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My Vacation In Mexico Essays and uniforms debate essay, Research Papers. Our Family Vacation to Mexico My family and I had taken a trip to Mexico for Christmas and New . 21st Science Coursework? Year’s vacation in 2009. My father decided that we should drive to school Mexico instead of flying because it would be an organization, experience to remember. I wasn’t too thrilled about being in the car for 2 days (36 hours) with my brother and sister because my sister can talk for uniforms debate essay, hours and my brother snores so loud that no one can get sleep. Of Essay? We left on a Wednesday evening because my father likes to arrive to Nogales.
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It is were all my family is century coursework, from. I am from a state called Durango. I have only been there a couple times but I know I am going to go back to uniforms debate essay visit sometime soon. Mexico is comparison thesis, located right beneath the school debate, United States. It borders The Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea.
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It was time for us to uniforms school debate start planning our summer . vacation . We had a family meeting and our choices this year were Niagara Fall or South Carolina. We had all the information about each place in 21st century science coursework, front of us. We all sat at school essay, the kitchen table and overview organization, went through the areas of uniforms school debate essay, interest and voted on Niagara Falls. It was a unanimous vote. All the plans were made and alcoholic essay, set for August 8, 2011. School Essay? We had no idea how much we would enjoy.
American Falls , Bridal Veil Falls , Goat Island 1162 Words | 3 Pages. that one vacation that has been special to them, whether it was a family camping trip, spring break cruise or maybe backpacking through Europe . with a best friend, take a second and is importance essay, think about what yours would be. a. Well, the uniforms, best vacation I’ve ever experienced was a two-week trip to Mexico in January of 2009 with seven of my friends who doubled as my classmates, my Spanish teacher and a parent chaperone. II. Reading Is Importance? This trip was so exciting, delving into another culture so different from my own and. Aztec , Cuernavaca , Diego Rivera 1466 Words | 4 Pages. certain monkeys look like, how they sleep, their life expectancy in captivity verses wild, what they eat, where they live, and how many kids do they have at . Debate Essay? one time? Well, if so it is your lucky day because that is is importance essay, what I am going to be talking about in my paper. Spider monkeys are mostly dark brown and black all over, they have long tails, spindly legs, little pot bellies, little heads, long hands and bare feet. The life expectancy of a spider monkey living in captivity is four to six. Atelidae , Capuchin monkey , Chimpanzee 1767 Words | 5 Pages.
Mexico Mexico’s culture has always been of interest to me considering the influx of Spanish speaking immigrants and its close proximity to . the school debate essay, United States. I believe it is important to have an understanding of other cultures as it allows one to compare the similarities and overview organization, differences to one’s own culture. I completed a country report in middle school where I learned general background information about Mexico however I chose to write about uniforms school debate, Mexico in overview, order to uniforms school essay gain a more in depth understanding. Culture , Gender , Gender role 1747 Words | 5 Pages. MEXICO CITY -- It is century, a good time to be in the renewable energy business in Mexico since landmark energy reform opened up the . School Debate Essay? electricity market and of a comparison essay thesis, prioritized renewables. Debate? The government has an ambitious 12-year goal for renewable energy production, and private equity funds and development banks have millions of dollars ready to overview of essay allocate to clean energy. “There is a huge potential for uniforms debate, exploiting renewable energy in of essay, Mexico ,” says Guillermo Gutierrez of BK Partners, an investment management firm. Alternative energy , Capacity factor , Fossil fuel 1149 Words | 4 Pages. ? MEXICO Mexico is school, bordered by the United States to the north and Belize and examples of a comparison essay thesis, Guatemala to uniforms debate essay the southeast. Mexico is . about one-fifth the anonymous essay, size of the United States. Baja California in the west is an 800-mile (1,287-km) peninsula that forms the uniforms school essay, Gulf of California.
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Can Indonesia become a great country like France if Indonesia do that? Okay, by the way I will tell you about the meaning of my name. actually there are 2 words in school, my full name but sometimes there is examples of a thesis, a mistake when some people write it down. Some people usually write my full name in school debate essay, one words. Just “fakhrunnisa” or sometime just “fakhrunisa”. By the Way , Concerned , France 338 Words | 1 Pages. Once in of essay organization, a lifetime vacation in Jamaica. Since my husband and I got married in uniforms debate, May of 2010, we did not have a honeymoon or a . Overview Of Essay? vacation . So my husband Ryan and I came to a decision that we are going to take this opportunity and debate, spend lavishes on flash paper for sale philippines, a combo vacation . This trip was once in school, a lifetime vacation in Jamaica, and we were very excited, I felt like a little kid waiting for my very first candy. Ryan and I went ahead and book our vacation at Sandals, in Montego Bay, Jamaica. There was so.
A Lifetime , Jamaica , Ocho Rios 1381 Words | 3 Pages. Vacations are a time we use to recharge our batteries. A time to spend with the of a comparison essay, ones you love and build lifelong memories. School Essay? There are many . different options to consider when choosing where and how to reading is importance essay vacation . Everyone has different things they consider enjoyable or relaxing. Uniforms Debate Essay? In this essay I will discuss different types of vacations and point out some benefits of each. Some people enjoy vacationing at overview, the beach. The warm climate is one of the biggest selling points when deciding on a beach.
2006 singles , Amusement park , Holiday 898 Words | 3 Pages. exciting as this one. First of all I went to my camp with tons of my friends. (name of camp) was so much fun! I spent money on . ______ and school debate essay, me and my friends did so much different things. The only application essay problem is that i had to wake up early.
That was a bummer. Secondly i went to USA. I woke up early, and took a long bus ride. That wasnt that fun. But i went to really nice places. (list a couple places and uniforms debate, explain part of overview of essay organization, it) Last, i went to uniforms school essay the beach with my family.
I got a great tan! I love just sitting. High school , Writing 1795 Words | 4 Pages. Umbrian holiday: A descriptive essay about my family's vacation in Umbria, Italy. Holiday My family and I spent a week last summer in a converted hay barn located in the heart of the Umbrian countryside. The house (hay . barn) was over 100 years old and was perched on the top of the highest hill in the area. It afforded a sweeping view of the surrounding countryside. Being from the American Midwest, I had never seen anything like it.
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Summers generally are considered to be unpleasant and undesirable for uniforms, people but the most attractive thing is the long vacations which are enjoyable for the children. For Sale Philippines? Each person has a different way and style of spending their holidays away from the regular school and study routine depending upon their life style. I. Holiday , Holidays , Summer 425 Words | 1 Pages. My Favorite Vacation Destinations When someone mentions the word vacation I am always ready to go! . Vacation is a time for uniforms school debate, shopping, fun and relaxation. Some of of essay, my favorite vacation destinations include the Las Vegas strip, New York City and of course the beach in Destin, Florida. There is one thing about Vegas, you will never be bored. It is not called the city that never sleeps for nothing.
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I had taken a vacation to the Philippines that turned out to be a nightmare. The vacation started off bad before the school debate, trip even begun and overview organization, continued to uniforms school essay only get worse. I had caught a cold and the ended up getting food poisoning with a blood parasite during my vacation in the. English-language films , Exercise , Food safety 644 Words | 2 Pages. you'd get on the last day of school? Remember how excited you'd be to paper for sale finally get to do those summer things like ride bikes with your friends, stay up all . night planning pranks, and chasing down the ice cream man after dinner? These are just a few of my favorite memories from those long summer days. Uniforms? Now picture this. It's a beautiful July day, perfect to spend a few lazy hours by the pool, but instead you'll be in school. Okay, sure you could come home and relax in the sun or take a walk with the science, kids.
Anxiety , Arne Duncan , Barack Obama 1128 Words | 3 Pages. outline for Persuasive Speech Specific purpose: To persuade my audience to support the legislation to provide everyone with four weeks paid . vacation Central Idea: Adopted paid vacation legislation in uniforms school debate, the USA will help us to stay healthy, avoid stress and bond with our family. Introduction Attention: I. Do you know that more than 147 countries, including all developed countries, now have a law that guaranties paid vacation to every employee? But the reading, United States is the only industrial. Bureau of Labor Statistics , Developed country , Full-time 1030 Words | 4 Pages. Hey, [insert name]?
Whassup? I yelled from the tree, but [insert name] didn't hear me. So I had to grab another apple and then climb down from . my tree to debate go talk to him. By the time I got over to [insert name], he was just sitting there in the grass like a zombie with this stupid grin on overview of essay, his face, staring off into space. Wassup workboy? I asked as I plopped down onto the freshly cut grass beside [insert name]. Well, he told me what's up alright: endolphins! Oh, yeah! [Insert name] was getting. High school 408 Words | 2 Pages. ?Topic: Southport is my favorite place to school debate visit Attitude/Point: Others will feel the same way about their favorite place to visit for their . own specific reasons. and I have noticed that most people visit places because of the weather, and the stress relief you get when you take a vacation . Audience: Individuals or families who are looking for a serene place to vacation to or visit.
People who vacation frequently or retirees would benefit from this. Purpose: I will be sharing this. Climate , Debut albums , North Carolina 414 Words | 2 Pages. ?The best vacation I ever had I had been planning for the day I left for coursework help, Hawaii for months and the day finally came. Debate? It actually came a lot . quicker than I thought it would. Is Importance Essay? I was so excited I could barely contain myself! When June 8th finally came around I jumped out of bed at uniforms school essay, 8 o’clock that morning and 21st century coursework help, got ready as fast as I could.
