interactivity with some BD-ROMs. Compatibility with the newly released BD-R/RE format (BDMV). Compatibility with BD-R/RE disc burned by Click to Disc Ver.1.1 and Click to Disc Editor Ver.1.1 software. Pbs Essay. (The update of these software is required) This utility is only for use with the BDP-S300 as sold within Asia Pacific. Not all models are sold in all countries. Please follow the update instructions carefully. Failure to follow the instructions may interrupt the update process and may cause the player to movie download be unresponsive or to require repair. Do not power off the player or disconnect it from the AC power outlet.

Loss of century coursework help power during the installation of the firmware update may cause the player to movie download be unresponsive or to require repair. The Blu-ray player will be reset to the factory default settings. After installing the update user will need to reconfigure the help player. This firmware update is performed with a CD-R to be inserted into your BDP-S300. Do not use a CD-RW disc. A CD-R disc is highly recommended.

Use a brand new CD-R disc to burn the firmware update. The player may not be able to correctly read a dirty disc or a disc with scratches. User need a computer with a CD writer with burning software. The downloaded file will create an ISO Image. Download. An ISO image (.iso) is a disk image of an letter, ISO 9660 file system. Most CD authoring utilities can write ISO files to a disc. For more information, please check the help files of your CD authoring software. Check the player firmware version: Power on the television and make sure it is tuned to movie download the inputs to which the 21st century BDP-S300 player is connected.

Power on the BDP-S300 Blu-ray Disc player. Download. If the player starts to play a disc, press the STOP button and wait until the blue Sony Blu-ray Disc screen is displayed on the television before proceeding. Covering Letter. On the remote control, press the SYSTEM MENU button. At the System Menu screen, use the arrow keys on the remote control to download highlight Setup and then press the ENTER button. At the pbs essay contest Setup screen, use the arrow keys on the remote control to highlight Video Setup and then press the ENTER button. Movie. Use the arrow keys on the remote control to highlight TV Type and then press the 21st century science ENTER button. On the remote control, press BLUE button. Movie Download. The firmware version currently installed on the BDP-S300 will be listed on the television screen. If the version number is essay, 6.20 or higher, the Blu-ray disc player does not need to be updated.

Please agree with the Terms Conditions. Download and Operation Instructions. Save the update file to your computer Desktop. Movie. - When saving the update file, check the file size. - To do so, right click the file, select properties and check that the General tab displays the following size information: 52,554,752 bytes. When prompted, click the Browse button to write inmates select a location where to save the extracted ISO image. Movie. We recommend that you select your computer Desktop.

Click OK to start the file extraction. Make sure that the disc is finalized. Make sure the disc creation was correctly done without any error. Form Letter. In case of doubt, recreate a new update disc. Burning the update disc using a packet writing software is not supported. (Packet writing is an optical disc recording technology used to allow writeable CD media to be used in a similar manner to a floppy disk). Do not create the update disc using another process than the one described above. Firmware update procedure. Do not turn off the player or disconnect the player from the power supply during the update process. Doing so may damage your player and make it unusable, and would require a repair of the player. Do not press any button, except as instructed, until the update is complete.

Doing so may damage your player and make it unusable, and movie would require a repair of the player. The firmware update process may take up to 30 minutes. First read the whole procedure before starting to update the firmware of your player. Make sure that the TV set is correctly connected to the player. Note: After about 20 minutes, the disc tray may open.

WARNING!! Do not remove the disc from the player and do not close the tray. The update is still in progress. Note: it takes around 90 seconds for the player to display a picture on century, the television after the player was updated. After the movie update, the player will be reset to its factory settings. 21st Century Science Help. Power on the television and make sure it is tuned to the inputs to which the BDP-S300 player is download, connected. Power on the BDP-S300 Blu-ray Disc player. If the player starts to play a disc, press the research STOP button and wait until the blue Sony Blu-ray Disc screen is displayed on movie download, the television before proceeding. On the form remote control, press the SYSTEM MENU button. At the System Menu screen, use the arrow keys on the remote control to highlight Setup and movie download then press the ENTER button. At the Setup screen, use the arrow keys on the remote control to highlight Video Setup and then press the ENTER button.

Use the arrow keys on the remote control to highlight TV Type and then press the ENTER button. On the remote control, press BLUE button. The firmware version currently installed on the BDP-S300 will be listed on how to inmates, the television screen. If the version number is 6.20 , the Blu-ray disc player is correctly updated. If the update disc is not ejected after the update process, although DL OK is displayed: Please refer to below guide to help you troubleshoot Blu-ray Player firmware updating issues. WRT FAILED is displayed on the player front panel display. Turn off the download player by pressing the POWER button for a few seconds and release the POWER button (do not remove the disc). Press the POWER button again. The update process will start again.

If WRT FAILED appears again, remove the disc form the player. Write. Delete the update file from movie download your computer and proceed with the deviance research paper update procedure again to download create a new update disc. Proceed with the update procedure again. Remove the update disc and recreate a new one by downloading the file again, and perform the update process again. This suggests that your player was already updated. You do not need to form covering letter run the update. This is normal as after the update, the player is set to its factory default settings. The download may have failed. Delete the file and download it again. Wait for around 90 seconds. If after 2 minutes, nothing appears, please contact Sony.

If firmware updating procedure was not completed successfully or the movie Blu-ray Disc player cannot be turn on, please consult your local authorized Sony service facility. Not the product you are looking for? For Sales and Service. Call 1800-103-7799 (Toll Free). All 7 days (9 AM to 7.30 PM) All 7 days (9 AM to 9 PM) Got a suggestion, feedback or comment? We’re happy to hear from editing essays you!

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IELTS Cause Solution Essay Band 9 Model Answer. The model answer below is for an IELTS cause and solution essay in writing task 2 on the topic of crime and punishment. Many offenders commit more crimes after serving the first punishment. Why is download this happening, and covering what measures can be taken to tackle this problem? A large number of criminals who serve their first prison sentence, leave prison only to reoffend. This is mainly because of the lack of rehabilitation and difficulty finding regular employment once released. There are a number of solutions which should be implemented to deal with criminals who reoffend. Firstly, the reason for most first-time offenders committing crimes again, once they have been released from prison, is due to the lack of rehabilitation whilst in prison.

In other words, offenders are not given a chance to retrain and movie learn new skills for their future or develop a deeper understanding of deviance research paper, correct moral behaviour and instead mix with other criminals, which only strengthens their criminal intentions. Secondly, repeat offending is also owing to the difficulty in finding employment after being released. As a result, many of movie download, them struggle financially which leads them back to crime, regardless of the consequences. There are two effective solutions to research paper, the problem of repeat offenders. One way to tackle this is to ensure that all criminals entering prison are given the chance to retrain with useful skills which will hopefully ensure them a job after they have served their sentence. By doing this, it will help them reintegrate back into movie download society and give them some means of 21st century help, supporting themselves financially. Another method of dealing with criminals who reoffend is to have more supervision and checks in place when they are back in society. This solution would hopefully prevent them from taking any chances and deter them from download, reoffending because they are being so closely watched.

In conclusion, having training in prison and also close observation when first time offenders are released are effective in dealing with the issue. Editing Essays? If governments implemented these solutions, crime figures would soon drop. This essay address the task completely. Download? Both causes and solutions are given and developed with relevant ideas. Linking is pbs essay contest used not only effectively but also flexibly. Paragraphing is also used effectively to help the movie reader. There is a range of sentence structures and science help also tenses used.

Vocabulary is also flexible with a good range of movie download, less common words. Paper? Essay Length: 290 words. Develop your IELTS skills with tips, model answers, lessons, free videos and more. I have been following all the IELTS content available on your website. And I must say I have made fair improvements in my writing section, compared to when I had started. Thank you for download, all the detailed explanation you provide in your videos.

However, I come across few queries,every now and then, and not sure how valid would they be if I include them in my writing task-2. 1. Editing Essays? Is it fine to complete the movie download introduction paragraph by saying ‘This essay will elucidate…..’. 2. When essay says ‘ Include your personal experiences, if any.’ Is it necessary to include them or it’s ok to editing essays, refrain from including them. Question 1 = not you shouldn’t use those sentences. Question 2 = your personal experience should be relating to the world in general, for example “the majority of people …” HOW MANY EXAMPLES ARE NECESSARY IN ANY TYPE OF ESSAY. No examples are necessary. The examiner is looking for your ideas being developed – using examples is not a requirement. But usually no more than one example per body paragraph. Hi liz, good afternoon from the movie download UAE.

is it okay to incorporate ideas relating to the moral grounds. If a question asks about the death penalty, is it acceptable in IELTS to include arguments about the homework harmful helpful essay teachings of the church? It is one of the arguments against the death penalty – it is wrong for movie download, one person to take the life of another. Homework? The moral argument is movie a strong one. If you want to relate this to religion it is your choice – The Church was not the first to have this view. But remember that your aim is not to express deep feelings about your religion, it is to present a clear, relevant position with accuracy language to get a good band score. Keep your mind focused on your band score. Thank you for your online lesson.

I have one query related to cause and solution task. If question is pbs essay like what measures should be taken on specific topic, should I write only the solution of the topic or both cause and solution. Thanks in advance. If the download question only asks for solutions, then you only editing essays give solutions. Always follow the instructions clearly and never change the instructions. can I write solutions in conclusion? A conclusion contains a summary of main points presented in your essay. Thanks for all the resources you provide on your site, its been very helpful. I an preparing for the general training. i am curious about movie download writing part 2. i observed that the questions mostly asked are “do you agree or disagree” questions. does it mean that i can narrow my scope of my practice to this? and helpful does part 2 academic have essays specific for them and general with essays unique to download, them? thanks alol. There are five types of 21st century, essays and you can get any of those 5 types. If you practise only one type, you are taking a great gamble on your test.

Are you a gambling person or do you prefer to be well prepared? See this page about GT writing: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-gt-academic-writing-differences/ I would like to ask you what the structure is for a “causes and effects” essay.I’ve looked for a model on movie download your site,but I couldn’t find it.Could you possibly tell me what the deviance structure should be like? I’m sure that your answer will be useful for movie download, other students,too! Thank you so much for your help! The structure is the same as cause and solution. Harmful? If you have two aspects to present, then you use two body paragraphs. Always approach your paragraphs and ideas logically. Thank you for your lessons.In essay of causes n solutions…can we describe one cause n its solution..then second cause n its solution in second body paragraph. It is possible but the causes and solutions are not always connected.

If they are connected, sure do that. Your videos and download writings are wonderful and are indeed easy to follow. I would like to know how numbers and units will be counted in our essays. Say for harmful essay, example, if i write 100 dollars or $100. Download? Is there any difference? Yes, there is a difference. 100 dollars is two words – it is a number and how to write inmates a word. However, $100 is just one word. Symbols are not accounted – only words and numbers in writing. That sounds great because I can choose between them if I have to adjust my word count #128578;

Hi Liz, is it ok if I don?t introduce the main causes in the introduction? I’ve seen that you have already mentioned them in the first paragraph… (I?ve just put this in movie my intro: Nowadays, one controversial issue that directly affects to society is the amount of delinquents who commit a new crime after having already been in prison. This essay will look at the causes of this problematic situation as well as suggest some possible solutions that could be taken.) Avoid learning sentences. “This essay will look at the causes of this problematic situation as well as suggest some possible solutions that could be taken.” is editing essays a learned phrase which applies to all cause / solution essays. It will lower your score to use this. Download? Also avoid using ” one controversial issue” – it isn’t really a controversial issue. It sounds like you are trying to get a high score by learning sentences or phrases – it won’t help you. I have confusion regarding wat is the difference betweeen giving a balanced view and how to inmates discussion both the view essay.

And my next doubt is in wat extend do u agree or disagree,if we give a balanced view than wat should the download paragraphs be about.?do I need to explain about each y I agree and disagree them? Em much confused,plz help. A balanced view relates to form letter, opinion essays and it doesn’t mean agree with both sides. It means partially agreeing with one side and download explaining your specific view point. A discussion essay requires you to impartially give information about sides. Just one question. If the question sound like this: what do you think are the causes for ……and what can be done…… should i give my opinion? No. Research? Just state the download causes and solutions.

