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The functional resume format focuses mostly on the skills of the critical romeo and juliet, applicant rather than his work experiences. Unlike the suicide essay, conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the applicant performed or learned those skills. It’s the fact that the candidate holds those skills relevant to acknowledgements for a, the specific job opening, is highlighted in the functional format. The functional format would be useful for you when- You need to create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about your skills You have big gaps in your career history You are looking forward to promote a particular skill set. As the name suggests, combination resume focuses on a fusion of the traditional chronological functional resumes.
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Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data. Targeted resumes are most effective and you need to spend more time preparing it. Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and how to x sub, some samples to make a perfect resume yourself. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes? Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the job requirement is for teenage suicide essay freshers only, employers would like to receive chronological resumes as the essay, data and information about the candidate would be sequentially and it would be easy to locate required information easily.
But in the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to have functional resumes where experience and skills get the priority. Essay? But in general, employers prefer chronological resume format. Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to apply in ib business, IT firm and suicide essay, then based on the job requirements, you have to form the resume that the introduction university essay, employers would prefer the teenage essay, most. To write a resume, you have to critical romeo, collect all the required data and information about you in one place. Then you have to download some sample resumes and resume templates as per the purpose of the teenage, resume. Hl Coursework? For example, if you are applying in an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for suicide essay a post of system HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and start filling the details. If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to teenage suicide argumentative essay, omit and delete them. You should refer to sample resume for checking out how exactly to fill the ib business hl coursework, data and information to look impressive. what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats. Out of the four different types of resumes we listed above, chronological and teenage suicide argumentative essay, functional are the system in ukraine essay, most popular resume formats. Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of a couple of years.
On the other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at least experience of teenage essay working in two and more companies. Freshers can also use it in case the candidate has diverse skills and has done many internships in the past. There are multiple formats available in these two categories and one should download freshers and in ukraine, Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to choose from. A chronological resume is the suicide, most used resumes in critical, the world. In a chronological resume, everything is listed from the recent to the earliest format. Teenage Suicide Argumentative? For example, in academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by the college degree and ib business hl coursework, then at teenage suicide argumentative essay, last school qualification. Similarly, in work experience, your recent work would be listed and in the end, you can have your internships.
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Suicide with Teens | Teen Essay About …
How to Write a Great Business Plan. Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers–and far too little on suicide the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on critical essays a series of questions. Teenage Suicide! These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and in ukraine How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the venture’s product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in addition to demonstrating an understanding of the essay context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it.
A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it. Few areas of business attract as much attention as new ventures, and few aspects of new-venture creation attract as much attention as the acknowledgements for a thesis business plan. Countless books and articles in teenage suicide essay, the popular press dissect the topic. A growing number of annual business-plan contests are springing up across the acknowledgements thesis United States and, increasingly, in other countries. Both graduate and undergraduate schools devote entire courses to the subject. Indeed, judging by all the hoopla surrounding business plans, you would think that the only things standing between a would-be entrepreneur and spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, a bundle of meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and a decade of month-by-month financial projections. Nothing could be further from the teenage argumentative essay truth. In my experience with hundreds of entrepreneurial startups, business plans rank no higher than 2—on a scale from educational 1 to 10—as a predictor of a new venture’s success.
And sometimes, in fact, the more elaborately crafted the document, the more likely the venture is to, well, flop, for teenage suicide argumentative essay, lack of a more euphemistic word. What’s wrong with most business plans? The answer is relatively straightforward. Most waste too much ink on numbers and devote too little to the information that really matters to critical, intelligent investors. As every seasoned investor knows, financial projections for a new company—especially detailed, month-by-month projections that stretch out for more than a year—are an act of imagination. An entrepreneurial venture faces far too many unknowns to predict revenues, let alone profits.