My flight didn’t leave till noon that day but I just couldn’t wait any longer! Even though we were going to Hawaii for my Mom’s work, its still a trip to uniforms school debate Hawaii. Eating , Family , Hotel 1273 Words | 3 Pages. There Yet? There are so many wonderful and magical places in the world to 21st help visit and experience. Uniforms School Essay? The word vacation means different . Organization? things to different people. Daily life with busy schedules jammed with multiple sports and school activities makes the idea of time that enables us to reconnect and cement our family relationships a motivation to school expend time and comparison thesis, resources on a vacation . Studies have sought to uniforms explain the why we are willing to splurge on essay for college, a holiday. A travel industry study identified. Costa Rica , Family , Holiday 1845 Words | 5 Pages. ?Celeste Essel Mrs.Hurey English 10 9 September 2013 My Perfect Vacation A perfect vacation , in . my opinion, would consist of a ocean nearby a lavish, roomy beach house, under a sunny blue sky.
To add to this fantasy, a nice breeze would be perfect to make the palm tree leaves wave hello to me, as my hair sways in it’s subtle winds. A beach that is nearby is uniforms essay, fundamental for so many reasons. One activity a person could do while walking along the shore is looking for sea shells, which. Arecaceae , Closet , English-language films 452 Words | 2 Pages. What is your favorite vacation spot? I was finally entering “India” again, after a month-long sojourn into a world of Himalayan calm, yoga . and Tibetan Buddhism (Dharamsala hardly feels like India). Was I ready to free fall back into the masala mania? While the traveler in me was excited to get back on the explorer’s road; the 21st century science, solo gal in debate essay, me was dreading it. Having found roots for a month in is importance essay, my yoga-family cocoon, I wasn’t thrilled with going back to solo-roughing it. Fortunately when you flow. Amritsar , Gurdwara , Guru Granth Sahib 1187 Words | 3 Pages.
“ My Memorable Vacation ” Imagine yourself in Orlando, Fl on uniforms, a roller coaster that is 90 feet up high, and you are . seated front row waiting for a 90 degree drop facing down. “AHH” I was in that position once. My Vacation to Orlando was awesome. Reading Is Importance Essay? The reason why it is so memorable to me is uniforms essay, because I went to a lot of reading essay, theme parks, I went to see my family, and I had time to relax. To begin with, the theme Parks were incredible. Uniforms Essay? You have Aquatica, Sea World, and Busch. Busch Gardens , Paisley Park Records , SeaWorld Parks Entertainment 692 Words | 2 Pages. My family vacation On September 18th, 2009 I took my kids on a family vacation to . Cherokee, North Carolina to for sale visit Santaland. My mom Reva, who was already in North Carolina met us at the theme park.
Would I take the kids on vacation again? We had a terrific family vacation at Santaland. I packed our bags and loaded them in the car. Then, I got the kids ready and loaded them in school debate, the car. Science Coursework? We set off for uniforms school debate essay, the vacation. English-language films , North Carolina , Santa Claus 599 Words | 2 Pages. ? My Weekend Vacation By Eve . Billings Over the weekend I went to examples of a universal studio with my little brother, friends and school essay, their three kids.
We all got in the van and drove five hours to Los Angeles. And with four kids all under the age of ten is overview, not easy. We had to play Disney music the whole ride there so the two year old wouldn’t cry. And all we can hear is “let it go” from the back seat all the. American films , Batman , Hollywood Walk of Fame 513 Words | 2 Pages. Study of Family Vacation Proposal. Proposal for Study of Family Summer Vacation Prepared For: John Smith Prepared By: Sam Smith DSM Omnimedia . May 14, 2012 Introduction You are a very successful business man, and have almost everything you could imagine. A fantastic wife, three beautiful children, a home, and good steady job. School Debate? But success comes with a price: time.
You are at work the majority of your day, and when you come home from work, you are finishing up the doing the final touches of. Family , Household , Paisley Park Records 511 Words | 3 Pages. Protecting America's Border from Mexico. Protecting America’s Border from Mexico We have all heard the stories of how to protect our borders from the candidates at the 2008 . Presidential Election but this battle has been going on anonymous essay, a very long time before that. The question is should we seal our borders from Mexico or should we grant illegal’s amnesty? My opinion on uniforms debate, this is that we should seal our borders from 21st century science help Mexico . I will tell you why I believe this but first let me tell you when this all began. When did our government start considering. Arizona , Barack Obama , Illegal immigration 1794 Words | 4 Pages. Courtney Morning 1/10/10 Period 1 Mr. Warren My Vacation Essay My destination was Georgia and the . Uniforms Essay? reason why we originally went there was just for a vacation . But later my family and I decided to stay because we ended up enjoying our time there. One thing I do remember was us being on for college, the plane for at least 5 hours and how much the cost came out to be which was $400.
Another thing that seems to always bother me while traveling was the school essay, turbulence, honestly it scares me. The first. California , Existential quantification , Universal quantification 558 Words | 2 Pages. | Microfinance in Mexico : | A Call To Reform | | Liana Robinson | 12/5/2011 | | Table of Contents I. Reading Is Importance Essay? Microfinance 1. . About microfinance i. Dr. Mohammad Yunus ii. Types of school debate essay, Microfinance used by poor people (fig) 2. Microfinance institution (MFI) i. Alcoholic Anonymous Essay? Variable costs ii. Fixed costs iii. Interest rates II. Mexican markets 1. Distribution of income i. Poverty levels ii. Extreme poverty (fig.) 2. Uniforms Essay? Financial institutions i. Wal-Mart Bank ii.
Banco. Annual percentage rate , Bank , Microfinance 2395 Words | 7 Pages. My family and I have always loved are camping trips, especially the ones the take us deep into the depths of the application essay, Sierra Nevada mountians. School Debate Essay? . There's a very unique and beautiful camp ground near Mammoth Lakes called Devils Postpile. Science Coursework Help? My is it beautiful, two gigantic crystal clear lakes, wildlife sites that could easily be posted in any National Geographic magazine, and trout that have enough meat on their bones to suvive in the deepest of any ocean. One little problem I always have. Brown , Campsite , Fish 829 Words | 4 Pages. I think summer vacation is uniforms school debate, very important to people all over the world. It gives them the chance for seeing new places, family gathering and . have a good time and enjoys their selves.
We use to travel in vacations . This year my family decided to spend our summer vacation in Cairo. Anonymous? I was very happy and I went to pack up my bags to be ready. While packing I was thinking of the new places that I'm going to see, I decided that our first place to uniforms debate visit must be the pyramids. On the fourth day of our trip. Cairo , Giza , Giza Necropolis 693 Words | 2 Pages. My Never Ending Vacation Alexa Mahabir Many childhood experiences may leave lifelong impressions on of essay, people. I would . define my childhood as a never ending vacation . It was more than just a learning experience, but instead the time when my greatest memories were created with the people I would never forget. There are many places associated with my childhood memories, but for me, Tobago has definitely presented itself as my favorite place through out the years. As a child, I loved the. Beach , Ice cream , Marco Polo 526 Words | 2 Pages.
? My Unusual Vacation After a year’s savings and many months of planning, it was finally time for my . vacation . Travelling has always been my passion because by the age of 17, I had already been to exotic places like India, Jamaica, Ethiopia, Australia, and Malaysia. So when a friend of mine suggested that we go to Durban I was very excited because of the fun recreational activities, the uniforms, beautiful scenery in application essay for college, a pleasant location, and debate essay, the economical lodging available South Africa turned to be. Backpacking , Fishing , Hiking 464 Words | 2 Pages. MY VACATION AT THE CITY I can still remember the alcoholic anonymous, time I went to the city with my family just to have a bit of . relaxation since we are over and done with our periodical examinations. Hoping that we can spend some precious time together, I felt so excited while we are on uniforms school, our way.
I expected a lot of jokes and laughter, and full of satisfaction when we get there. After a long journey on a muddy and overview of essay, terribly devastated nautical highway, we reach the city, the only city and the capital of our province. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Dreams from My Father 773 Words | 2 Pages. My ideal vacation would have to star with the weather being nice and warm. Debate? The place I would like my ideal . vacation to reading essay be on a sandy beach with no parents to uniforms be annoying and boss me around. I would take a couple of my really good friends that I hang out 21st century coursework, with all the time. It wouldn’t have to plan anything on this trip or have to school book anything it would all be ready to go. The food and everything we need would not cost a penny.
The hotel we would be staying at would be a five star resort and the. Friendship , Holiday , Holidays 2460 Words | 6 Pages.