As shown in harmful essay the essay above. Do i lose marks If when I answered I said in the introduction and conclusion I believe the causes are…. No, you won’t lose marks. Can we start the given essay as “It is said that, a large number…..” to include passive voice for higher band? If you are expressing the movie view given or other people’s views, it is fine but without the comma. Hi, Liz. I was taught to use “Firstly, Secondly..Finally”.

I read the essay and realised there wasn’t any “Finally”. Is it ok to covering letter, omit “Finally” in movie download the exam? Using “firstly, secondly, thirdly” to start paragraphs is fine for band score 6. Letter? It is mechanical and not flexible. If you are aiming for a higher band score you need to movie, be more flexible. first of all thanks for online lessons . can you upload writting task 2 related to racism and editing essays xenophobia . please … Thanking you in advance. Thanks for the idea. I’ll put it on download my list. I really hope next year I can start making videos again and editing essays more lessons for vocab and topics.

dear Liz, is it possible to send you text about one of IELTS topics and you score it? Sorry, I don’t mark writing. First I would like to download, thank for all the online lessons and videos that you have uploaded for all the students across the globe. Its really a great help for us who are preparing for IELTS exam. I would like to ask you that every time you have mentioned for writing exam that marks would be cut or even there would be 0 if they are memorised.

Is this in paper the context that we should not write the same model essays that you have written on your website in case we get the same writing exam ? Will wait for your reply. Thanks in advance. Of course you can’t write the same essay. This is a language test so you can’t memorise my language and present it as your own. Movie Download? That is homework harmful helpful a form of cheating. You can use vocabulary and ideas but you must use your own language to download, write sentences and present the ideas. can I have a list of linking words?:) You will find a link to a page of linking words on editing essays this page: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2/ Good day, I have noticed that there is download no opinion in this model essay Crime and punishment ( cause and editing essays solution) writing task 2. Do I need to write a thesis statment or not?

Can you please give me some ideas on download how to how to inmates, make a best introduction and conclusion for this type of movie download, essay. Sorry, I am just nervous, I’ll be taking the exam this coming last week of October, and research I really need to download, have high band score, and I want to learn all these things, just in case I will encounter this question on my exam. A these statement does not mean an editing essays opinion. A thesis statement is simply a statement which introduces your main points. In problem and solution questions what structure is most suited?

Is it in one paragraph we mention about movie download 2 problems then in the next body prg8raph we mention two solutions to the above mentioned problems? Or, the structure where in one body paragraph I disuss the problem and in the same one I give the relevant solution and in the next body paragraph the other problem and solution. Which way is better?? Also I want to know if we are writing problems in one paragraph and the solutions in essay another, then do we have to provide with the solutions specifically to the problems that we mentioned before or can they be any general solution ? There is no right or wrong way. As long as the movie paragraphs are logical, it’s fine.

Is it a good idea to research paper, include examples in advantage and disadvantage or problem and solution essay. please help me. You can give examples or not. It’s your choice. Dear Teacher Liz. I got your the three lessons of IELTS writing task 2. Movie Download? They are great!

When will you post a rest of two model assays about pbs essay contest problem and solution, agree and disagree? Unfortunately, I won’t be making more videos until the end of movie, this year. Hi Liz good morning/afternoon/ evening. I have two questions to ask: 1. If I have one problem and one solution, fully developed, Can I have high score? 2. Form Letter? If the solution is not directly related to download, the cause, will it affect to deviance research, have high score in movie download task response? I am looking forward to deviance research paper, hearing you at your earliest convenience ! The answer to movie, your first question is “yes”. For your second question, you need to form letter, read the instructions carefully, you will either be asked for solutions to the problems or solutions to movie, the causes – just follow the instructions. You didn’t summarise the first paragraph (Cause part) in covering your conclusion.

Is it all right? Please kindly explain, if you have time, at your earliest convenience. I’m eagerly looking forward to hearing you… I have taken IELTS exam number of times, and my only weakness is in writing. Download? I have noticed that writing is a subjective test, and you need to have excellent grammar and maturity of ideas.

Just like your essay above, you have displayed the good maturity of ideas. Can we say that maturity of ideas in English expressions are tested in IELTS examination? If this is true then how students should mature themselves in all kinds of essay topics and their in-depth questions without having any research? I am also asking as I face problems while writing within the 21st science time limit good maturity of ideas on that particular topic of the essay. I was practising general IELTS writing task 2. I wrote an essay for below topic. In some countries, people’s weight has significantly increased while their levels of health have decreased. What do you think may be the movie causes of this problem and what solutions can you suggest for solving them?

Give reasons and paper include any relevant examples from movie download, your own knowledge or experience. My key ideas were sedentary lifestyle and food habits. For examples, I chose, computer engineers for sedentary lifestyle. And fast food like pizza, burger for unhealthy foods. Now, my question is, do I need to mention some personal examples like, my cousin eats McD burger a lot and he has gained lot of editing essays, weight and all OR is movie download it alright to write examples in a general way like… computer engineers these days sit in front of monitors for long hours without doing any physical activities which causes increase in weight. I am eagerly waiting for your reply. I have my exam in few days. Please help. Thanks and 21st century help Regards,

This is movie a formal essay, you don’t write about people you know. Essay? You write about people in general. Also take a look at your examples – which one offers the best range of grammar and vocabulary? Use your common sense. I agree with your comments. Even I was of the same opinion. Download? But I am taking online course from gieltshelp.com and Instructor suggested to quote personal examples as in the question they have asked us to give examples from our personal experiences. So I was confused about my views. Thanks for the clarification. Thank you very much for you effort and great job, your blog is very useful and application form helpful, I really appreciate it. I want to ask you about outline sentences, such as ‘This essay will discuss both points of view before coming to download, a reasoned conclusion’ or ‘This essay will firstly discuss…and secondly…’.

Is it ok to use them or it is contest not a good idea and it won’t help me to get a good band score? My teacher suggest us all the time that is better to do so, because that helps reader to download, understand our writing and also will bring us more points for coherence and cohesion. Thanks in advance, Liz. It is not a good idea to do this. This system repeats the instructions given to you by IELTs.

This method of introducing your plans for the essay is used in academic writing to help the reader know what you plan to contest, do. In IELTS, the examiner knows what you plan to movie download, do, in fact the examiner knows what you MUST do. This is not just an academic essay, it is an IELTS academic essay with particular requirements and expectations. See my advanced lessons to learn how this should be done: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. Write? Another issue for IELTS is that this is movie a language test, which means you are being marked on your ability to use your own English through paraphrasing and 21st coursework presenting your ideas. Learning a phrase to use (as you have stated above) will lower your mark because it is a learned phrase. The examiner will just put a line through it and discount it. So, don’t waste your words on useless language. Thanks a lot for movie download, your quick respond. I’ll follow your suggestion! I have recently got the results of my IELTS test and I’m very happy about it.

In the homework harmful past, my problem was with writing task 1 2. Your suggestions and model essays reports helped a lot. Indeed, my writing score increased from 6.5 to 8. I’m now ready to obtain a permanent Australian VISA and to live my dream. Thanks for your time and all the free and high-quality material that you have prepared and shared with us. I’m very grateful for your effort and work. Band score 8 in writing is download excellent. Well done! You should be very proud of such a considerable increase in band score. I’m glad my lessons helped you.

Wow! I am so inspired. I am about to take my exam next month here in Australia. I am also following Liz’s tutorials. Deviance Research? I am hoping for movie download, a similar result #128578;

I want to application form letter, ask if we have been asked about download our opinion in an ielts essay then where should we write our opinion in the body paragraph? Whether it should be written at the end before conclusion? If you are asked to give your opinion, it will be introduced in application form letter the introduction, explained in the body paragraphs and movie download concluded in the conclusion. Thank you for your wonderful website. I’m always confused if we should write only homework harmful helpful essay one main idea for download, each paragraph or more. If yes, how? I’m asking this question because there are two causes in the second paragraph and two solutions in the third one. Editing Essays? In fact, the second paragraph contains two main ideas which are the two causes and also, the second paragraph contains two main ideas which are two solutions.

Would you please clarify if it’s okay to include more than one main point in movie download paragraph by using linking words, such as firstly and secondly? I really appreciate your respond. Each paragraph should have a distinct, clear central topic. Homework Harmful Helpful Essay? In BP1 is it causes and in movie download BP2 it is solutions. first of research, all i must say that i leave many comments on your page but didnt get any response. i have major issue in writing, i always have many ideas about topic and i always mix them in passage writing.. in july i got 6 bands over all now m again going to sit in exam on 19 sep. kindly suggest me to improve my eng language skills. Unfortunately, this is not an movie download English language blog. You need to look in the IELTS Extra section and see the research Useful Website page which recommended sites for learning English. I am going to download, write the helpful essay exam on the 29th of august,I always loose my writing…but fortunately, I could go through your site and download pick some tips…your sample essays,video lessons (discussion and opinion essays) particularly very helpful.I am bit nervous still….

I will let you know the result…. You are a wonderful teacher…God bless you! Good luck. Editing Essays? Also try to work on your English language because if your English is not at download, the right level for your score, it will be very difficult to get the band score you want. I can’t seem to see the deviance research paper difference between the solution essay and the direct question essay !! they both ask the same questions and download i keep making the mistake of expressing my opinion in the thesis in the solution essay .. can you please explain to me how can tell the difference between the two types of essays ? The direct question is 21st century help similar but only asks direct questions such as “what is happiness?” or “Is money a good way to measure success?”. can you please tell me when do i need to state my opinion in these kinds of questions and when i shouldn’t ? You give your opinion when the instructions ask for it. Please see the writing task 2 main page – there is a lesson about when to download, give your opinion. I am going to take my ielts exam on oct-8 ,I am good in listening ,speaking and writing but in reading i am not satisified with my score ,so I am requesting you to give me reading tips. Hi teacher Liz, in regards to the conclusion in this question, I noticed that it is more about the third paragraph about solutions.

And it really gives a clear picture on how to react to deviance, the issue as being a problem that fits exactly for the conclusion. I would like to ask, is paraphrasing the movie thesis statement for our conclusion is not always applicable? How can we know when it is editing essays applicable to paraphrase the thesis statement for movie, the conclusion? Because it seems to me I am so inclined to the idea that for the conclusion all I need to do is to paraphrase my thesis staement.Thanks in homework harmful advance, stay blessed. The conclusion summarises the main points. Movie Download? Sometimes the main points are in the thesis statement – so you paraphrase that. At other times, they are not all given in the thesis statement, so you just summarise the key points from your essay. There is no fixed rule – relax! Just summarise the ideas you feel are most important for your conclusion. In the conclusion of the 21st century cause-solution essay, if I just restate the movie download problem, not the solutions, and instead use a phrase like ” However this can be resolved by the above suggestions” , will I get lower score ? I’m torn #128577; Summarise the solutions in the conclusion “In conclusion, while pollution has a number of causes, it is best solved by individual awareness and recycling.” Here I mention there are causes but I don’t state them, I only state the application form covering letter solutions.

Thank you so much. Movie? I’ve learnt so much since I’ve been visiting your website every day, which is pbs essay contest invaluable for my upcoming test. #128578; I’m really glad my blog is useful for you. Good luck with your test #128578; I like your methods of teaching writing patterns as well as your advices. I will be taking the exam by next week and I’m hoping that you can give an advice to my writing. My aim is to have a score of 7. Here is my sample writing with a topic about fashion.

Q: Fashion in our society is becoming more and more important in people’s choice of clothes. Why is it like this? Give your opinion. In the recent years, fashion is becoming a trend and the essential factor for choosing a cloth. This is due to a fact that it contributes to the social standards and aspects of movie, living in the society. Fashion changes over the years. Before, people are used in wearing long clothing to cover every portion of editing essays, their body, specially with women. Movie Download? The weather also affects the style of clothing. For example, a person who decided to form covering letter, go out during snow should wear a thick garment in order to movie, protect himself from editing essays, freezing in the field. The most essential reason for movie download, fashion becoming the choice of clothing is 21st coursework because it depicts the standard of living of a person in the society.

The more sense of download, fashion a person has, the more he is likely to be given high regard. In workplace, for instance, the boss should always wear a business attire, including a suit and form letter a tie. While employees need to wear the standard uniform set by the company. Another reason is that the society tend to mimic famous people. Popular people such as singers, actors and actresses are the people who started the download fashion statement. Models also need to follow the pbs essay contest recent fashion style in order to download, be seen by homework other people, by movie means of editing essays, magazines and billboards. To conclude, I believe that fashion is the best factor for the people in choosing their brand of download, clothing. The recent fashion will always be the most popular kind of fashion style. However, this kind of fashion taste should not be used to define a person’s lifestyle or his social level in the society. i m worry about reading . Pbs Essay? During this season , i always feel confident about movie answer bt mostly my answer is wrong. ca u help me to enhance reading skills.

I can only suggest you do more practice and also get the write inmates book “Improve your IELTS Reading skills” which has useful techniques. Also think about starting a list of paraphrases which you found for each question when you practice. If I write 50 to 60 words for Introduction and Conclusion (Academic Task-2), will it create any problem in movie download main exam ? No, it won’t create a problem. But it is a waste of science coursework, valuable time because it won’t help your band score. I have to obtain 7 bands in each module . Unfortunately, I have not been in touch with English writing and reading from last 7 years as my job was Customer service so never required any written experiences. I would love to receive any advise and assistance from you which can help me to download, concentrate and find suitable words while writing.I tried my best to find physical teacher but in vain. All my lessons and advice are given on the pages of this blog. There is a useful website page in the IELTS Extra section where you can find useful sites for developing your English and IELTS skills.

Take a look. The thing that I didn’t really catch here is wheter to write one’s own opinion or not. I mean, should I use the words such as “I” or “my” in solution essay to answer the questions? Look forward to hearing from you. The essay question doesn’t ask for your opinion, so don’t give it.

Thank you a lot!! I love your lessons, I have my exam soon and form covering I was wondering whether it is possible for you to movie, check my essay. It would be very helpful for application form covering letter, me #128578; I wrote a solution essay about this topic: The number of people who are at risk of download, serious health problems due to being overweight is increasing. What is the editing essays reason for download, the growth in overweight people in society? How can this problem be solved? At present, more and more people become overweight and therefore their healt is at risk.

Such phenomenon is caused by excessive consumption of fast-food and lack of excersises. There are number of solutions which should be implement in order to avoid and decrease obesity in society. Firstly, the reason for contest, obesity in sociesty is the fact that people tend to resign from homemade meals in order to eat out. Movie Download? While it is more convenient, premade food became to widespread nowadays, and consuming fast-foods, which are high in carbohydrates and 21st century coursework bad fats, subsequently lacking any nutrients, replaced healty eating habits. Secondly, means of transport like cars or tube are the most popular or even often only the way of movie download, travelling nowadays. People seem to no longer choose walking or cycling to for example commutting to work, and that leads to deviance, a situation where lack of any physical movement, which is considered as healty as it burns calories , cause serious health problems, like obesity or heart attacks. There are two effecitve solutions which need to download, be adressed to tackle the problem of overweight. One way is for governments and also parents to application form covering letter, provide an unconventional education, like playschemes or movies about healt and download food ingredients to schools. Form Covering Letter? Such undertake would make children more aware of what they it from very young age, and therfore reduce chances of obesity in the future. Furthermore, governments should invest more money in free of charge, outdoor sport activities led by personal trainares and dieteticians who could unify people in shared exercising, which could be the most powerful way to reduce weight and avoid being overweight.

In conclusion, there are many factors which contributes to the fact that modern society can be associated with obesity, however at download, the same time there are pleny of editing essays, solutions which people can implement and if they do, the phenomenon of excess weight will soon disappear. (317 words) You have addressed the task fully and movie download you have organised your ideas very well. That means your technique for writing is strong. Research Paper? But your English language has problems. Grammar and vocabulary: you need to movie download, aim for accurate sentences rather than over complicated sentences packed with clauses. Pbs Essay? Don’t over complicate your sentences because you are producing too many errors which will reduce your score. Movie? “ While it is research more convenient, premade food became to widespread nowadays, and consuming fast-foods, which are high in carbohydrates and bad fats, subsequently lacking any nutrients, replaced healty eating habits ” should be written: “ As it is more convenient, packaged meals have became widespread nowadays. Consuming fast-foods, which are high in movie carbohydrates and bad fats, subsequently lack any nutrients and have replaced eating a healthy diet. ” You need to be more careful about how to inmates producing accurate sentences and about using correct words. Also check your linkers. Movie? “like” is pbs essay not an academic linker.

You should use “such as” or “for instance” and other suitable alternatives. Dear Liz, thank you so much for a response and all your advice, that is immense help for movie, me #128578; Did you use present perfect, for instance: “have became widespread” and “have replaced” because it started in the past and is still happening/ cause an harmful effect? I am aiming for minimium 6.5 from writing, what do you think about this essay on the whole? Should i focus mostly on grammar when writing? All the best and movie download thank you again,

I generally just give a comment but don’t have time to review it a second time. The present perfect is generally used as you said – it started in editing essays the past and is still happening now. About focusing on movie download grammar, I suggest you train to improve your grammar so that when you enter the test, your grammar is more accurate. But you shouldn’t mainly focus on grammar in your test – you must focus on all four criteria. its my 1st post here. I must say your tips about both writing tasks are very helpful. I’m going to appear in academic module in the next month. I’m having a problem about lacking ideas. though, I m reading your given topic ideas but I think these are not enough. could u please suggest me more websites r anything else which can be useful for topic ideas.. please guide me. Thanks in advance! Why don’t you try googling debate websites. They usually have plenty of topics where people post ideas for and against.

Thanks a million! Does sentencing strictly mean a prison sentence or can it also include a community service ? The verb relates to the punishment received for a crime so it could be either a prison sentence or community sentence. Editing Essays? The noun is only used with prison sentencing. Sorry … I meant punishment not sentencing as in the essay topic. If I include points related to community service as well, well it effect my points for not understanding the question? It depends how you use your ideas. This is first time I am visiting an IELTS blog for movie download, help. Editing Essays? I’m very happy and exciting to see a valuable source of help. My agenda is, I’m appearing in an IELTS general exam in next month. Could you please help me out to understand how the general writing exam works. What type of points examiner calculate?

Would you mind to give me some tips for general writing exam. I’m currently on movie holiday so I won’t be around to answer your questions. However, here are some useful links to help you get started: Band Scores Made Easy (please note the TA is only for the academic test but the other 3 criteria are the same as GT): http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-1-band-scores/ For writing task 2, you can follow the same marking criteria as the academic test: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2-band-scores-5-to-8/ You can also follow the helpful same model essays as the AC test: http://ieltsliz.com/tag/model-essay/ You should watch all my task 2 video lessons and also my practice lessons – see writing task 2 section.

The only difference between the GT and AC writing task 2 is that the essay questions is easier but that’s all. Here is also a link to other useful websites: http://ieltsliz.com/useful-websites-and-resources-for-ielts/. Visit the download official IELTS website for information about the exam format. This is my first time of deviance paper, getting to site, ill say I stumble on it this night and its so helpful. I am my my exams, academics to be precise on the 28th of this month but I still struggle with the movie download writing module. is there anything you can do to 21st century science, help me out. Will be glad to movie, hear from you. Unfortunately, I am currently on holiday. I hope to research paper, continue working on this site and providing support for IELTS students next month. Take your time to look around the my site, I’m sure you’ll find a lot of answers to your concerns as well as useful tips.

Also read the advice I have given to other students over movie download the last few months. I’m quite sure that all the essays are written by only one person because of the distinctive style. I love it and and try to learn it. I will take the IELTS test on 14 March and i am really nervous since i need at how to write inmates, least 6 point overall but i am really struggle with speaking part, especially part two, you know, i tend to have very short answers. when i did the Cambridge ielts, i usually get about 25 correct answers for reading as well as listening. Movie Download? My writing is editing essays not good, too. In your opinion, in the two weeks remaining, how i could do to prepare well for movie, my test? The problem with part 2 speaking is that you think you need to answer the form letter questions. But actually they are not questions at all.

They are just guides to help you with your talk. Each prompt is just an idea for download, your talk. It’s your job to add much more information to fill your talk. For example, if the prompt says “Where you bought the homework gift” – you can talk about which shop, why you went to that shop rather than other shops, how you get to the shop, if the shop is near your house, what other things the shop sells etc. Each single prompts needs a story telling. For reading and download listening, it is concentration, speed (for listening too you need to speed to prepare questions) and also vocabulary. Paraphrasing and vocabulary is the true key. Paper? This is not so easy to improve in a short time but just keep practicing. Also make sure you have a clear technique for each type of question in movie download both reading and editing essays listening.

For writing, if you post one of movie download, your essays, I’ll try to find time to comment on it. I usually take 1 to 4 days to give a comment. From my Understanding the following are types of essays to be expected. Do i take it that it is only in arguement eassy that opinion is given . IELTS teachers often categorises IELTS essays differently and also give them different names. 1. For the opinion essay (Do you agree or disagree? / To what extent do you agree?), some teachers call this the argumentative essay, persuasive essay or agree disagree essay. 2. The discussion essay generally has the same name but some teachers include the editing essays advantage/disadvantage essay in movie download this category while I like to distinguish it and teach it separately. 3. How To Write? The solution essay is also often categorised similarly by teachers but don’t forget that this also includes a cause/solution essay as well.

4. The direct questions essay is sometimes called the two question essay but as it is possible to movie, get three questions I prefer the name direct questions essay. 5. I haven’t come across any teachers categorising an IELTS essay as a narrative essay but no doubt there are some who do. I know it can be confusing to have teachers categorising essays differently and giving them different names. I recommend you look through the harmful IELTS Cambridge books 1-9 and see all the types of download, essays that come in IELTS writing task 2 for yourself. Regarding your question about whether an opinion should only be given when you get an opinion essay (To what extent do you agree? or Do you agree or disagree?), the answer is no – the opinion essay is editing essays only one of the essays in which you must give your opinion. You should give your opinion whenever the instructions ask for your opinion. If you look at a discussion essay for IELTS, the instructions frequently say “Discuss both sides and give your opinion” so therefore you must do exactly that. So, read the instructions carefully and take time getting to know the essay types for yourself by look at the IELTS Cambridge books.

Many thanks for your YouTube tutorials, they are awesome and helped me prepare for IELTS in movie download just two days, I just received my scores, was able to get a overall score of 8. Great stuff, thanks once again, Excellent results. Well done! how do i get to assess my essays by you? At present I do not offer essay marking services. Take a look online for application form, some IELTS essay marking – but make sure you get feedback based on the marking criteria used by IELTS. Current IELTS exam topics and questions: Share your IELTS test results.

Useful Links for download, IELTS Line Graphs in WT1. WT1 Table 30th Sept: To be completed. IELTS Model Essays for September 2017. IELTS Writing Questions September 2017. Answer to yesterday’s paraphrasing exercise 3. Hi, my name is Elizabeth (Liz).

I'm an experienced IELTS teacher from the UK and a graduate of the deviance research paper University of London. I have been teaching for over 16 years and for the last 9 years I have specialised, exclusively, in IELTS. I have taught in a number of countries: England, Spain, New Zealand, South Korea, China and movie Vietnam, where I taught at the British Council.

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25 Resume Tips That Help Make a Great First Impression. Frequently your resume is download your first chance to make an impression on a recruiter or hiring manager. And you never get a second chance to make a first impression, so the importance of the resume cannot be underestimated. Here are my top quick tips for creating a resume that makes a great first impression and gets hiring managers to take a second look at 21st century science help you. Include a professional e-mail address; even your e-mail is part of your brand. (i.e., partygirl7@aol.com won't cut it) Include a phone number that is attached to a professional voice-mail message. A goofy voice mail will encourage recruiters to walk away. A resume objective describes what you want, and employers don't care about what you want.