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A Modest Proposal, by Jonathan Swift. School Essay? Best known for 21st science coursework help Gulliver#39;s Travels , an allegorical account of Lemuel Gulliver#39;s fanciful voyages, Jonathan Swift also published numerous essays and political pamphlets. Debate? The most sensational of these short works, #34;A Modest Proposal,#34; is reading essay generally considered to be the most famous satirical essay in the English language. Uniforms School Debate Essay? But in examples comparison, fact there#39;s nothing straightforward about #34;A Modest Proposal.#34; As you read Swift#39;s proposal, originally published anonymously in uniforms debate essay, 1729, consider why it has been characterized as #34;a masterpiece of ironic logic.#34; When you are done, you may want to try our Reading Quiz on #34;A Modest Proposal.#34; You may also find it worthwhile to for college compare Swift#39;s essay to two other classic proposals: #34;An Economical Project#34; by Benjamin Franklin and #34;Portrait of an Ideal World#34; by H.L. Mencken. For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to debate Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Public. 1 It is a melancholy object to those who walk through this great town or travel in the country, when they see the streets, the roads, and cabin doors, crowded with beggars of the female sex, followed by three, four, or six children, all in rags and importuning every passenger for an alms. These mothers, instead of being able to work for for college their honest livelihood, are forced to employ all their time in uniforms debate essay, strolling to beg sustenance for their helpless infants: who as they grow up either turn thieves for want of flash paper for sale philippines work, or leave their dear native country to fight for the Pretender in uniforms, Spain, or sell themselves to of essay organization the Barbadoes. 2 I think it is agreed by school debate essay all parties that this prodigious number of children in the arms, or on the backs, or at organization the heels of their mothers, and frequently of their fathers, is in the present deplorable state of the kingdom a very great additional grievance; and, therefore, whoever could find out a fair, cheap, and easy method of making these children sound, useful members of the commonwealth, would deserve so well of the public as to have his statue set up for uniforms school essay a preserver of the essay for college nation.
3 But my intention is very far from being confined to provide only for the children of uniforms school debate professed beggars; it is of a much greater extent, and shall take in the whole number of flash paper for sale infants at a certain age who are born of parents in effect as little able to support them as those who demand our charity in the streets. 4 As to my own part, having turned my thoughts for many years upon uniforms debate this important subject, and maturely weighed the reading is importance essay several schemes of other projectors, I have always found them grossly mistaken in the computation. It is true, a child just dropped from its dam may be supported by her milk for a solar year, with little other nourishment; at most not above the value of 2s., which the mother may certainly get, or the value in scraps, by her lawful occupation of begging; and uniforms school, it is alcoholic essay exactly at one year old that I propose to provide for them in such a manner as instead of uniforms school debate essay being a charge upon their parents or the parish, or wanting food and overview organization, raiment for debate the rest of their lives, they shall on anonymous the contrary contribute to the feeding, and partly to the clothing, of uniforms school debate essay many thousands. Examples Comparison Essay? 5 There is likewise another great advantage in school debate essay, my scheme, that it will prevent those voluntary abortions, and of essay organization, that horrid practice of women murdering their bastard children, alas! too frequent among us! sacrificing the poor innocent babes I doubt more to avoid the debate essay expense than the shame, which would move tears and pity in comparison essay thesis, the most savage and inhuman breast. 6 The number of souls in this kingdom being usually reckoned one million and a half, of uniforms essay these I calculate there may be about flash philippines two hundred thousand couple whose wives are breeders; from which number I subtract thirty thousand couples who are able to maintain their own children, although I apprehend there cannot be so many, under the present distresses of the kingdom; but this being granted, there will remain an hundred and seventy thousand breeders. I again subtract fifty thousand for those women who miscarry, or whose children die by accident or disease within the uniforms year. There only remains one hundred and twenty thousand children of philippines poor parents annually born. The question therefore is, how this number shall be reared and provided for, which, as I have already said, under the present situation of affairs, is utterly impossible by all the methods hitherto proposed. For we can neither employ them in handicraft or agriculture; we neither build houses (I mean in the country) nor cultivate land: they can very seldom pick up a livelihood by stealing, till they arrive at essay six years old, except where they are of towardly parts, although I confess they learn the rudiments much earlier, during which time, they can however be properly looked upon only as probationers, as I have been informed by a principal gentleman in the county of Cavan, who protested to me that he never knew above one or two instances under the age of six, even in essay, a part of the kingdom so renowned for the quickest proficiency in that art.
7 I am assured by our merchants, that a boy or a girl before twelve years old is no salable commodity; and uniforms school debate, even when they come to this age they will not yield above three pounds, or three pounds and half-a-crown at for sale philippines most on uniforms school the exchange; which cannot turn to account either to the parents or kingdom, the charge of nutriment and rags having been at least four times that value. 8 I shall now therefore humbly propose my own thoughts, which I hope will not be liable to the least objection. 9 I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricassee or a ragout. Continued on page two. 10 I do therefore humbly offer it to public consideration that of the hundred and twenty thousand children already computed, twenty thousand may be reserved for breed, whereof only examples comparison thesis one-fourth part to be males; which is more than we allow to sheep, black cattle or swine; and my reason is, that these children are seldom the school fruits of marriage, a circumstance not much regarded by our savages, therefore one male will be sufficient to serve four females. Essay Thesis? That the remaining hundred thousand may, at uniforms debate a year old, be offered in the sale to the persons of quality and fortune through the kingdom; always advising the 21st century help mother to let them suck plentifully in the last month, so as to render them plump and fat for a good table. A child will make two dishes at an entertainment for friends; and when the family dines alone, the fore or hind quarter will make a reasonable dish, and seasoned with a little pepper or salt will be very good boiled on the fourth day, especially in winter. School Debate Essay? 11 I have reckoned upon a medium that a child just born will weigh 12 pounds, and in application for college, a solar year, if tolerably nursed, increaseth to 28 pounds. 12 I grant this food will be somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for landlords, who, as they have already devoured most of the parents, seem to have the best title to the children. 13 Infant#39;s flesh will be in season throughout the year, but more plentiful in uniforms school debate essay, March, and a little before and after; for we are told by flash paper philippines a grave author, an eminent French physician, that fish being a prolific diet, there are more children born in Roman Catholic countries about nine months after Lent than at any other season; therefore, reckoning a year after Lent, the markets will be more glutted than usual, because the number of popish infants is at least three to one in this kingdom: and school debate, therefore it will have one other collateral advantage, by lessening the number of organization papists among us. 14 I have already computed the uniforms school charge of nursing a beggar#39;s child (in which list I reckon all cottagers, laborers, and four-fifths of the farmers) to application essay be about uniforms school debate two shillings per annum, rags included; and essay, I believe no gentleman would repine to give ten shillings for uniforms school the carcass of science help a good fat child, which, as I have said, will make four dishes of excellent nutritive meat, when he hath only some particular friend or his own family to dine with him.
Thus the uniforms squire will learn to be a good landlord, and grow popular among his tenants; the for college mother will have eight shillings net profit, and be fit for work till she produces another child. 15 Those who are more thrifty (as I must confess the times require) may flay the carcass; the skin of which artificially dressed will make admirable gloves for ladies, and summer boots for fine gentlemen. 16 As to our city of Dublin, shambles may be appointed for this purpose in the most convenient parts of it, and butchers we may be assured will not be wanting; although I rather recommend buying the children alive, and dressing them hot from the knife, as we do roasting pigs. 17 A very worthy person, a true lover of his country, and whose virtues I highly esteem, was lately pleased in discoursing on this matter to uniforms debate offer a refinement upon my scheme. He said that many gentlemen of this kingdom, having of late destroyed their deer, he conceived that the want of venison might be well supplied by the bodies of young lads and maidens, not exceeding fourteen years of reading age nor under twelve; so great a number of both sexes in school debate, every country being now ready to starve for want of work and reading essay, service; and these to school debate essay be disposed of by application essay their parents, if alive, or otherwise by their nearest relations. But with due deference to so excellent a friend and so deserving a patriot, I cannot be altogether in his sentiments; for as to the males, my American acquaintance assured me, from frequent experience, that their flesh was generally tough and lean, like that of our schoolboys by continual exercise, and their taste disagreeable; and to uniforms school debate fatten them would not answer the charge. Of Essay Organization? Then as to the females, it would, I think, with humble submission be a loss to the public, because they soon would become breeders themselves; and besides, it is not improbable that some scrupulous people might be apt to censure such a practice (although indeed very unjustly), as a little bordering upon cruelty; which, I confess, hath always been with me the strongest objection against school debate essay, any project, however so well intended. 18 But in order to justify my friend, he confessed that this expedient was put into his head by the famous Psalmanazar, a native of the island Formosa, who came from thence to London above twenty years ago, and in conversation told my friend, that in his country when any young person happened to be put to death, the executioner sold the carcass to persons of quality as a prime dainty; and that in his time the body of a plump girl of fifteen, who was crucified for an attempt to anonymous essay poison the uniforms school debate emperor, was sold to his imperial majesty#39;s prime minister of state, and other great mandarins of the court, in joints from the gibbet, at four hundred crowns.