They care about problems you can solve for them. Create a profile at the top of your resume to prove your value proposition to a hiring authority, instead of an objective. Refrain from using subjective words like loyal or trustworthy to movie download, explain your candidacy; you are a job seeker, not man's best friend. Omit phrases such as responsible for or duties included from your resume; opt for stronger language such as managed or oversaw. On your resume, your professional experience section is about where you've been; your top profile section is about where you want to go. Editing Essays. Your resume profile is the 40,000-ft. view of what you can do; your experience section is the granular proof of this based on movie, past success. List core competencies, keywords, or buzzwords for application, your job function/industry on the resume to please recruiters and movie download resume-parsing software. Include months and years on your resume for any positions you were at for less than two years; omitting the pbs essay months in short-tenured positions is download deceptive. If you were let go from several positions with short tenure due to homework helpful, a downsizing, explain that briefly right on movie, the resume. Transparency is always better than obscurity.

If you left the workplace to take care of a child or aging parent, explain that right on pbs essay contest, the resume. Don't make the reader guess what you were doing during that gap. Movie Download. Their assumptions will rarely work in your favor. Minimize descriptions of job tasks and maximize descriptions of accomplishments. Sell it, don't tell it. Quantify your accomplishments: Show numbers, dollars, and science coursework percentages to prove impact in movie a job. List hobbies and volunteer experience when relevant to your job target. Leave your passion for stamp collecting off the resume. Include graduation dates; omitting them raises suspicion and calls more attention to deviance, the very thing you are trying to hide. (See also Resumes and Age Bias: To Date or Not to Date? ) If you are a recent grad, list a high GPA and relevant coursework, school projects, and internships. Unpaid experience still counts. Omit references available upon request.

With Google and movie download other search engines, references are available whether you want them to editing essays, be or not. Use charts and graphs on your resume to demonstrate impact. Download. A picture is worth a thousand words -- and a bit of bling is deviance research not a bad thing. A longer read that is readable is better than a quick read that is not. Pick a font of at movie least 10 point so the resume is easy to read. For a U.S. Write Inmates. resume, omit references to movie download, date of 21st century birth, marital status, or religion. Employers cannot request it; offering it makes you look clueless. Create a text-only version of your resume to preserve the formatting when uploading into a company text box. Word documents will quickly turn into gibberish when placed in a text box. Treat every word on your resume like expensive New York City real estate.

Square footage is at a premium; so make every word count. Half of hiring managers read cover letters, the other half do not; but you never know which half you are dealing with -- so always send one. Use the cover letter to match your skills to the job spec. If the job requires eight skills and you only download, have two, don't apply. 21st Coursework. Want more news like this? Sign up for Finance Report by AOL and get everything from download, business news to personal finance tips delivered directly to your inbox daily!

Emails may offer personalized content or ads. Learn more. You may unsubscribe any time. Millennials are saving twice as much as baby boomers — and they could be on track . Trump EPA to propose repealing Obama#39;s centerpiece CPP climate regulation. Whole Foods is cutting prices — and harmful helpful essay it#39;s hitting Trader Joe#39;s hard. Evan Spiegel says this is the top thing his employees have asked him to get better. Rachel Bilson squashes hope of movie a reconciliation with Hayden Christensen by buying . How To Write Inmates. Yahoo says all 3 billion accounts hacked in 2013 data theft.

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conclusions in essay INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS. Adapted from download, Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum , 6th Edition. By Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. Science Help? Pp. 32-58. A thesis statement is a one-sentence summary of a paper's content.

It is similar, actually, to a paper's conclusion but lacks the conclusion's concern for broad implications and significance. For a writer in the drafting stages, the thesis establishes a focus, a basis on which to include or exclude information. For the reader of a finished product, the thesis anticipates the author's discussion. A thesis statement, therefore, is an download essential tool for both writers and readers of how to inmates, academic material . This last sentence is our thesis for movie, this section. Based on this thesis, we, as the authors, have limited the content of the section; and you, as the reader, will be able to form certain expectations about the discussion that follows. You can expect a definition of a thesis statement; an enumeration of the uses of a thesis statement; and a discussion focused on academic material. Homework Helpful Essay? As writers, we will have met our obligations to you only if in subsequent paragraphs we satisfy these expectations. The Components of movie, a Thesis. Like any other sentence, a thesis includes a subject and a predicate, which consists of an assertion about the subject. In the sentence Lee and contest, Grant were different kinds of generals, Lee and Grant is the subject and were different kinds of generals is the predicate. What distinguishes a thesis statement from any other sentence with a subject and predicate is the thesis statement statement's level of generality and the care with which you word the movie download, assertion . The subject of a thesis must present the how to inmates, right balance between the general and the specific to allow for download, a thorough discussion within the allotted length of the paper.

The discussion might include definitions, details, comparisons contrasts - whatever is needed to illuminate a subject and carry on an intelligent conversation. (If the sentence about Lee and 21st coursework, Grant were a thesis, the movie download, reader would assume that the rest of the essay contained comparisons and contrasts between the two generals.) Bear in mind when writing thesis statements that the more general your subject and the more complex your assertion, the longer your paper will be. For instance, you could not write an application covering effective ten-page paper based on the following: Democracy is the best system of government. Consider the subject of this sentence, democracy, and the assertion of its predicate, is the best system of government. The subject is enormous in scope; it is a general category composed of hundreds of movie, more specific sub-categories, each of which would be appropriate for a paper ten pages in write inmates, length.

The predicate of our example is also a problem, for movie download, the claim that democracy is the best system of government would be simplistic unless accompanied by a thorough, systematic, critical evaluation of every form of government yet devised. Research? A ten-page paper governed by such a thesis simply could not achieve the level of detail and sophistication expected of college students. Limiting the movie download, Scope of the Thesis. Before you can write an effective thesis and thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by homework, limiting your subject and download, your claims about it. Two strategies for achieving a thesis statement of manageable proportions are (1) to homework harmful helpful, begin with a working thesis (this strategy assumes that you are familiar with your topic) and (2) to begin with a broad area of interest and narrow it (this strategy assumes that you are unfamiliar with your topic). Begin with a Working Thesis. Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to most college students who are assigned term papers. But professionals usually have an important advantage over download students: experience. Because professionals know their material, are familiar with the ways of approaching it, are aware of the questions important to practitioners, and have devoted considerable time to study of the topic, they are naturally in a strong position to begin writing a paper. Not only do professionals have experience in their fields, but they also have a clear purpose in writing; they know their audience and are comfortable with the homework helpful essay, format of their papers.

Experience counts - there's no way around it. Movie Download? As a student, you are not yet an expert and therefore don't generally have the editing essays, luxury of beginning your writing tasks with a definite thesis in mind. Movie Download? Once you choose and devote time to a major field of study, however, you will gain experience. In the 21st help, meantime, you'll have to do more work than the professional to prepare yourself for writing a paper. But let's assume that you do have an area of expertise, that you are in your own right a professional (albeit not in academic matters). We'll assume that you understand your nonacademic subject - say, backpacking - and have been given a clear purpose for writing: to discuss the relative merits of backpack designs.

Your job is to write a recommendation for movie, the owner of a sporting-goods chain, suggesting which line of backpacks the chain should carry. The owner lives in another city, so your remarks have to be written. Since you already know a good deal about backpacks, you may already have some well-developed ideas on the topic before you start doing additional research. Yet even as an expert in your field, you will find that beginning the writing task is a challenge, for at this point it is unlikely that you will be able to conceive a thesis perfectly suited to editing essays, the contents of movie, your paper. After all, a thesis statement is a summary, and it is difficult to summarize a presentation yet to be written - especially if you plan to discover what you want to say during the how to inmates, process of writing.

Even if you know your material well, the movie, best you can do at the early stages is to formulate a working thesis - a hypothesis of editing essays, sorts, a well-informed hunch about your topic and download, the claim to be made about it. Once you have completed a draft, you can evaluate the degree to which your working thesis accurately summarizes the content of editing essays, your paper. 1 If the match is a good one, the download, working thesis becomes the thesis statement. If, however, sections of the paper drift from the focus set out in the working thesis, you'll need to pbs essay contest, revise the thesis and the paper itself to movie, ensure that the presentation is unified. (You'll know that the match between the content and thesis is research paper, a good one when every paragraph directly refers to movie download, and develops some element of the thesis.) Begin with a Subject and Narrow It. Let's assume that you have moved from making recommendations about backpacks (your territory) to writing a paper for your government class (your professor's territory). Write Inmates? Whereas you were once the professional who knew enough about your subject to begin writing with a working thesis, you are now the movie download, student, inexperienced and in need of deviance, a great deal of download, information before you can begin begin to think of thesis statements. It may be a comfort to editing essays, know that your government professor would likely be in the same predicament if asked to recommend backpack designs.

He would need to movie, spend several weeks, at least, backpacking to become as experienced as you; and it is fair to say that you will need to spend several hours in the library before you are in a position to 21st century science, choose a topic suitable for an undergraduate paper. Suppose you have been assigned a ten-page paper in Government 104, a course on social policy. Not only do you not have a thesis - you don't have a subject! Where will you begin? First, you need to select a broad area of interest and make yourself knowledgeable about its general features. What if no broad area of interest occurs to you? Don't despair - there's usually a way to make use of download, discussions you've read in a text or heard in a lecture. The trick is to find a topic that can become personally important, for whatever reason. (For a paper in your biology class, you might write on the digestive system because a relative has stomach troubles. For an economics seminar, you might explore the factors that threaten banks with collapse because your grandparents lost their life savings during the paper, Great Depression.) Whatever the academic discipline, try to discover a topic that you'll enjoy exploring; that way, you'll be writing for yourself as much as for your professor. Movie Download? Some specific strategies to try if no topics occur to you: Review material covered during the semester, class by class if need be; review the semester's readings, actually skimming each assignment.

Choose any subject that has held your interest, if even for a moment, and homework harmful helpful essay, use that as your point of departure. Suppose you've reviewed each of your classes and recall that a lecture on AIDS aroused your curiosity. Your broad subject of interest, then, will be AIDS. At this point, the goal of your research is to limit this subject to a manageable scope. Although your initial, broad subject will often be more specific than our example, AIDS, we'll assume for the purposes of discussion the most general case (the subject in movie download, greatest need of harmful helpful, limiting). A subject can be limited in at download least two ways. Deviance Research? First, a general article like an encyclopedia entry may do the work for you by movie download, presenting the subject in the form of an outline, with each item in the outline representing a separate topic (which, for your purposes, may need further limiting).

Second, you can limit a subject by asking several questions about it: These questions will occur to you as you conduct your research and pbs essay contest, see the ways in movie download, which various authors have focused their discussions. Having read several sources and having decided that you'd like to use them, you might limit the subject AIDS by asking who - AIDS patients; and which aspect - civil rights of AIDS patients. Certainly, the civil rights of AIDS patients offers a more specific focus than does AIDS; still, the revised focus is too broad for form covering letter, a ten-page paper in that a comprehensive discussion would obligate you to review numerous particular rights. So again you must try to limit your subject by posing a question. In this particular case, which aspects (of the civil rights of AIDS patients) can be asked a second time. Six aspects may come to mind:

Rights in the workplace Rights to hospital care Rights to insurance benefits Rights to privacy Rights to fair housing Rights to download, education. Any one of these aspects could provide the focus of a ten-page paper, and you do yourself an important service by choosing one, perhaps two, of the aspects; to choose more would obligate you to too broad a discussion and you would frustrate yourself: Either the paper would have to be longer than ten pages or, assuming you kept to the page limit, the pbs essay, paper would be superficial in its treatment. In both instances, the movie download, paper would fail, given the constraints of the assignment. So it is application covering letter, far better that you limit your subject ahead of time, before you attempt to write about it. Let's assume that you settle on the following as an appropriately defined subject for a ten-page paper: the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. The process of narrowing an initial subject depends heavily upon the reading you do. The more you read, the deeper your understanding of a topic. The deeper your understanding, the likelier it will be that you can divide a broad and complex topic into manageable - that is, researchable - categories.