Neither indeed can I deny, that if the same use were made of 21st century science coursework several plump young girls in this town, who without one single groat to debate their fortunes cannot stir abroad without a chair, and appear at playhouse and assemblies in foreign fineries which they never will pay for, the kingdom would not be the worse. 19 Some persons of a desponding spirit are in great concern about that vast number of poor people, who are aged, diseased, or maimed, and I have been desired to employ my thoughts what course may be taken to ease the nation of so grievous an encumbrance. But I am not in the least pain upon that matter, because it is very well known that they are every day dying and paper, rotting by cold and famine, and filth and vermin, as fast as can be reasonably expected. Debate? And as to the young laborers, they are now in as hopeful a condition; they cannot get work, and is importance, consequently pine away for want of nourishment, to uniforms school debate a degree that if at application essay for college any time they are accidentally hired to common labor, they have not strength to perform it; and thus the uniforms debate essay country and themselves are happily delivered from the evils to come. Concluded on page three. 20 I have too long digressed, and therefore shall return to my subject. I think the advantages by the proposal which I have made are obvious and many, as well as of the highest importance. For first, as I have already observed, it would greatly lessen the number of papists, with whom we are yearly overrun, being the principal breeders of the nation as well as our most dangerous enemies; and who stay at home on purpose with a design to deliver the kingdom to the Pretender, hoping to take their advantage by the absence of so many good protestants, who have chosen rather to examples of a thesis leave their country than stay at home and pay tithes against their conscience to an episcopal curate. 21 Secondly, The poorer tenants will have something valuable of their own, which by uniforms law may be made liable to distress and help to pay their landlord#39;s rent, their corn and is importance essay, cattle being already seized, and money a thing unknown. 22 Thirdly, Whereas the maintenance of an hundred thousand children, from school essay two years old and upward, cannot be computed at less than ten shillings a-piece per essay, annum, the uniforms nation#39;s stock will be thereby increased fifty thousand pounds per annum, beside the profit of a new dish introduced to the tables of all gentlemen of fortune in the kingdom who have any refinement in taste. And the money will circulate among ourselves, the goods being entirely of our own growth and comparison essay thesis, manufacture.
23 Fourthly, The constant breeders, beside the gain of uniforms eight shillings sterling per annum by the sale of their children, will be rid of the charge of maintaining them after the application essay for college first year. 24 Fifthly, This food would likewise bring great custom to taverns; where the vintners will certainly be so prudent as to procure the best receipts for dressing it to school debate essay perfection, and consequently have their houses frequented by all the fine gentlemen, who justly value themselves upon their knowledge in good eating: and a skilful cook, who understands how to oblige his guests, will contrive to overview organization make it as expensive as they please. 25 Sixthly, This would be a great inducement to marriage, which all wise nations have either encouraged by rewards or enforced by laws and penalties. It would increase the care and tenderness of mothers toward their children, when they were sure of uniforms school debate essay a settlement for life to the poor babes, provided in some sort by the public, to their annual profit instead of examples of a essay thesis expense. We should see an honest emulation among the married women, which of uniforms school them could bring the fattest child to the market. Men would become as fond of their wives during the time of their pregnancy as they are now of their mares in flash paper, foal, their cows in calf, their sows when they are ready to farrow; nor offer to beat or kick them (as is too frequent a practice) for school debate fear of a miscarriage. Reading? 26 Many other advantages might be enumerated. For instance, the addition of some thousand carcasses in school essay, our exportation of barreled beef, the propagation of swine#39;s flesh, and improvement in the art of essay making good bacon, so much wanted among us by the great destruction of pigs, too frequent at our tables; which are no way comparable in taste or magnificence to a well-grown, fat, yearling child, which roasted whole will make a considerable figure at a lord mayor#39;s feast or any other public entertainment. But this and many others I omit, being studious of brevity. 27 Supposing that one thousand families in this city, would be constant customers for school debate essay Infant#39;s Flesh, besides others who might have it at examples of a essay thesis merry meetings, particularly at uniforms debate essay weddings and christenings, I compute that Dublin would take off annually about twenty thousand carcasses, and the rest of the Kingdom (where probably they will be sold somewhat cheaper) the remaining eighty thousand. 28 I can think of no one objection, that will possibly be raised against this proposal, unless it should be urged, that the number of people will be thereby much lessened in the Kingdom.
This I freely own, and #39;twas indeed one principal design in offering it to the world. I desire the alcoholic essay reader will observe, that I calculate my remedy for this one individual kingdom of Ireland, and for no other that ever was, is, or I think, ever can be upon Earth. School? Therefore let no man talk to me of other expedients: of anonymous essay taxing our absentees at five shillings a pound: of using neither clothes, nor household furniture, except what is of our own growth and manufacture: of utterly rejecting the materials and instruments that promote foreign luxury: of curing the school debate expensiveness of pride, vanity, idleness, and gaming in our women: of introducing a vein of parsimony, prudence and temerance: of learning to love our country, wherein we differ even from Laplanders, and the inhabitants of Topinamboo: of quitting our animosities, and alcoholic essay, factions, nor act any longer like the Jews, who were murdering one another at the very moment their city was taken: of being a little cautious not to debate essay sell our country and consciences for nothing: of teaching our landlords to have at least one degree of for college mercy towards their tenants. Lastly, of putting a spirit of honesty, industry, and skill into our shop-keepers, who, if a resolution could now be taken to buy only our native goods, would immediately unite to uniforms debate cheat and examples essay, exact upon us in the price, the measure and the goodness, nor could ever yet be brought to make one fair proposal of uniforms just dealing, though often and earnestly invited to it. 30 But as to alcoholic anonymous my self, having been wearied out for many years with offering vain, idle, visionary thoughts, and at length despairing of success, I fortunately fell upon this proposal, which as it is wholly new, so it hath something solid and real, of no expense and little trouble, full in our own power, and whereby we can incur no danger in disobliging England.
For this kind of commodity will not bear exportation, the flesh being of too tender a consistence, to admit a long continuance in salt, although perhaps I could name a country, which would be glad to eat up our whole nation without it. 31 After all, I am not so violently bent upon uniforms school debate my own opinion as to reject any offer proposed by wise men, which shall be found equally innocent, cheap, easy, and effectual. But before something of that kind shall be advanced in contradiction to my scheme, and offering a better, I desire the application essay for college author or authors will be pleased maturely to uniforms essay consider two points. First, as things now stand, how they will be able to find food and overview of essay, raiment for an hundred thousand useless mouths and backs. And secondly, there being a round million of creatures in human figure throughout this kingdom, whose whole subsistence put into a common stock would leave them in debt two millions of uniforms debate pounds sterling, adding those who are beggars by profession to the bulk of farmers, cottagers, and reading essay, laborers, with their wives and children who are beggars in effect: I desire those politicians who dislike my overture, and may perhaps be so bold as to attempt an answer, that they will first ask the parents of these mortals, whether they would not at this day think it a great happiness to have been sold for food, at a year old in the manner I prescribe, and thereby have avoided such a perpetual scene of misfortunes as they have since gone through by the oppression of landlords, the impossibility of paying rent without money or trade, the want of common sustenance, with neither house nor clothes to uniforms debate cover them from the inclemencies of the weather, and the most inevitable prospect of flash for sale entailing the like or greater miseries upon their breed for ever. 32 I profess, in the sincerity of uniforms school debate my heart, that I have not the least personal interest in endeavoring to promote this necessary work, having no other motive than the flash for sale philippines public good of my country, by advancing our trade, providing for infants, relieving the poor, and giving some pleasure to the rich.
I have no children by which I can propose to uniforms school debate get a single penny; the youngest being nine years old, and my wife past child-bearing.
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constructive essay Center on English Learning Achievement. Writing and Reading Relationships: Constructive Tasks. Judith A. Langer and Sheila Flihan. * This excerpt is a chapter in Writing: Research/Theory/Practice, Roselmina Indrisano and James R. Squire, Eds., Newark, DE: International Reading Association, 2000. Writing and reading theory and research have very different, although sometimes overlapping, histories.
As such, throughout most of the twentieth century, the relationship between them was not regarded as a topic of either theoretical or pragmatic concern. However, during a relatively brief period of time, primarily in the 1980's, reading and writing became a distinct body of inquiry. It grew from separate bodies of scholarship and focused on separate aspects of education as well as on different grade levels. This small but intense body of scholarship and school research into the interrelationships between writing and reading also focused on ways in 21st science which those relationships might affect learning, and inform instruction. It was initially motivated and shaped by extensive research on cognitive processes in the separate fields of writing and reading, primarily from a constructivist perspective. School Debate Essay. Here, both writing and reading were linked to language and communication as well as reasoning. A concomitant wave of research into application, the social dimensions of debate essay writing and reading, with an eye to their actual functions and uses, moved the target of theory and research toward contextualized practice within real life and essay real school situations. As a result, one route of scholarship began to examine literacy or, rather, literate acts as they serve social and communicative uses, with a concomitant shift in the focus of inquiry away from uniforms school debate writing and reading relationships, and toward the ways in flash paper for sale which they function in the contexts of life, both in uniforms school essay and outside the classroom. As the flash philippines object of inquiry became more contextualized, similarities and differences in the writing and reading processes and the ways in which reading and writing develop, affect each other, and relate to learning and uniforms schooling became less focal.
They did not, however, become less important. We will review these changes and close the chapter with a call for a renewed although somewhat changed research focus on the uses of reading and writing and the ways in which reading and paper for sale writing interact in relation to the contexts and school social relations in which they are embedded. Informed by past as well as current knowledge from the perspectives of sociocognitive, sociohistorical, and critical theory as well as psychology, linguistics, anthropology and English, this renewed focus will examine ways in which reading and writing function in is importance essay the development and communication of ideas and understandings in the social, private, and school essay internal worlds of people and groups. A Brief History of Writing and Reading Research. Until the 1970's writing and reading were not conceptualized as being integrated. Of Essay Organization. At most, they were regarded as separate, perhaps related, language processes.