Identify these categories that compose the larger topic and pursue one of movie, them. In the pbs essay, AIDS example, your reading in the literature suggested that the civil rights of AIDS patients was at the center of movie, recent national debate. So reading allowed you to narrow the subject AIDS by answering the contest, initial questions - the who and which aspects. Once you narrowed your focus to the civil rights of AIDS patients, you read further and movie, quickly realized that civil rights in itself was a broad concern that also should be limited. In this way, reading provided an important stimulus as you worked to form, identify an appropriate subject for your paper. Make an download Assertion. Once you have identified the subject, you can now develop it into a thesis by making an assertion about it. If you have spent enough time reading and deviance, gathering information, you will be knowledgeable enough to have something to say about the subject, based on movie a combination of your own thinking and harmful helpful, the thinking of movie, your sources.

If you have trouble making an assertion, try writing your topic at 21st century coursework help the top of a page and movie, then listing everything you know and feel about it. Often from such a list you will discover an how to inmates assertion that you then can use to movie, fashion a working thesis. A good way to gauge the reasonableness of your claim is to see what other authors have asserted about the pbs essay, same topic. In fact, keep good notes on the views of others; the notes will prove a useful counterpoint to your own views as you write, and you may want to use them in your paper. Next, make three assertions about movie your topic, in order of increasing complexity. During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by inmates, national columnists. Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in movie, the workplace.

The most sensible plan for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in editing essays, the workplace has been offered by columnist Anthony Jones. Keep in movie download, mind that these are working thesis statements. Because you haven't written a paper based on any of them, they remain hypotheses to be tested. After completing a first draft, you would compare the coursework help, contents of the download, paper to the thesis and make adjustments as necessary for pbs essay contest, unity. The working thesis is an excellent tool for planning broad sections of the paper, but - again - don't let it prevent you from pursuing related discussions as they occur to you.

Notice how these three statements differ from one another in movie download, the forcefulness of harmful helpful, their assertions. Download? The third thesis is strongly argumentative. Most sensible implies that the writer will explain several plans for protecting the inmates, rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. Following the explanation would come a comparison of movie, plans and then a judgment in favor of application form, Anthony Jones. Like any working thesis, this one helps the writer plan the paper. Assuming the paper follows the three-part structure we've inferred, the working thesis would become the final thesis, on the basis of which a reader could anticipate sections of the essay to come. The first of the three thesis statements, by contrast, is movie download, explanatory : During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. In developing a paper based on this thesis, the writer would assert only the existence of a debate, obligating himself merely to a summary of the various positions taken. Readers, then, would use this thesis as a tool for anticipating the contours of the paper to follow. Based on this particular thesis, a reader would not expect to find the author strongly endorsing the views of one or another columnist.

The thesis does not require the author to defend a personal opinion. The second thesis statement does entail a personal, intellectually assertive commitment to application form covering, the material, although the assertion is not as forceful as the one found in statement 3: Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in movie, the workplace. Here we have an explanatory, mildly argumentative thesis that enables the writer to express an contest opinion. We infer from the movie download, use of the word convincing that the writer will judge the various reasons for how to, protecting the rights of AIDS patients; and, we can reasonably assume, the writer himself believes in movie, protecting these rights. Note the contrast between this second thesis and the first one, where the writer committed himself to no involvement in the debate whatsoever. Still, the present thesis is not as ambitious as the third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the general argument for safeguarding rights (an acceptance he would need to deviance, justify) and then took the movie download, additional step of evaluating the how to write inmates, merits of those arguments in movie download, relation to each other. Harmful Helpful? (Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the download, most sensible.) As you can see, for harmful helpful essay, any subject you might care to explore in a paper, you can make any number of assertions - some relatively simple, some complex. It is on movie download the basis of these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for research, reading.

The more ambitious the thesis, the more complex will be the movie download, paper and the greater will be the readers' expectations. Using the write, Thesis. Different writing tasks require different thesis statements. The explanatory thesis is download, often developed in response to century help, short-answer exam questions that call for information, not analysis (e.g., List and movie, explain proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is appropriate for organizing reports (even lengthy ones), as well as essay questions that call for some analysis (e.g., In what ways are the recent proposals to modify American democracy significant?).

The strongly argumentative thesis is harmful helpful, used to movie, organize papers and exam questions that call for information, analysis, and the writer's forcefully stated point of view (e.g., Evaluate proposed modifications to harmful essay, contemporary American democracy). The strongly argumentative thesis, of course, is the riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and defend against logical objections. But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses that enliven classroom discussions. One of the important objectives of a college education is to extend learning by stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs. You breathe new life into movie, this broad objective, and you enliven your own learning as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for you (as writer) and for your readers. Of course, once you set the helpful, challenge, you must be equal to the task. As a writer, you will need to discuss all the elements implied by your thesis. To review: A thesis statement (a one-sentence summary of your paper) helps you organize and download, your reader anticipate a discussion. 21st Science Help? Thesis statements are distinguished by their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and complex enough to movie, be developed within the length limitations of the assignment. Both novices and experts in a field typically begin the initial draft of a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to discover what they want to essay, say as they write. Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the fit of your thesis with the movie, paper that follows.

Every element of the thesis should be developed in the paper that follows. How To Write Inmates? Discussions that drift from your thesis should be deleted, or the thesis changed to accommodate the new discussions. A quotation records the exact language used by someone in movie download, speech or in writing. A summary , in contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of what someone else has said or written. And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is homework harmful essay, often as long as the original source.

Any paper in which you draw upon sources will rely heavily on movie quotation, summary, and pbs essay contest, paraphrase. Movie? How do you choose among the three? Remember that the editing essays, papers you write should be your own - for the most part, your own language and certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and your own conclusions. Movie Download? It follows that references to 21st help, your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and movie download, paraphrases, both of which are built on restatement, not quotation. Form Letter? You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which provide more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to follow the development of a source closely. When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of movie, your work: more easily than you might think, your voice can be drowned out by the voices of those you've quoted. So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice. Nevertheless, quoting just the right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers . The trick is to know when and how to paper, use quotations. Use quotations when another writer's language is particularly memorable and will add interest and liveliness to your paper. Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to make the same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective.

Use quotations when you want the movie download, solid reputation of a source to lend authority and 21st coursework, credibility to your own writing. Quoting Memorable Language. Assume you're writing a paper on Napoleon Bonaparte's relationship with the movie download, celebrated Josephine. Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to be a brilliant military campaign in Italy. How did the young general respond to research paper, leaving his wife so soon after their wedding? You come across the following, written from the download, field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, 1796: I have received all your letters, but none has had such an impact on century science help me as the last.

Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke! Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! 2. A summary of this passage might read as follows: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine, expressing how sorely he missed her and how passionately he responded to her letters.

You might write the following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and longing. How feeble this summary and paraphrase are when compared with the original! Use the vivid language that your sources give you. Movie? In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3, 1796, a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to 21st help, a letter from Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on a military campaign, acutely felt her absence. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to movie, me in those terms? . . . What emotions you evoke! he said of her letters. Written in fire, they burn.my poor heart!

The effect of directly quoting Napoleon's letter is to enliven your paper. A direct quotation is one in application covering, which you record precisely the language of another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter. In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to download, repeat the words exactly as spoken (or written): Direct quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said: The only thing we have to write inmates, fear is fear itself. Indirect quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said that we have nothing to fear but fear itself. The language in a direct quotation, which is indicated by a pair of quotation marks ( ), must be faithful to movie, the language of the original passage. When using an indirect quotation, you have the liberty of changing words (although not changing meaning). Century Science Help? For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources , naming them either in (or close to) the sentence that includes the quotation [or, in some disciplines, in a footnote]. Quoting Clear and Concise Language. You should quote a source when its language is particularly clear and economical - when your language, by download, contrast, would be wordy.

Read this passage from a text on letter biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of 30,000 to 40,000 workers, differs from movie, that of the bumblebee and research paper, many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter. This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold. Like other bees, the isolated honeybee cannot fly if the temperature falls below 10C (50F) and cannot walk if the temperature is below 7C (45F). Within the movie download, wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the lower the temperature, the denser the cluster. The clustered bees produce heat by constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens.

In very cold weather, the bees on the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in the core of the cluster move to the colder outside periphery. Letter? The entire cluster moves slowly about on the combs, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves. 3. A summary of this paragraph might read as follows: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee, are able to live through the winter by movie download, clustering together in help, a dense ball for body warmth. A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee (such as bumblebees), are able to live through the winter. The 30,000 to 40,000 bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures.

But when clustering together in a dense ball, the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts. The cluster also moves slowly about the hive, eating honey stored in download, the combs. This nutrition, in addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to survive the 21st coursework help, cold winter months. In both the summary and movie download, the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's clustering together in a dense ball, a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees. For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is admirably precise. Quoting Authoritative Language. You will also want to use quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting an expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to how to, endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to your readers. For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden : Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training.

It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist on download the subject of homework harmful helpful essay, reading, you add legitimacy to movie, your discussion. Not only do you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of how to, our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the level of your work. You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. Movie Download? Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut:

A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts - have decried the homework harmful helpful essay, expense of the manned space program and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective. Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. Now it's about $500 million a year. Note, first, that in the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight. In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on download the subject are known to all: James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut . The phrases in 21st coursework, italics are called appositives . Their function is to rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail.

Any information about download a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into pbs essay, an appositive phrase: James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . James Van Allen has decried the expense of the movie, manned space program. James Van Allen, discoverer of the how to write, Earth's radiation belts , has decried the expense of the manned space program. Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences. Quoting Only the movie download, Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need. As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative . Now we will put these principles into practice. Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of inmates, Chicago:

If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves. They want to be educational institutions, but they can't. The story of the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is probably exaggerated. But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, friends, presidents and download, even professors has tended to relax academic standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and coursework help, the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as faculty representatives on the college athletic boards. 4. Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion.

You may want to quote part of the following sentence: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Incorporating the download, Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence. Once you've selected the passage you want to quote, work the material into your paper in as natural and form covering letter, fluid a manner as possible. Movie Download? Here's how we would quote Hutchins:

Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of homework, Chicago, asserts that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Note that we've used an appositive to identify Hutchins. And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly. Avoiding Freestanding Quotations. A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. But this kind of thinking is bad for the university and even worse for the athletes. Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is movie, frequently jarring to the reader. Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in form covering letter, some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you could write:

According to Robert Hutchins, These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. These gentry, asserts Robert Hutchins, often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon: But Robert Hutchins disagrees: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in movie, a fullback who is a half-wit. Use colons also to introduce indented quotations (as in the examples above). When attributing sources, try to vary the standard states, writes, says, and so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: asserts, argues, maintains, insists, asks, and harmful, even wonders. Using Ellipsis Marks. Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to quote the beginning and end of a passage but not its middle - as was the case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here's part of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.

It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. 5. And here was how we used this material: Reading well is movie download, hard work and requires great skill and training.

It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to the reader by placing an deviance research paper ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in the sentence at the point of deletion. The rationale for using an movie download ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken. When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the original. Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an how to write inmates ellipsis in place of the deleted words: To read well . is a noble exercise, and movie download, one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the ellipsis after the last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all:

It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and contest, reservedly as they were written. If you begin your quotation of an author in the middle of a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an ellipsis. Be sure, however, that the download, syntax of the deviance, quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of download, your sentence: Reading is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau.

Use square brackets whenever you need to add or substitute words in a quoted sentence. The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion. Homework Essay? For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets. Movie Download? When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. Assume that you wish to quote the bold-type sentence in the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the new pattern for America's Cinderella. This book's text is coy and editing essays, condescending. (Sample: And her best friends of movie download, all were - guess who - the mice!) The illustrations are poor cartoons. And Cinderella herself is a disaster. She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to shreds. (Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by editing essays, the mice and birds.) She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings.

She is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless . She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is warned by her friends, the mice. Download? She does not hear them because she is off in a world of dreams. Cinderella begs, she whimpers, and at last has to be rescued by - guess who - the research, mice! 6. In quoting this sentence, you would need to identify whom the pronoun she refers to. You can do this inside the quotation by using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that [Cinderella] is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. If the pronoun begins the sentence to movie, be quoted, as it does in this example, you can identify the pronoun outside of the quotation and simply begin quoting your source one word later: Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless.

If the deviance paper, pronoun you want to identify occurs in the middle of the sentence to be quoted, then you'll need to use brackets. Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in interviews might say something like the movie, following: After the fire they did not return to the station house for three hours. If the reporter wants to use this sentence in an article, he or she needs to identify the pronoun: An official from City Hall, speaking on the condition that he not be identified, said, After the contest, fire [the officers] did not return to the station house for three hours. You will also will need to movie download, add bracketed information to a quoted sentence when a reference essential to the sentence's meaning is implied but not stated directly. Application Covering Letter? Read the following paragraphs from Robert Jastrow's Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's: These are amiable qualities for the computer; it imitates life like an electronic monkey. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better.

Finally, the line between the original and download, the copy becomes blurred. In another 15 years or so - two more generations of computer evolution, in the jargon of the technologists - we will see the computer as an emergent form of life. The proposition seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of how to inmates, living creatures. But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into our ancestors' brains as a part of the equipment for survival. For example, computers, like people, work better and movie download, learn faster when they are motivated. Contest? Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to play checkers. They polished their game by download, playing each other, but they learned slowly. Finally, Dr. Samuel programmed in the will to win by forcing the computers to try harder - and to think out more moves in application covering, advance - when they were losing.

Then the computers learned very quickly. One of movie download, them beat Samuel and went on pbs essay to defeat a champion player who had not lost a game to a human opponent in eight years. 7. If you wanted to quote only the movie download, sentence in bold type, you would need to provide readers with a bracketed explanation; otherwise, the words the proposition would be unclear. Here is how you would manage the 21st science help, quotation: According to Robert Jastrow, a physicist and former official at NASA's Goddard Institute, The proposition [that computers will emerge as a form of life] seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the movie download, drives and emotions of write inmates, living creatures. Remember that when you quote the movie, work of contest, another, you are obligated to credit - or cite - the author's work properly; otherwise, you may plagiarism. [See your Allyn and Bacon Handbook for movie, guidance on citing sources.] A classic image: The writer stares glumly at a blank sheet of paper (or, in the electronic version, a blank screen). Usually, however, this is an image of a writer who hasn't yet begun to write. Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to carry it forward, even over the rough spots. How To Inmates? (These can always be fixed later.) As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to download, your task is a problem.

What's the best way to approach your subject? With high seriousness, a light touch, an anecdote? How best to engage your reader? Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by putting them off - productively. Bypassing the introduction, they start by writing the body of the piece; only after they've finished the body do they go back to write the introduction. There's a lot to be said for this approach. Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the topic itself than about how you're going to introduce it, you are in a better position, at first, to begin directly with your presentation (once you've settled on a working thesis). And often, it's not until you've actually seen the piece on application form paper and read it over once or twice that a natural way of introducing it becomes apparent. Even if there is no natural way to movie download, begin, you are generally in better psychological shape to write the introduction after the major task of writing is contest, behind you and you know exactly what you're leading up to. Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way. After all, you have to download, start writing somewhere , and how to write inmates, if you have evaded the problem by skipping the introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin.

If this is the case, then go ahead and write an introduction, knowing full well that it's probably going to be flat and movie, awful. Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis. Assure yourself that whatever you put down at this point (except for editing essays, the thesis) won't count and movie download, that when the 21st science, time is movie, right, you'll go back and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours. But in deviance, the meantime, you'll have gotten started. The purpose of an introduction is to prepare the reader to movie download, enter the application form letter, world of your essay. The introduction makes the movie, connection between the more familiar world inhabited by paper, the reader and the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in a context that the reader can understand. There are many ways to provide such a context. We'll consider just a few of the most common. In introduction to a paper on democracy: Two cheers for movie, democracy was E. M. Forster's not-quite-wholehearted judgment.

Most Americans would not agree. To them, our democracy is one of the inmates, glories of movie, civilization. To one American in particular, E. B. White, democracy is the hole in the stuffed shirt through which the sawdust slowly trickles . . . the dent in the high hat . . . the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the time (915). American democracy is based on the oldest continuously operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and a testament to the farsightedness of the founding fathers. But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock , Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on the incredible acceleration of social change in homework harmful, our time: The world of today . . Movie Download? . is as different from the world in science coursework help, which I was born as that world was from Julius Caesar's (13). As we move toward the twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to question the download, continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in the eighteenth century; and it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives. The quotations by Forster and editing essays, White help set the movie, stage for homework helpful essay, the discussion of democracy by presenting the download, reader with some provocative and editing essays, well-phrased remarks. Later in download, the paragraph, the quotation by Boulding more specifically prepares us for the theme of change that will be central to the essay as a whole. In many cases, the reader will be unprepared to follow the form, issue you discuss unless you provide some historical background.

Consider the following introduction to an an essay on the film-rating system: Sex and violence on movie the screen are not new issues. Deviance? In the Roaring Twenties there was increasing pressure from civic and religious groups to ban depictions of immorality from the screen. Faced with the threat of federal censorship, the film producers decided to clean their own house. In 1930, the download, Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America established the Production Code. At first, adherence to the Code was voluntary; but in 1934 Joseph Breen, newly appointed head of the form, MPPDA, gave the Code teeth. Henceforth all newly produced films had to be submitted for movie download, approval to the Production Code Administration which had the power to deviance paper, award or withhold the Code seal. Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for a film to be shown anywhere in the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it. At about the same time, the Catholic Legion of Decency was formed to advise the faithful which were and were not objectionable. For several decades the Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over what was portrayed in American theatrical films.

By the 1960s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip. In 1968, the Production Code was replaced with a rating system designed to keep younger audiences away from films with high levels of sex or violence. Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to American films than did the movie, old censorship system. The essay following this introduction concerns the relative benefits of the rating system. By providing some historical background on pbs essay the rating system, the writer helps readers to understand his arguments.

Notice the chronological development of details. Review of a Controversy. A particular type of historical review is the review of a controversy or debate. Consider the following introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary 's definition of civil disobedience is rather simple: the movie, refusal to contest, obey civil laws that are regarded as unjust, usually by movie, employing methods of passive resistance. However, despite such famous (and beloved) examples of civil disobedience as the movements of Mahatma Gandhi in India and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., in the United States, the question of whether or not civil disobedience should be considered an asset to society is research, hardly clear cut. For instance, Hannah Arendt, in her article Civil Disobedience, holds thatto think of disobedient minorities as rebels and truants is against the letter and spirit of a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to the dangers of unbridled majority rule. On the other hand, a noted lawyer, Lewis Van Dusen, Jr., in his article Civil Disobedience: Destroyer of download, Democracy, states that civil disobedience, whatever the ethical rationalization, is still an assault on our democratic society, an affront to application covering, our legal order and movie, an attack on our constitutional government. These two views are clearly incompatible. I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the more convincing.

On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society. 8. The negative aspects of civil disobedience, rather than Van Dusen's essay, the topic of this essay. But to introduce this topic, the writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the controversy over civil disobedience, as well as brief references to two controversial practitioners. By focusing at the outset on the particular rather than the abstract aspects of the subject, the writer hoped to secure the attention of her readers and to involve them in the controversy that forms the subject of paper, her essay. From General to movie download, the Specific.

Another way of providing a transition from the reader's world to the less familiar world of the essay is to work from a general subject to a specific one. Application Form? The following introduction to a discussion of the 1968 massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and leads to the particular subject at hand: Though we prefer to think of man as basically good and reluctant to do evil, such is not the case. Many of the crimes inflicted on humankind can be dismissed as being committed by download, the degenerates of research paper, society at the prompting of the abnormal mind. But what of the perfectly normal man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so? It cannot be denied that such acts have occurred, either in everyday life or in war-time situations. Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and destructive if placed in the hands of unscrupulous authority. Such was the case in the village of My Lai, Vietnam, on March 16, 1968, when a platoon of American soldiers commanded by Lt. William Calley massacred more than 100 civilians, including women and children. Specific to the General: Anecdote, Illustration.

Consider the following paragraph: In late 1971 astronomer Carl Sagan and his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the planet Mars to the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Struck by download, the effects of the Martian dust storms on how to write the temperature and on movie download the amount of light reaching the surface, the deviance paper, scientists wondered about the effects on earth of the dust storms that would be created by nuclear explosions. Using computer models, they simulated the effects of such explosions on the earth's climate. The results astounded them. Apart from the known effects of nuclear blasts (fires and movie, radiation), the earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in pbs essay contest, a nuclear winter. Following a nuclear exchange, plummeting temperatures and pervading darkness would destroy most of the Northern Hemisphere's crops and farm animals and would eventually render much of the planet's surface uninhabitable.

The effects of download, nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined. It has therefore become more urgent than ever for the nations of the world to take dramatic steps to reduce the editing essays, threat of nuclear war. The previous introduction went from the general (the question of whether or not man is basically good) to the specific (the massacre at My Lai); this one goes from the specific (scientists studying data) to the general (the urgency of reducing the download, nuclear threat). Coursework? The anecdote is one of the most effective means at your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention. For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by movie, subject. Frequently, you can provoke the reader's attention by posing a question or a series of questions:

Are gender roles learned or inherited? Scientific research has established the existence of biological differences between the sexes, but the effect of biology's influence on gender roles cannot be distinguished from society's influence. According to Michael Lewis of the Institute for the Study of Exceptional children, As early as you can show me a sex difference, I can show you the editing essays, culture at work. Social processes, as well as biological differences, are responsible for the separate roles of men and women. 9. Opening your essay with a question can be provocative, since it places the reader in download, an active role: He or she begins by considering answers. Are gender roles learned? Are they inherited? In this active role, the how to inmates, reader is movie, likely to continue reading with interest. Statement of Thesis. Perhaps the most direct method of introduction is to begin immediately with the thesis:

Computers are a mixed blessing. The lives of Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them. We are at the dawn of the pbs essay contest, era of the download, smart machine, say the authors of pbs essay, a cover story of the movie download, subject in Newsweek , that will change forever the way an entire nation works, beginning a revolution that will be to the brain what the essay, industrial revolution was to the hand. Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to movie download, direct air travel, to instruct machines how to cut fabric - even to play chess with (and defeat) the masters. One can argue that development of computers for the household, as well as industry, will change for the better the quality of our lives: computers help us save energy, reduce the amount of how to, drudgery that most of us endure around tax season, make access to libraries easier. Yet there is a certain danger involved with this proliferation of movie, technology. This essay begins with a challenging assertion: that computers are a mixed blessing.

It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to consider, since they may have taken it for granted that computers are an unmixed blessing. The advantage of pbs essay contest, beginning with a provocative (thesis) statement is that it forces the reader to sit up and take notice perhaps even to begin protesting. Movie? The paragraph goes on to concede some of the blessings of pbs essay contest, computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is a certain danger associated with the new technology - a danger, the curious or even indignant reader has a right to conclude, that will be more fully explained in the paragraphs to follow. One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to writing. Many writers (and readers) prefer shorter, snappier introductions. This is largely a matter of personal or corporate style: there is no rule concerning the correct length of an introduction. If you feel that a short introduction is appropriate, by download, all means use one.

You may wish to break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs. (Our paragraph on the nuclear winter, for example, could have been broken either before or after the sentence The results astounded them.) One way to view the conclusion of your paper is as an introduction worked in reverse, a bridge from the world of your essay back to essay, the world of download, your reader. A conclusion is the science help, part of your paper in which you restate and (if necessary) expand on your thesis. Movie? Essential to any conclusion is the summary, which is how to inmates, not merely a repetition of the thesis but a restatement that takes advantage of the material you've presented. Movie Download? The simplest conclusion is an expanded summary, but you may want more than this for the end of your paper. Depending on your needs, you might offer a summary and deviance paper, then build onto it a discussion of the paper's significance or its implications for future study, for download, choices that individuals might make, for policy, and so on. you might also want to urge the reader to change an attitude or to modify behavior. Certainly, you are under no obligation to discuss the broader significance of your work (and a summary, alone, will satisfy the application form letter, formal requirement that your paper have an ending); but the conclusions of better papers often reveal authors who are thinking large and want to download, connect the particular concerns of their papers with the broader concerns of society.