In part, this is because notions of writing and reading grew from different traditions. Taking an historical look back, one sees a conceptual and disciplinary schism between scholarship in essay writing and reading. They have been shaped by different scholars having different backgrounds and training. Writing, as an academic subject, is deeply rooted in classic Aristotelian rhetoric. Focusing on invention, arrangement, style, memory and delivery, Aristotelian rhetoric was intended for the very well educated (usually male) individual. It dominated course work in organization American colleges during the 18th century and was modeled after the curriculum already taught in English universities (Langer Allington, 1992, p. 688).
By the 1800#146;s the work of Campbell (1963 ) and Blair's (1965 ) belles-lettres view of rhetoric became widespread in the United States, bringing appreciation of the art of debate writing into the commonplace tradition (Langer Allington, 1992, p. 688). While rhetoric continued to emphasize grammar, diction, word choice, etc., there was a new focus on the functions of discourse and the study of literary models. Toward the end of the 19th century these traditional notions of writing were challenged by practical, functional views of writing and by the progressive movement. The work of Carpenter, Baker Scott (1903) and Dewey (1915), calling for experiential student-centered education became influential, but it did not replace traditional notions of and approaches to writing. Writing remained rooted in rhetoric through the 1940s, 50s and 60s, but the emphasis shifted among classic Aristotelian views, expressionist views, and the new rhetoric. Interest in essay writing processes grew in the 1970's and 80's. Work in the fields of language and cognition (Anderson Bower, 1973; Chafe, 1970; Chomsky, 1965; Fillmore, 1968; 1, 1970; Rumelhart, 1975; Schank Ableson, 1977; Searle, 1969; Tulving, 1972; Winograd, 1972) led to a research emphasis on the relationships among writing processes, the learner and the text (Bereiter Scardamalia, 1982; Emig, 1971; Flower Hayes, 1980; Hillocks, 1972).
The perspectives of sociolinguistic and anthropological approaches to research (Cazden, John, Hymes, 1972; Cicourel et al., 1974; Cook-Gumperz, Gumperz, Simon, 1982; Erickson Shultz, 1977; Frake, 1983; Halliday, 1976; Heath, 1983; McDermott, 1977; Mischler, 1979; Shuy, 1967; Sinclair Coulthard, 1975) led to a continued emphasis on these relationships, but also on the individual learner in a specific context making use of writing and reading for specific purposes that had social and interpersonal meaning. The early history of reading follows a different course. Tradition in debate reading curriculum relied on British notions of for college primary instruction (for method), on religion (for content), and by the later 1800's on scientific experiments (for theory) (Langer Allington, 1992, p. 694). Progressive views emphasizing the individual learner and uniforms school essay student centered instruction affected reading, but by the early 1900's reading was already deeply rooted in psychological research. In fact, the combined effects of the expanding scientific research base and the application of management principles to the organization of schools seemed to overwhelm the influence of the progressive reading educators (Langer Allington, 1992, p. 695). Reading research, curriculum and instruction continued to be shaped by associationist and application essay behaviorist psychology through the 1940's, 50's and 60's. During this time reading was also influenced by research and theory in language and concept development (e.g., Bloom, 1971; Bruner, 1960, 1966; Inhelder Piaget, 1958), linguistics (e.g., Bloomfield, 1942; Fries, 1963), and uniforms psycholinguistics (e.g. Goodman, 1967; Smith 1971). During the 1970's the fields of sociolinguistics and language acquisition became influential.
Cognitive psychology and constructivist perspectives began to shape reading research as attention began to shift toward the meaning construction that occurs during reading and toward the interactions between reader and reading text. Due to uniforms debate their different beginnings, research traditionally approached writing and reading as distinct areas of exploration. The 1980's marked a change in focus. Research began to examine the relationships between writing and reading as cognitive and social processes. Throughout the essay last decade, research has maintained its interest in writing and reading as separate but interdependent and interrelated acts, while interest in literacy, has grown steadily. Distinctions are now made between literacy as the act of writing and reading and literacy as a way of thinking and speaking (Langer 1987).
Language is a tool and literacy is culturally based involves the higher intellectual skill appropriate to the culture, and is learned by children as they interact with families and communities (Langer, 1987, p. 2). Langer’s sociocognitive view of literacy is fully compatible with the distinction Collins (1995) makes between a universalist or autonomous literacy, seen as a general, uniform set of uniforms school techniques and uses of examples of a comparison essay language, with identifiable stages and clear consequences for culture and cognition, and relativist or situated literacies, seen as diverse, historically and culturally variable practices with texts (Collins, 1995, p. Uniforms Debate Essay. 75-76). In light of help these expanded views, literacy research has a broader scope. While the skills, processes and interplay of reading and writing remain important, they are much less distinct. Therefore, the central focus of uniforms school debate essay research on literacy examines reading and writing as they embedded in social and cultural contexts. Influenced by the field of anthropology and the methods of ethnographic research, literacy studies now explore how, when and where reading and writing are used, by whom and for what purposes. This shift is evident in the titles of literature published between 1984 and 1997. The titles of reports and books published by National Council of examples of a comparison essay Teachers of English, International Reading Association and school debate essay nine major journals in the fields of education, reading and for college English were searched using descriptors such as reading and writing, writing and school debate essay reading, and literacy. This search yielded 164 titles. Seventy-three percent of examples comparison essay these titles contain the word literacy.
Twenty-seven percent of the titles contain the words reading and uniforms school writing or writing and reading. Interestingly, eighty-two percent of the publications with the for college word literacy in the title were published between 1990 and 1997. Only eighteen percent were published between 1984 and 1989. Publications with the words reading and writing or writing and reading in the title seem more evenly distributed, with forty-three percent being published between 1984 and 1989 and school debate essay fifty-seven percent being published between 1990 and 1997. Writing and Reading Relationships. Writing and reading have long been considered to be related activities. Along with listening and paper philippines speaking, they have been treated by educators as essential components of the English language arts pie, at least since the National Conference on Research in English Charter in 1932 (Petty, 1983). The very image of a pie, with its separate slices, illustrates the collected but separate way in which the parts were construed to relate. However, a large and extremely influential body of research from a constructivist perspective (Anderson, Spiro Montague, 1977; Bereiter Scardamalia, 1982; Hayes Flower, 1980; Spiro, Bruce Brewer, 1980) indicates that reading and writing development are characterized by gradually more sophisticated rule-governed representations, and uniforms school essay that the learner is an active problem-solver who is influenced by background knowledge, text, and context. A concomitant and eventually equally influential body of 21st century science coursework help work, primarily from a sociolinguistic, sociocultural, and sociohistorical perspective (Chafe, 1970; Cook-Gumperz Gumperz, 1981; Halliday, 1975; Heath, 1983; Scribner Cole, 1981; Stubbs, 1980; Vygotsky, 1978, 1986) permitted consideration of ways in which life's experiences as well as the school uses and functions of writing and reading affect not only the acts of writing and reading, but how they relate.
As early as the 1960s, during the period of extensive interdisciplinary research into language and thought spearheaded by the Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard (e.g., Brown Bellugi, 1964; Bruner, Goodnow Austin, 1956; Weir, 1962), writing and reading were regarded as related language processes. Loban (1963), in his important longitudinal study of students' reading and writing development across 4th, 6th, and 9th grades, indicated strong relationships between reading and writing as measured by test scores. He reported that students who wrote well also read well, and that the converse was true. Further, these relationships become even more pronounced across the school grades. In 1983, Stotsky published a review of correlational and experimental studies that investigated reading and writing relationships.
Her much cited synthesis spans approximately fifty years from the beginning of the 1930's to 1981. Correlational studies to reading is importance that time showed that better writers tend to be better readers (of their own writing as well as of other reading material), that better writers tend to essay read more than poorer writers, and that better readers tend to produce more syntactically mature writing than poorer readers (p. 636). Organization. With regard to instruction she reported, Studies that sought to uniforms school improve writing by providing reading experiences in of essay organization place of school essay grammar study or additional writing practice found that these experiences were as beneficial as, or more beneficial than, grammar study or extra writing practice. Studies that used literary models also found significant gains in writing. On the organization other hand, almost all studies that sought to improve writing through reading instruction were ineffective (p.
636). However, the cumulative research through the beginning of 1980 was sparse, and did not focus on explaining the nature of the interrelationships between the two processes. A number of scholars contributed toward a growing conception of school essay reading and writing relationships by focusing on students' engagement in the tasks, describing how from the early years, children use signs and symbols (both those in their environment and those they invent) to gain and flash philippines convey meaning, even as they are first acquiring the conventionally accepted codes (Bissex, 1980; Clay, 1975; Read, 1971). Wittrock (1983) considered the generative nature of both domains; De Ford (1981) noted the supporting and interactive nature of the processes as they occur in primary classrooms; and Goodman and Goodman (1983) described relationships between the two based upon the pragmatic functions of each. Through efforts to comminicate through writing and reading, they gradually adopt both symbols and school conventions of use. Eckhoff (1983) found that the second grade students she studied tended to imitate the style and of a structure of the basals used for reading instruction, which affected the organizational structures and linguistic complexity of the school debate essay students' writing. Chall Jacobs (1983) conducted a study of writing and reading development among poor children, based on NAEP-like test scores. Although reading and writing scores in grades 2 and 3 were good, they noted a deceleration in proficiency gains beginning in of essay grades 4 and 5 and continuing through grade 7. Factor analyses indicated that reading and writing were strongly related. Together, this work suggested that the two domains do have an uniforms school impact upon one another, with implications for enhancing learning.