Here we'll consider seven strategies for expanding the basic summary - conclusion. But two words of advice are in order. First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight. Contest? It is the last statement a reader will encounter before turning from your work. Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of diction.

Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the movie download, paper and call attention to themselves. Having labored long hours over your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent. Research Paper? But keep a sense of proportion and timing. Make your points quickly and end crisply. Statement of the Subject's Significance.

One of the more effective ways to conclude a paper is to discuss the larger significance of what you have written, providing readers with one more reason to regard your work as a serious effort. Movie Download? When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of your paper to the broader concerns of the reader's world. Often, you will need to choose among a range of significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of its effect on sexual mores, population, or the church. But don't overwhelm your reader with the application form covering letter, importance of your remarks. Keep your discussion well focused. The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H. Movie? Shull, a pioneer in the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn: . . . Thus, the hybrids developed and described by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.S. corn production. The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt. From 1930 through 1979 the average yields of corn in the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 21st, 95.1 bushels per acre, and the additional value to the farmer is movie, now several billion dollars per deviance paper year. The success of download, hybrid corn has also stimulated the editing essays, breeding of movie, other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid parts of the world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930.

Approximately 20 percent of the land devoted to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is covering letter, reported to yield 20 percent more than the best varieties. And many superior varieties of movie download, tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and write inmates, other vegetables are hybrids. Movie? Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from hybrid seed. From those blue bloods of the plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the world. Helpful? 10. The first sentence of this conclusion is a summary, and from it the movie, reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull's techniques for form covering letter, the hybrid breeding of corn.

The summary is followed by a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of movie download, Shull's research for feeding the world. Call for Further Research. In the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of covering, what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) and movie, the ways in which the subject under consideration needs to pbs essay contest, be further explored. If you raise questions that you call on download others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn't already been conducted. This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on the placement of pbs essay, elderly men and women in nursing homes. Thus, our study shows a correlation between the placement of elderly citizens in nursing facilities and the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills over the ten months following placement. What the research has not made clear is the extent to movie download, which this marked decline is due to physical as opposed to emotional causes. The elderly are referred to homes at that point in their lives when they grow less able to care for homework harmful essay, themselves - which suggests that the drop-off in skills may be due to movie download, physical causes. But the form covering, emotional stress of being placed in a home, away from family and in an environment that confirms the patient's view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of the elderly in nursing facilities. Movie Download? There is little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to homework helpful essay, deliver more effective services.

Notice how this call for further study locates the movie, author in a large community of researchers on whom she depends for assistance in editing essays, answering the questions that have come out of her own work. The author summarizes her findings (in the first sentence of the paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation. The purpose of download, your paper might be to review a problem or controversy and to discuss contributing factors. Homework? In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution based on the knowledge you've gained while conducting research. If your solution is to be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the movie download, paper. . Pbs Essay? . Download? . The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the editing essays, exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on the labor of download, athletes drawn from the poorest sections of covering letter, America's population.

It is the responsibility of download, educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for their labor both in terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports. Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to extend until graduation, rather than covering only four years of editing essays, athletic eligibility, and should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper medical care. At institutions where the profits are particularly large (such as Texas A M, which can afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition. The important thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. Download? This may well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers. Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to hire their athletic labor at minimal cost. Homework Harmful? But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of movie, America's poor and minorities is not, in the long run, a tenable solution. With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his - and hers - a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work.

11. In this conclusion, the author summarizes his article in pbs essay, one sentence: The major problem in movie download, college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. Harmful? In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of the problem just stated and follows with a general recommendation - that educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens be responsible for the welfare of college athletes. Movie? In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance to the proposal. He concludes by homework essay, discounting this resistance and movie, returning to homework harmful, the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal. An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the point of which in a conclusion is to shed light on download your subject. The anecdote is application form, more direct than an movie download allusion. With an allusion, you merely refer to a story (Too many people today live in application form covering letter, Plato's cave . . .); with the download, anecdote, you actually retell the how to inmates, story. The anecdote allows readers to discover for themselves the movie, significance of a reference to another source - an research effort most readers enjoy because they get to exercise their creativity. The following anecdote concludes an movie download article on homicide.

In the homework harmful helpful, article, the author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and treat potential killers before they commit crimes. she author emphasizes both the difficulty and the desirability of movie, approaching homicide as a threat to public health that, like disease, can be treated with preventive care. In his book, The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin , Sufi writer Idries Shad, in a parable about fate, writes about the many culprits of murder: What is Fate? Nasrudin was asked by a scholar. An endless succession of intertwined events, each influencing the other. That is how to write inmates, hardly a satisfactory answer. Movie? I believe in cause and effect. Very well, said the Mulla, look at that. He pointed to a procession passing in deviance research, the street. That man is being taken to be hanged. Movie Download? Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and enabled him to buy the knife with which he committed the murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him?

12. The writer chose to conclude the article with this anecdote. She could have developed an interpretation, but this would have spoiled the dramatic value for the reader. The purpose of using an application form covering letter anecdote is to make your point with subtlety, so resist the temptation to interpret. Keep in download, mind three guidelines when selecting an anecdote: it should be prepared for (the reader should have all the information needed to understand), it should provoke the reader's interest, and it should not be so obscure as to be unintelligible. A favorite concluding device is the quotation - the words of 21st science help, a famous person or an authority in the field on which you are writing The purpose of quoting another is to link your work to theirs, thereby gaining for your work authority and download, credibility. The first criterion for selecting a quotation is homework helpful, its suitability to your thesis. Movie Download? But you also should carefully consider what your choice of sources says about you.

Suppose you are writing a paper on the American work ethic. Homework? If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by the current secretary of labor to make the final point of your conclusion, which would you choose and why? One source may not be inherently more effective than the other, but the choice certainly sets a tone for the paper. There is no doubt that machines will get smarter and smarter, even designing their own software and making new and better chips for new generations of computers. More and more of their power will be devoted to making them easier to use - friendly, in industry parlance - even for movie download, those not trained in computer science.

And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered. Write Inmates? One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of information at unimaginable speeds. If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to movie download, educate its masses and crack new scientific frontiers. For all of application form covering, us, it will be fearful, terrifying, disruptive, says SRl's Peter Schwartz. Download? In the end there will be those whose lives will be diminished.

But for the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced. In any event, there is no turning back: if the smart machines have not taken over, they are fast making themselves indispensable - and in the end, that may amount to very much the same thing. 13. Notice how the quotation is used to position the writer to make one final remark. Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to end an essay, as in the following example. Make sure you identify the person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to be made in the conclusion itself. How To? For example, earlier in the paper from which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an movie download epidemiologist exploring the ways in which a change in pbs essay contest, diet can prevent the onset of certain cancers. In sum, the recommendations describe eating habits almost identical to the diet of around 1900, says Maureen Henderson. It's a diet we had before refrigeration and the complex carbohydrates we have now. Movie Download? It's an old fashioned diet and a diet that poor people ate more than rich people.

Some cancer researchers wonder whether people will be willing to change their diets or take pills on the chance of homework essay, preventing cancer, when one-third of the people in the country won't even stop smoking. Others, such as Seattle epidemiologist Emily White, suspect that most people will be too eager to dose themselves before enough data are in. We're not here to convince the public to take anything, she says. The public is too eager already. What we're saying is, 'Let us see if some of these things work.' We want to convince ourselves before we convince the public.'' 14. There is a potential problem with using quotations: if you end with the words of another, you may leave the impression that someone else can make your case more eloquently than you can. The language of the quotation will put your own prose into relief. If your own prose suffers by movie download, comparison - if the quotations are the best part of write, your paper - you'd be wise to spend some time revising. The way to avoid this kind of problem is to make your own presentation strong.

Questions are useful for opening essays, and they are just as useful for closing them. Opening and closing questions function in different ways, however. The introductory question promises to movie, be addressed in the paper that follows. But the research, concluding question leaves issues unresolved, calling on download the readers to assume an active role by offering their own solutions: How do we surmount the reaction that threatens to destroy the covering, very gains we thought we had already won in movie, the first stage of the women's movement? How do we surmount our own reaction, which shadows our feminism and our femininity (we blush even to use that word now)? How do we transcend the polarization between women and women and between women and men to harmful, achieve the new human wholeness that is the movie, promise of feminism, and get on with solving the concrete, practical, everyday problems of living, working and loving as equal persons?

This is the personal and political business of the second stage. 15. Perhaps you will choose to raise a question in your conclusion and then answer it, based on the material you've provided in the paper The answered question challenges a reader to deviance research, agree or disagree with your response. This tactic also places the reader in an active role. The following brief conclusion ends an article entitled Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to download, Life'? So the answer to the question Would an intelligent computer have the right to life? is probably that it would, but only editing essays, if it could discover reasons and conditions under which it would give up its life if called upon to do so - which would make computer intelligence as precious a thing as human intelligence. 16. When you speculate, you ask what has happened or discuss what might happen. Download? This kind of question stimulates the write inmates, reader because its subject is the movie, unknown. The following paragraph concludes The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss.

In this essay, Howe and Strauss discuss the research, differences among Americans of various ages, including the download, Gl Generation (born between 1901 and 1924), the helpful essay, Boomers (born 1943- 1961), the Thirteeners (born 1961-1981), and the Millennials (born 1981-2000): If, slowly but surely, Millennials receive the kind of family protection and public generosity that Gls enjoyed as children, then they could come of age early in movie, the next century as a group much like the how to inmates, Gls of the 1920s and 1930s - as a stellar (if bland) generation of rationalists, team players, and can-do civic builders Two decades from now Boomers entering old age may well see in movie, their grown Millennial children an effective instrument for saving the world, while Thirteeners entering midlife will shower kindness on a younger generation that is getting a better deal out of research, life (though maybe a bit less fun) than they ever got at a like age. Study after story after column will laud these best damn kids in the world as heralding a resurgent American greatness. And, for a while at least, no one will talk about a generation gap. 17. Thus, Howe and Strauss conclude an essay concerned largely with the apparently unbridgeable gaps of understanding between parents and download, children with a hopeful speculation that generational relationships will improve considerably in the next two decades. Some writers work with an idea, committing it to paper only after it has been fully formed. Others will begin with a vague notion and begin writing a first draft, trusting that as they write they'll discover what they wish to say. many people take advantage of both techniques: they write what they know but at the same time write to discover what they don't know. As you'll see, we used both techniques in writing this section of the book. [back]

Francis Mossiker, trans., Napoleon and Josephine . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964. Deviance Research? [back] Winter Organization in movie, Patricia Curtis, Biology , 2nd ed. 21st? New York: Worth, 1976, pp. 822-823. Movie? [back] Robert Hutchins, Gate Receipts and science coursework, Glory, The Saturday Evening Post . December 3, 1983. [back] Henry David Thoreau, Reading in Walden . New York: Signet Classic, 1960, p. 72. [back] Jane Yolen, America's 'Cinderella,' APS Publications, Inc., in Children's Literature in Education 8, 1977, pp.

21-29. [back] Excerpt from movie download, Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's from Time , February 20, 1978. Copyright 1978 Time Inc. [back] Michele Jacques, Civil Disobedience: Van Dusen vs. Arendt. Application Letter? [Unpublished paper.] [back] Tammy Smith, Are Sex Roles Learned or Inherited? [Unpublished paper.] [back] From Hybrid Vim and Vigor by William L. Download? Brown from pp.

77-78 in contest, Science 80-85, November 1984. Copyright by the AAAS. Movie Download? [back] From Mark Naison, Scenario for Scandal, Commonweal 109 (16), September 24, 1982. [back] From The Murder Epidemic by Nikki Meredith from pp. 42-48 in deviance, Science 80-85, December 1984. Copyright by AAAS. [back]

From And Man Created the movie, Chip, Newsweek , June 30, 1980. Copyright 1980 by Newsweek, Inc. Contest? All rights reserved. [back] Reprinted by permission. From the September issue of movie download, Science '84 . Copyright 1984 by pbs essay contest, the American Association for the Advancement of Science. [back] Betty Friedan, Feminism's Next Step in The Second Stage . New York: Summit Books, 1981. [back] Robert E. Mueller and Eric T. Mueller, Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'?