It also suggested a need to better understand the underlying processes of writing and reading and how they relate to one another. Writing and Reading Processes: Similarities and is importance essay Differences. Constructivist theory as well as research asserts that writing and reading are both meaning-making activities (Anderson, Spiro Montague, 1977; Gregg Steinberg, 1980). hen people write and read, meaning is continually in a state of becoming. The mind anticipates, looks back, and forms momentary impressions that change and grow as meaning develops (Fillmore, 1981; Langer, 1984). Language, syntax, and uniforms school debate essay structure are all at play as texts-in-the-head and texts-on-paper develop. Because writing and reading involve the development of meaning, both were conceptualized as composing activities in the sense that both involve planning, generating and revising meaning -- which occur recursively throughout the meaning-building process as a person's text world or envisionment grows.
From this perspective, some scholars speak of the writer as a reader and the reader as a writer (Graves Hansen, 1983; Smith, 1983). According to Smith (1983) reading like a writer allows one to actually become a writer. When reading like a writer, in addition to making meaning of the text, the reader takes in and learns from the author#146;s style, use of conventions and century the like. When reading like a writer, the reader uses the author#146;s text as a model for texts that he or she reader will eventually write. During the debate development of a piece, the writer always does a certain amount of reading.
And, further, writers often try to place themselves in the shoes of their audience, the readers, in order to check the comprehensibility of their presentation from the reader's perspective. In a similar manner, the reader has also been considered a writer in alcoholic anonymous that the reader's mind races ahead to anticipate (and thus create) not only the message, but also the structure and presentational style of a piece; words are thought of as well as ideas, in uniforms school ways in which they might appear (Bereiter Scardamalia, 1982; Flower Hayes, 1980). Thus, a reader's text can be compared with an author's text, and revised when needed. This sense of writing as reading provides a sense of reading essay personal engagement to the reading experience. Readers also sometimes place themselves in the shoes of the author in order to gain a personal or cultural perspective that enriches their own responses or interpretation (Purves, 1993) Tierney Pearson (1983) argued that both readers and writers compose meaning. They described as essential characteristics of the effective composing process: planning, drafting, aligning, revising, and monitoring.
Further, they saw these acts of composing as involving continuous, recurring, and recursive transactions among readers and writers, their respective inner selves, and their perceptions of each other's goals and debate desires (p. 578). They distinguished their conception from earlier notions of reading and writing relationships in a number of ways including treating the two domains as multi-modal processes and essay considering the inner as well as social selves of the writer and reader. Tierney (1985), in a later description of this model, suggests that purpose also plays a role, Both reading and writing are tools in school debate essay accordance with the purposes they serve; they cannot be extracted from context (p. 115). Both domains were also considered similar composing activities in that writers and readers use similar kinds of knowledge (Aulls, 1985; Flood Lapp,1987; Kucer, 1987) in the act of making their meanings: knowledge about language, knowledge about content, knowledge about genre conventions, knowledge about flash philippines organization and structure, knowledge of pragmatics (in this case about the appropriate use of other kinds of knowledge in relation to the activity -- the author's purpose for having written the piece, or their own purposes for uniforms debate essay having taken up that act of writing or reading), and knowledge about interaction (especially between reader and author). Rubin Hansen (1986) suggested that different types of knowledge that can be tapped through reading instruction might transfer to flash paper philippines writing instruction: informational knowledge, structural knowledge, transactional knowledge, aesthetic knowledge, and process knowledge. Flower (1988) adds knowledge of purpose. She asks how writers come by their sense of purpose; how (or whether) readers are affected by the rhetorical structure woven by school debate writers; and how individual purposes interact with context and convention in the creation and interpretation of a text. She calls for alcoholic anonymous more studies on the active strategies of writers and readers and their relationships. Researchers have also pointed to specific differences between writing and reading.
In her study of children reading and writing, Langer (1986a) found that while reading and writing are cognitively related efforts with regard to meaning making, they are markedly different with regard to school essay activity, strategy and purpose. Overview Of Essay Organization. They also differ across ages with regard to the variety of approaches that they use and the behaviors they exhibit while reading or writing. Langer (1986a), developed a procedure for analyzing the knowledge sources, reasoning operations, monitoring behaviors and specific strategies used during the course of meaning construction before, during and after reading and writing, for uniforms school a study of 3rd, 6th and 9th graders' reading and writing of stories and reports. She found that although the century coursework help same reasoning behaviors are called upon when reading and writing for meaning, the patterns of school debate each category showed differences between writing and reading. Century Help. Specifically, the study identified differences in behaviors and their frequency of use in response to the nature of the task. When reading and writing, students' dominant concern was found to be with the uniforms essay meanings they were developing.
There are stable and consistent approaches to envisionment building that emerged, as evidenced in the students' focus on ideas, content, product, and refinement of anonymous meaning. These structures and strategies changed in similar ways as the language user matured. Debate. However, underlying this overall focus were such differences as a slightly higher concern with bottom-up issues such as mechanics, syntax, text, and lexical choices when writing as compared to reading (p.94). Also, when students wrote they were more aware of and concerned with the strategies they used to flash paper for sale philippines get at meaning. While writing they were more concerned with setting goals and sub-goals. When reading, on uniforms school debate, the other hand, they focused more on content and validation of the text-worlds they were developing. Shanahan's (1987) study was quite different from Langer's, yet some findings are similar. He used four reading measures and eight writing measures to study the magnitude and nature of the reading and writing relationship, and to century science estimate the amount of overlap that exists between the components of writing and reading used in his study of 2nd and 5th grade students' writing and reading. His findings suggest that the idea that reading and writing are identical in school debate terms of for college underlying knowledge, does not appear to be true (p. 98). Although the correlations he found between the uniforms reading and writing variables he examined were significant, they were much lower than would have been expected if the two domains were identical.
Shanahan concludes that, In fact, the correlations are low enough that it would be unwise to expect automatic improvements to derive from the century science coursework combination of reading and writing or from the school essay replacement of one with the other (p. Alcoholic Essay. 98). Webster Ammon (1994) used a Piagetian framework to explore the relationship between cognitive scores (specific classification and seriation tasks) and specific reading and writing tasks at uniforms, the elementary level. In interpreting the generally low correlations, they concluded that facility with the reading is importance essay relevant cognitive skill is school debate, necessary but not sufficient (p. 101) for a high level of performance in writing and reading. Paper Philippines. Also, like Langer (1986a ) their findings indicated that reading and writing differences are more powerful predictors of children's approaches towards meaning development than is genre (p. 104). Together, the work on reading and writing processes indicates that writing and reading are deeply related activities of language and thought that are shaped through use. The structures and strategies that writers and uniforms school debate readers use to organize, remember, and present their ideas are generally the same in writing and reading. However, the overview of essay organization structure of the message and uniforms school essay the strategies used to formulate and organize it are driven by application for college purpose and therefore different. Writing and Reading Relationships With Regard to Instruction.
Researchers and scholars interested in writing and reading connections have also considered ways in which the two, conceptualized as related composing processes, might implicate various uses of language and thought, and affect students' learning. Uniforms. Specifically, research began to examine how the processes of reading and writing are related in actual practice. Researchers also looked at the ways in which students' knowledge of writing and reading processes can influence and 21st science help support reading and writing respectively in the classroom. Uniforms School. They also studied the kinds of classroom contexts and instructional activities that might foster reading and writing as mutually beneficial activities. When approached as similar, related composing processes rather than as isolated skills and behaviors, writing and reading can influence and support the 21st century help development of reading, writing, and thinking (Squire, 1983). Writers incorporate what they have learned about language, structure and style from the texts they have encountered as readers. They also reflect on their knowledge of texts they have read and experiences they have had as a way of generating and synthesizing ideas for writing. In becoming familiar with and school debate gaining experience in writing and for sale reading texts even first graders can develop a sense of authorship that helps them in either composing process (Graves Hansen, 1983, p. 182). The experience and knowledge that is shared between reading and writing can strengthen a writer's ability to uniforms school essay read and a reader's ability to reading essay write (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Rubin Hansen, 1986; Shanahan Lomax, 1986).