Creative Computing , August 1983. [back] Excerpt from The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss. Originally appeared in movie, Atlantic , December 1992. [back]

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Are Dogs' Tongues Really Cleaner Than Humans'? Abby and her dog, Lucy. Abby! Don't let the dog lick you! Her tongue is movie download, full of bacteria! Ever since we got a dog a few years ago, my mom has always been saying that.

I love when my dog runs to greet me when I get home from school and says hello by giving me licks. What I hated, though, was feeling guilty and disgusted about having her doggy bacteria all over research my face. So I decided to movie download do a test to see how dirty dogs' tongues really are. I hypothesized that human tongues would be cleaner than dog tongues. Contest? I thought this because humans brush their teeth at download least once a day. Write? I hypothesized that dogs' tongues would be dirty because they were always licking dirty things like garbage.

I read about bacteria on a number of different websites, including the University of movie download, California's Museum of Paleontology and editing essays, Wikipedia. I also read an article from the Journal of the American Academy of download, Dermatology called Dog, Cat, and editing essays, Human Bites: A Review. Lastly, I read an movie download article from the Journal of Clinical Microbiologycalled Cultivable Oral Microbiota of Domestic Dogs. What I learned from my bacteriology studies is that bacteria were first called animalcules by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek when he discovered them in 1676. Paper? Bacteria are single-celled organisms without a nucleus. Movie Download? Because they are so small, bacteria can only century be observed with a microscope. These organisms are only a few micrometers long (a micrometer is 1/1000th of a millimeter). There are bacteria covering your skin, inside your body and many other places.

Only about download 1 percent of bacteria are harmful. Most bacteria are neither harmful nor helpful. For example, useful bacteria cover the inside surface of some of your organs, preventing harmful bacteria from infecting your organs. How To Write? A lot of neutral bacteria are found in your digestive system, to prevent infection. Download? Many bacteria help your immune system.

However, some bacteria cause disease; many infectious diseases are spread by the sharing of 21st century, saliva infected by download harmful bacteria. Some studies have found differences in the types of infections that happen after being bitten by a human or an animal. But this didn't tell me which bacteria are normally present. Being bitten in science the hand by a human will cause infection for a human. Yet only 1 percent of movie, emergency room visits are for deviance, infectious bites from dogs.

This made me wonder if humans and dogs have significant differences in download the type and amount of research, bacteria in their mouths. How scientists describe the amount of bacteria on a plate. 1. Finding the lab: After deciding that I had a testable hypothesis, I had to find a lab in which to carry out my experiment. I wrote a grant request to the State Hygienic Lab at the University of Iowa explaining what I wanted to do there and what I was trying to find out. My grant was accepted, and I was assigned a mentor to work with me at movie download the facility.

12 Fisher's Finest swabs 12 gram-negative agar plates 12 blood agar plates Disposable loops Safety equipment: gloves, goggles, lab coat. 3. Variables, Controls and Sample Size: The only variable I was testing was the difference between species. Harmful Helpful Essay? The control was the movie download human saliva. Pbs Essay Contest? I had five human samples and seven dog samples because of the limited materials the lab offered me. Abby and movie download, her mentor, Gabriella Gerken. 4. Getting the samples: On June 20-21, 2010, I went around to five of my neighbors who are dog owners and obtained saliva samples. I had the owners of the dogs test their dogs and themselves with separate swabs. I asked the subjects to not brush their teeth or eat prior to the sampling to make sure the tests weren't compromised. This assured that the only variable being tested was the difference between dogs' and humans' mouths.

I used Fishers' Finest swabs to swab their tongues. Homework Helpful Essay? I put the swabs in the refrigerator until I went to plate them on June 21, 2010. I made sure to keep the subjects anonymous by labeling them Human 1 to 5 or Dog 1 to movie 5. 5. Plating the bacteria: On June 21, 2010, I went to pbs essay the State Hygienic Lab at the University of Iowa to plate the bacteria on download agar. I used blood agar plates that show both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, and gram-negative agar plates that have gram-positive antibiotics in them so that only 21st help gram-negative bacteria can grow. The gram stain of bacteria is a way to classify bacteria based their cell walls. Movie? To do the write gram stain, you put a sample of the bacteria on a plate, stain it purple with a chemical, de-stain it with alcohol, and download, then stain it with a pink chemical.

If the bacteria stain purple, they are gram-positive, which means that their cell walls absorbed the purple chemical. If the bacteria are pink, they are gram-negative, which means that their cell walls didn't take up the purple chemical but did take up the pink. Gram-positive cells are usually found in the mouth or on homework the skin, and gram-negative cells are usually found in the intestines. The light pink Petri dishes are the gram-negative plates that have a gram-positive antibody so only the movie download gram-negative bacteria show on the plate. I first swabbed a fourth of the agar plate, and editing essays, then I used a loop to spread the bacteria around so that when the bacteria grew, I could get a better idea of their quantity. To plate bacteria, you first streak a fourth of the plate, and then you take some of the bacteria you placed on the plate and rub it along the next side of the plate using an instrument called a loop. Then you disinfect the loop and take some of the bacteria from the first time you used the loop and rub it around on the next quadrant.

Finally, you disinfect the loop again and take some of the bacteria from the second time you used the loop and rub it around the rest of the untouched part of the plate (see diagram). This red Petri dish is an movie download example of a blood agar plate. This means that both gram negative and gram-positive bacteria can grow. I learned from editing essays, my mentor the way scientists describe the amount of bacteria on the plates. She taught me that if, after a few days, there were only bacteria cultures in the original place you streaked with the movie download swab, you would say there is a rare amount of bacteria on the plate. If there are bacteria cultures on the first side you used the editing essays loop on, you would describe the bacteria amount as few. If there were bacteria cultures on the part of the plate where you used the loop for the second time, you would describe the bacteria amount as moderate. If there are bacteria cultures on the last place you used the download loop, you would describe the bacteria amount as many. 6. Growing the bacteria: After the cultures were kept in an incubator at 35°C for 24 hours, I observed their growth. Petri dishes showing human bacteria growth.

7. Analyzing the plates: The next day I went back to the lab and analyzed the plates. How To? I described the amount of bacteria using the method described above. Download? I also determined how many bacterial colonies there were by their different shapes, sizes and colors. All observations were recorded in century coursework help my lab notebook. When I was finished analyzing the plates, they were autoclaved and disposed of by the Hygienic Lab. Average Number of Different Bacterial Colonies. The dog Petri dish samples have many different bacteria as can be seen from the different colors and shapes of the bacteria colonies. Most of these plates would be described as having rare or few bacteria colonies because of the download position of all the colonies. The human Petri dish samples mostly have the same brown flat bacteria or white bacteria, unlike the very diverse dog samples. Most of these samples would range from having few to moderate bacteria levels. These are blood agar plates that allow both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria to grow.

I recorded the quantity of bacteria on each plate, and I tried to estimate how many different bacterial colonies were on contest each plate. (I had to estimate because it is nearly impossible to movie find the exact number.) When I got home, I averaged the editing essays data to better understand it. I first found the average quantity of movie download, dog and deviance paper, human total bacteria, gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. To do this, I assigned a rating scale in movie which rare = 1, few = 2, moderate = 3, and many = 4. I averaged the contest results and download, recorded them in the data table. I found the average total for human bacteria to be 3, which is a rating of moderate. The average total for dog bacteria was 2.7 (between few and moderate). 21st Science? The average total of gram-negative dog bacteria was 0.9, which is rare. The average total of gram-negative human bacteria was 0.2, which would be considered very rare. The average total of gram-positive dog bacteria was 1.9, which is close to few. The average total of gram-positive bacteria for humans was 2.8, which is almost moderate. (These numbers will be interpreted later in download my conclusion.) The average number of gram-positive bacteria in helpful a human's mouth was 4.2 colonies. Human mouths had more gram-positive bacteria (the type of bacteria usually found in mouths or on skin) than dogs do.

Yet human mouths had fewer gram-negative bacteria (this type of bacteria is mostly in intestines) than dogs do? This makes sense, because dogs probably get gram-negative bacteria from movie download, sniffing dog waste or dogs' behinds. Write? Humans probably have more gram-positive bacteria because of the environment in their mouths. I also averaged the quality of the plates, or how many different kinds of bacteria were found in each plate (see graph). The average total for dogs was 5.6 different bacterial colonies. The average total for humans was 4.1 different kinds of bacterial colonies. The average number of download, gram-negative bacteria in a dog's mouth was 2 colonies. The average number of gram-negative bacteria in a human's mouth was 0.2 colonies. (One person out of pbs essay, five had one colony of gram-negative bacteria.) The average number of gram-positive bacteria in movie a dog's mouth was 3.7 colonies. (These numbers will also be interpreted in my conclusion.) The graph shows that human mouths have more gram-positive bacteria yet fewer gram-negative bacteria than dogs do (as shown in the Average Data table).

Dogs have a greater total of bacterial colonies. This might be because dogs gather many different types of gram-negative bacteria from sniffing other dogs' waste and deviance research paper, bottoms. Movie Download? Dogs also pick up bacteria from the things they sniff and lick. Although humans brush their teeth a lot and clean their mouths often, there are still a lot of bacteria in contest their mouths. This is probably because there are many harmless bacteria in the world that live naturally in the human mouth.

I concluded that dog and human mouth flora are very different. (Flora means the bacteria found in a mouth or anywhere else.) The bacteria found in human mouths are more similar to download another human's oral bacteria than the editing essays bacteria found in a dog's mouth. I also concluded that dogs' mouths are cleaner than humans' in movie download some ways, and dirtier in other ways. Humans have more bacteria in their mouths than dogs do, based on the total number of bacteria. Most of the humans had a moderate number of bacteria, and most of the dogs had few bacteria. A possible explanation of this might be that dogs pant a lot, and maybe while panting, bacteria falls off their tongues along with their saliva. But dogs had more types of bacteria. The average number of different bacterial colonies in a dog's mouth was about 5.7.

The average number of different bacterial colonies in a human's mouth was about 4.1. I think this is so because dogs sniff and lick a variety of things, like carpets, floors, chairs, grass, etc., so they pick up bacteria from many places. Dogs have more gram-negative bacteria in their mouths. Editing Essays? I think this is because they often sniff and movie download, lick things on application form the ground. Since gram-negative bacteria are usually only found in the intestines, maybe dogs get the bacteria in their mouths because they sniff other dogs' bottoms. When they do that, they may get some gram-negative bacteria on download their nose that used to be in the other dog's intestine; then later the 21st century science dog will lick its nose, getting the bacteria in its mouth. Humans have more gram-positive bacteria in their mouths. I think this is so because the human mouth provides an environment that suits gram-positive bacteria. In conclusion, will I let my dog continue to lick me? The answer to the question is yes! I will feel guiltless about letting my dog lick me because I found out that human and dog oral bacteria are different, so my dog's oral bacteria present no harm to me.

I would like to research what types of movie, gram-negative bacteria are found in dogs' mouths and where they came from to see if my hypotheses are true. I would also like to pbs essay see if brushing dogs' teeth daily would help prevent harmful bacteria from growing in movie download their mouths. Conducting this experiment on a larger scale with more subjects will help to support my conclusion. It is known that data is more reliable when there are more subjects being tested. I would like to harmful essay thank my mom for encouraging me to write a grant to download work at how to the State Hygienic Laboratory at the University of Iowa. I would like to thank Gabriella Gerken for being a great mentor, and for teaching me so much about plating bacteria and understanding the gram stain. Download? I would like to pbs essay thank my dad for helping me to understand more about the world of bacteria. I am so grateful to have been able to experience working in download a university lab at the age of 13. I have learned so much working with the agar plates and bacteria. Homework Harmful Essay? I will be perfectly happy if I don't win, because the download experience was incredible and very educational, and I am so happy I get to share my discoveries with the world. Bacteria.

University of California Museum of Paleontology. 29 November 2009. Retrieved from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/bacteria.html. Bacteria. Wikipedia. 29 November 2009. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria. Brook, I. Microbiology and Management of pbs essay, Human and Animal Bite Wound Infections.

Primary Care 1 (30 March 2003): 25-39.