In a study which compared the interactive model, the reading to write model, and the writing to read model of the school essay writing and reading relationship (Shanahan Lomax, 1986), writing samples from 256 second graders and 251 first graders were examined with regard to specific reading and essay writing dimensions. Analyses showed that the students' work at both grade levels was best described by the interactive model of the reading and writing relationship that suggests the transfer of knowledge between the two processes. This transfer and school sharing of knowledge is also demonstrated in a study of fifth graders sharing their poetry as well as the work of published authors (Comstock, 1992). Over time, students began borrowing literary techniques, like the use of essay imagery and repetition, from each other. They also began to look to their surroundings for ideas that might prompt them to write. Blatt Rosen's (1987) account of a young child's ability to call on her experience as a listener and reader of fairy tales as she wrote her own also demonstrates this transfer of knowledge between writing and reading. Uniforms Debate. She was able to create a tale that includes a protagonist, an antagonist, and a conflict and begins with Once upon a time much like all the tales with which she is familiar (p. 123). It seems that reading and writing intersect in natural ways when literate persons are actively using reading and writing to learn (Hanson et. al, 1991, p. 58).
This, in light of research, has implications for what might happen in classrooms that encourage thinking and learning through purposeful reading and writing. It also has implications for what classrooms that support reading and writing relationships might look like. To begin, research tells us that successful instruction in flash paper for sale both reading and writing can begin in the earliest grades (Butler Turbil, 1984; Clay, 1985; Graves Hansen, 1983; Shanahan Lomax, 1986), and are best learned when not taught in isolation from each other (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Sternglass, 1987). Even though it is possible for uniforms school debate instruction in writing to improve students' reading comprehension of informational texts (Raphael, Kirschner Englert, 1988), to affect overall learning, instruction does best to focus on reading essay, both reading and writing (Ferris Snyder, 1986; Shanahan, 1984). Instruction in one cannot replace instruction in school debate essay the other if all language curriculum goals are to century science be met (Ferris Snyder, 1986, p. 755). In the classroom, students do best with frequent and extended opportunities to read and write (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Hanson, et. al, 1991; Rubin Hansen, 1986) and when exposed to a body of literature that represents a variety of genres, topics, and styles (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Comstock, 1992). Providing students with choice in what they read and write and are encouraged to read and write, and opportunities to write about topics and ideas that interest them and uniforms debate with which they are familiar positively affects their attitudes toward and opportunities to learn (Hanson, 1991; Rubin Hansen, 1986).
Teachers most successfully support their students' reading and writing development when they create a variety of learning contexts, such as cooperative learning groups and peer dyads, where discussion and instructional scaffolding support students' needs (Hiebert, 1991). Within these contexts teachers help students explore their understandings by providing them with ample opportunities to consider personal responses to the texts they compose and to make links between their prior experiences and reading is importance what they are reading and writing. Students share their ideas and uniforms essay insights and feel that they will be accepted by members of the comparison thesis classroom community (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Comstock, 1992; Graves Hansen, 1983; Hanson et. al, 1991; Rubin Hansen, 1986; Sternglass, 1987). From this perspective, classrooms serve as contexts where readers can develop their understandings through their knowledge and expertise as writers and vice versa. Instruction that encourages meaning making through reading and writing is uniforms debate, based on an understanding of reading and writing as related composing processes. In the overview classroom, a failure to recognize that composing and comprehending are process-oriented thinking skills which are basically interrelated. Uniforms Debate. impedes our efforts not only to teach children to read and write, but our efforts to teach them how to think (Squire, 1983, p. 581). Writing and Reading as Related to Thinking, Conceptualizing and for college Communicating Knowledge. Moving beyond an examination of the uniforms school debate essay ways in which writing and reading are related is research that examines how reading and writing, as processes, are used to conceptualize and communicate thoughts and overview organization ideas.
This research looks at the synergism (Tierney, 1992, p. 250) between the interrelated meaning making activities of reading and writing. During these activities it is the interplay of mind and text that brings about new interpretations, reformulations of ideas, and new learnings (Langer, 1986a, p. 2-3). A number of school essay these studies have examined how reading and writing interact and comparison are informed by uniforms debate one's facility with writing and reading respectively. In addition to demonstrating that children's writing is heavily influenced by their reading experiences, De Ford's (1981) observations of first graders indicate that there is a supportive, interactive relationship between the for sale philippines reading and writing processes. Children learn about how to uniforms school debate essay become writers from reading as well as how to essay for college become readers. By understanding authorship, they sort out what reading is all about through writing (De Ford, 1981, p. 657). A sense of authorship can lead to the development of critical literacy in which the reader/writer moves past simply understanding the content of the text or using it as a model to be imitated and begins to question, test, shape and reshape it (Flower, 1990). Greene (1992) expands on this notion of learning to become a writer through reading by introducing the metaphor of mining as a means of school debate exploring how writers read when they have an eye toward authoring their own texts. By comparing the think aloud protocols of several students who are reading argumentative essays with the intention of eventually writing one, Greene looks at how mining a text and critically reading a text differ. Mining is fueled by three key strategies that can inform reading: reconstructing context, inferring or imposing structure, and seeing choices in language. [Using these strategies], a reader can begin to make informed guesses about how to use the ideas or discourse features of alcoholic a given text in light of his or her goals as a writer (Greene, 1992, p. 155). When mining, a sense of school authorship guides the application essay for college reader.
By using the three strategies the miner of a text engages in an ongoing process of reading, analyzing, and authoring that recognizes the social nature of discourse. Each piece of uniforms school debate writing that a student reads or writes is a contribution to an ongoing written conversation (p. 158). Conversely, the critical reader engages in a search for thesis meaning by breaking down isolated texts. Little attention is given to the kind of knowledge that would enable them to apply their critical reading skills to other tasks (p.
159). Questions about uniforms debate essay how a sense of authorship can guide reading are also taken up by 21st studies examining how writers create new texts of their own from multiple sources which may include the uniforms essay texts they are reading presently as well as their own prior knowledge. Readers/writers transform texts (Spivey, 1990) through the overview of essay constructive tasks of selecting, connecting and organizing information from source texts and prior knowledge. This incorporation of prior knowledge is what Stein (1990) refers to as elaboration. Uniforms School Essay. This cognitive process is the principle means by which information from overview of essay organization memory is combined with source text material in the reading process (p. 146). Elaborations during reading create a pool of ideas from which to draw during the writing process (p. 147). Whether referred to uniforms school debate essay as reading to examples thesis write (Flower, 1990; Stein, 1990) or composing from sources (McGinley, 1992; Spivey, 1990; Spivey King, 1989), the readers/writers are involved in processes of uniforms debate essay reading and writing that are so integrated. that boundaries between the two processes tend to blur.
When writers compose. from sources, reading and writing processes blend, making it difficult, if not. impossible, to distinguish what is being done for purposes of reading and from. what is being done for purposes of writing. we often cannot say whether a writer. performs a certain operation to make meaning of the is importance text that is read or to make. meaning for the text that is being written (Spivey, 1990 p. 258). Creating new texts in this way is a complex and recursive process (McGinley, 1992) in which context (e.g., task, setting, prior experience of reader/writer), one#146;s expertise as a reader, and his or her ability to use strategies play important roles (Flower, 1990; McGinley, 1992; Stein, 1990; Spivey, 1990; Spivey King, 1989). Research has also considered the effects of reading and writing on thinking and how different types of writing tasks shape thinking and learning. It suggests that reading and writing in combination are more likely to prompt critical thinking than when reading is uniforms school debate, separated from writing or when reading is combined with knowledge activation or answering questions (Tierney et al., 1989, p. 134). Research also looks more specifically at the types of writing that shape thinking (Greene 1993; Langer, 1986b; Langer Applebee, 1987; Marshall, 1987; Newell, 1984; Newell Winograd, 1989). In the reading essay content areas, essay writing was found to uniforms debate be more beneficial than answering questions or taking notes regardless of students#146; prior knowledge (Newell, 1984).
Students involved in note-taking and responding to application study questions seem to concentrate on remembering and regurgitating specific information from the text. Uniforms Debate Essay. Essay writing, on the other hand, provides students with opportunities to make connections and reading is importance essay think broadly about a topic. These studies indicate that the greatest variety of reasoning operations occur during essay writing, suggesting that this type of activity provides time for students to think most flexibly as they develop their ideas (Langer Applebee 1987, p. 100). These findings are supported by Marshall's (1987) examination of the uniforms school relationship between writing and the understanding of literature. By looking at the effects of essay restricted writing, personal analytic writing, and formal analytic writing, he found that restricted writing like responding to uniforms school essay short answer questions may actually hinder students' understanding of literary texts because such tasks fail to provide students with an opportunity to explore and elaborate on science coursework, possible interpretations.
Similarly, Greene (1993) studied the ways in which problem-based essays and debate essay report writing assignments shaped history students#146; thinking as they attempted to compose from multiple sources. He found that both tasks allowed students to develop their understanding of history. Essay. There was no significant effect for the type of task with regard to learning. However, [d]ifferent tasks of writing encouraged students not only to think about historical issues differently but also to supply different patterns of debate essay organization in coursework writing about these issues. Differences in text structure concretely reflected students' differential interpretations of how to go about writing reports and solving problems (p. 72).
Clearly, the focus of research has shifted. School Debate. Emphasis on reading and writing as parallel processes with similar cognitive strategies has yielded to understanding the integration of reading and writing and the interaction between the overview organization mind and text. Within this body of research, process and purpose remain focal. Also, the effects of grade and school essay ability level on reading and essay writing persist as areas of concern. Finally, the contexts in which reading and writing are embedded gain increasing attention. Writing and Reading as Literacy Events. As sociolinguistic, sociocultural and anthropological perspectives became more influential, new ways of thinking, talking, and learning about uniforms literacy took hold.
There was growing interest in the interactions surrounding text and the ways in which interactions between and among individuals, who they are, and why they are writing and reading influence meaning making. Research that continues to grow from this orientation asks that we reconsider previous ways of looking at writing and century science coursework reading relationships; reading and writing are considered as intertwined and school essay inseparable language tools. From this vantage point, the attention of research turns to literate behaviors and literate ways of flash paper thinking. Uniforms Essay. Here, literacy means the ability to manipulate the language and thought involved when people make sense in a variety of situations; it involves ways of application for college thinking that are learned in school essay the many contexts of life (Langer, 1987; 1995). The functions and uses of oral, written, and spoken language as well as the images and other semiotic meaning-bearing devices encountered and used in the variety of flash paper for sale everyday life experiences (John-Steiner, 1995; New London Group, 1996) are the focus. Research from uniforms essay this perspective has focused on for sale philippines, the ways in which adolescents, adults, and even the very young use language to construct meaning within particular social and school cultural communities (Dyson, 1989, 1992; Heath, 1983; Scribner Cole, 1981; Teale Sulzby, 1986). Within this body of of essay research the literacy event is a conceptual tool useful in examining within particular communities of modern society the actual forms and functions of oral and literate traditions and co-existing relationships between spoken and written language (Heath, 1988, p. 350). Research observes the ongoing activities that make up literacy events occurring in the classroom and in the community at large (e.g., home, workplace). Reading and writing are integrated within and essential to these ongoing activities.
Langer (1997) describes eight years of research which investigated how individuals in uniforms debate school and in school-like settings think and reason when they are engaged with literature and how classroom interactions may foster literacy development. She found that envisionment-building literature classes invite students to be members of a social community where they can share their ideas and essay differences with others and expect those differences to move their own thinking toward more individually rich, but never singular interpretations (p. 10) Her research also showed that a collaborative, broad-based literature activity such as story writing/telling provided individuals of school debate diverse ages, linguistic and cultural backgrounds with opportunities to become aware of and discuss language and discourse differences as well as to century help learn English literacy. Despite their ages, be they 2 or 42 years old, they were members of a language and literacy- rich environment where they learned to talk about and control features of language and school debate essay form--where the 21st century science coursework help literature that was sought and valued was their own (p. 9). Students in uniforms debate essay the envisionment-building classroom and those involved in the broad based activity are constantly and simultaneously involved in listening, discussing, reading and writing but reading and writing are not viewed as separate in time or in purpose. Furthermore, they are never regarded as skills, activities, or ends in themselves, but as tools of language (Langer, 1995, p. 140). Research shows clearly that even very young children engage in literacy (Dyson, 1989, 1992) when they use print to represent their ideas and to interact with other people (Dyson, 1992, p. 4).
Literacy emerges when children scribble, draw and label pictures, and create, act out or retell stories. During these times they are engaged in literate behaviors that are essential parts of the language development process (Teale Sulzby, 1986). Dyson (1989, 1992) found that children's literacy development was directly linked to the social practices that surrounded them, that is, to their discovery of literacy's rich relevance to their present interactions with friends and to their reflections on their experiences (1989, p. 276). Through the support of the peer and adult members of children's literate communities, children learned that language can be used for essay thesis social and practical purposes. This body of research requires that we reconsider how we understand the relationship between writing and reading. From this perspective, writing and reading are intertwined and embedded in the larger picture of literacy.
It also moves us to reflect on what counts as literacy. Finally, it asks that we take a closer look at the ways in which literacy is debate, developed and demonstrated at home, work, and school. In thinking about literacy as universalist, autonomous (Collins, 1995; Street, 1993) or as schooled literacy(Cook-Gumperz, 1986), what counts are those behaviors, practices, skills, or tasks that are traditionally associated with reading and writing. According to this description, one becomes literate through independent or teacher-led interaction with written texts. One's level of paper literacy, and the resultant label of literate or illiterate, is determined through the testing and measuring of school these skills. Literacy then is assumed to be a standardized, institutional notion which exists and is identified independently of a social or cultural context. Moreover, this notion of literacy is often the basis by essay which schools and society determine one's intellect, educability and potential contribution to and earning power in the work force. Heath (1983) found that some children, as members of school debate essay particular communities, are accustomed to and participate in literate ways of thinking and behaving that may not be incorporated into or reflected in the children's classrooms. As such, children in these communities often have great difficulty succeeding in school.
In her study, teachers help children from three communities narrow the gaps between their home and community literacy experiences and flash paper for sale those of school. Teachers believed that [t]heir central role was to pass on to all groups certain traditional tools and ways of using language. Children had to reformulate to school debate different degrees their home habits of handling knowledge and their ways of talking about knowledge (p. 354-355). In this body of work, literacy was not seen as solely cognitive interplay of separate reading and writing behaviors or practices, but rather as involving: . manipulation of the language and thought we engage in when we make sense and convey ideas in a variety of situations; it involves ways of thinking, which we learn in the many contexts of our lives. It enables the personal empowerment that results when people use their literacy skills to think and rethink their understandings of texts, themselves, and the world. It gives importance to individuals and the oral and essay written texts they create and encounter, and calls upon as well as fosters the kinds of language and thought that mark good and sharp thinking (Langer, 1995, p. Debate Essay. 1). The studies focused on application for college, ways in which reading and writing can be used as tools to make sense of the world and to express thoughts that demonstrate and convey literate knowledge and understanding.
Where from uniforms debate essay here? A new set of issues have been brought to the table by a variety of help writers who take, for example, a feminist perspective (Belenky et al, 1986; Brodkey, 1989; Gilligan, 1982; Fetterly, 1978; Minnich, 1990; Solsken, 1993) or a cultural perspective (Ferdman, 1990; Hakuta, 1986; Street, 1984; Valencia, 1991; Weber, 1991; Wong-Fillmore, 1992). These writers foreground issues of power (Apple, 1982; Bordieu Passeron, 1977; Cope Kalantzis, 1993; Freire, 1972; Halliday Martin, 1993), self (Giroux, 1983; Rockhill, 1993, Rose, 1989), and more recently authorship (Rabinowitz Smith, 1997) which further complicate our notions of writing and reading relationships in important ways. They cause us to consider the connections between literacy and the ways in which we place ourselves vis-a-vis the literacy experience. They propel us to consider essential issues such as whose text and whose agency are being considered, along with what assumptions are being made about reader's knowledge and experiences. The next logical step is for researchers to uniforms essay look at how readers and comparison writers, as both individuals and members of a variety of groups, approach reading and writing as constructive tasks that are embedded in life's situations. More precisely, research needs to refocus on the ways in which reading and writing develop and influence each other while constantly being affected by the social, cultural, and uniforms school debate political contexts in which they are enacted. This will require consideration of genres. For example, if genres are the products of application socially developed conventions that foster communicability within groups of people, as the uniforms school debate essay variety of flash paper philippines groups considered to fall within the purview of the educational sphere changes to include the variety of uniforms students who populate both our schools and the world, so too will our understandings of the constructions of these genres need to change so that we might recognize, value, and teach them. So too, will we need to study the inevitable genre changes as the groups themselves change over alcoholic essay time.
A number of school and classroom-based research agendas are called for. First, careful teaching and learning studies are needed of situated (Brown, Collins, Draguid, 1989; Greeno, 1997) and activity-based , 1981) learning events from the uniforms school debate essay perspectives of the essay for college diverse students and teachers who comprise the classes, the uniforms essay nature of the discourse groups they form, communicate within, and learn from, and the ways in which the students learn, as well as the literacy skills and knowledge they develop in these settings. Of course student learning will need to be considered in relation to the ways in which particular tasks and group dynamics affect various aspects of literacy learning, including the degree to which these are learned and how available they are for use in paper new situations. Essay. So too, will a careful look need to be taken at the particular skills and knowledge students learn in these situations, the additional kinds of support that might be needed based on alcoholic anonymous essay, students' knowledge and needs, and how these can be coherently linked in ways that are most supportive of students' growing literacy abilities. Teaching and learning studies will also need to focus on particular ways in which diversity can be used to uniforms advantage in diverse classrooms, as a way to help all students gain from the experiences of others and use what they already know in new literacy learning. Another set of studies will need to focus on the curriculum. First, the curriculum will need to be studied in terms of what it includes and excludes in overview skills as well as content, and uniforms ways in which they are linked. The tools of learning and uses of overview of essay literacy have been rapidly changing in our present-day society, calling us to revisit the uniforms debate guidelines meant to structure and provide coherence to student coursework. Here, studies will need to focus on the literacy knowledge students bring to school with them but are not recognized as such (i.e., computers as well as graphic imagery; the ability to manipulate language in culturally or socially sanctioned ways such as rap) as well as the varieties of comparison essay literate knowledge they will need to successfully live their lives as participants in our changing society. Research also needs to focus on what gets read, when, and how. While issues of the canon tend to become politicized, an orchestrated body of research needs to focus not only on what works are to be included and uniforms school essay what others will be optional, but also the ways in which particular combinations of texts can be used to stimulate more complex thinking as well as higher literacy (Applebee, 1996).
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