Moreover, few if any entrepreneurs correctly anticipate how much capital and time will be required to accomplish their objectives. Typically, they are wildly optimistic, padding their projections. Investors know about the padding effect and therefore discount the figures in business plans. These maneuvers create a vicious circle of inaccuracy that benefits no one. Don’t misunderstand me: business plans should include some numbers. But those numbers should appear mainly in the form of a business model that shows the entrepreneurial team has thought through the key drivers of the venture’s success or failure. In manufacturing, such a driver might be the yield on a production process; in magazine publishing, the anticipated renewal rate; or in software, the argumentative impact of using various distribution channels. Critical Essays Romeo And Juliet! The model should also address the break-even issue: At what level of sales does the business begin to make a profit? And even more important, When does cash flow turn positive? Without a doubt, these questions deserve a few pages in any business plan. Near the teenage suicide argumentative essay back.
What goes at system in ukraine, the front? What information does a good business plan contain? If you want to speak the essay language of investors—and also make sure you have asked yourself the essays and juliet right questions before setting out on the most daunting journey of a businessperson’s career—I recommend basing your business plan on suicide essay the framework that follows. It does not provide the kind of in ukraine “winning” formula touted by some current how-to books and software programs for teenage, entrepreneurs. Nor is educational essay, it a guide to brain surgery. Rather, the framework systematically assesses the four interdependent factors critical to argumentative, every new venture: The People.
The men and women starting and running the venture, as well as the outside parties providing key services or important resources for it, such as its lawyers, accountants, and suppliers. The Opportunity. A profile of the 1 business itself—what it will sell and to teenage argumentative essay, whom, whether the business can grow and how fast, what its economics are, who and what stand in the way of success. The Context. The big picture—the regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, inflation, and the like—basically, factors that inevitably change but cannot be controlled by the entrepreneur.
Risk and Reward. An assessment of everything that can go wrong and right, and a discussion of how the entrepreneurial team can respond. Business Plans: For Entrepreneurs Only? The accompanying article talks mainly about business plans in a familiar context, as a tool for entrepreneurs. But quite often, start-ups are launched within established companies. Do those new ventures require business plans? And if they do, should they be different from the plans entrepreneurs put together? The answer to the first question is an emphatic yes; the answer to the second, an conclude essay equally emphatic no. All new ventures—whether they are funded by venture capitalists or, as is the case with intrapreneurial businesses, by shareholders—need to pass the teenage argumentative essay same acid tests.
After all, the marketplace does not differentiate between products or services based on who is pouring money into them behind the scenes. The fact is, intrapreneurial ventures need every bit as much analysis as entrepreneurial ones do, yet they rarely receive it. Instead, inside big companies, new businesses get proposed in the form of capital-budgeting requests. How To! These faceless documents are subject to detailed financial scrutiny and a consensus-building process, as the project wends its way through the chain of teenage suicide argumentative command, what I call the “neutron bomb” model of x sub 1 project governance. However, in the history of teenage suicide essay such proposals, a plan never has been submitted that did not promise returns in excess of corporate hurdle rates.
It is only after the new business is launched that these numbers explode at the organization’s front door. That problem could be avoided in large part if intrapreneurial ventures followed the introduction guidelines set out in the accompanying article. For instance, business plans for teenage suicide essay, such a venture should begin with the résumés of all the people involved. How To Write 1! What has the team done in essay, the past that would suggest it would be successful in the future, and so on? In addition, the acknowledgements for a thesis new venture’s product or service should be fully analyzed in terms of its opportunity and context. Going through the process forces a kind of discipline that identifies weaknesses and strengths early on and helps managers address both. It also helps enormously if such discipline continues after the intrapreneurial venture lifts off. When professional venture capitalists invest in new companies, they track performance as a matter of teenage suicide essay course.
But in large companies, scrutiny of a new venture is often inconsistent. That shouldn’t or needn’t be the acknowledgements for a case. A business plan helps managers ask such questions as: How is the new venture doing relative to projections? What decisions has the team made in response to new information? Have changes in the context made additional funding necessary? How could the team have predicted those changes? Such questions not only keep a new venture running smoothly but also help an organization learn from its mistakes and triumphs. Many successful companies have been built with the help of venture capitalists. Teenage Suicide Argumentative! Many of the underlying opportunities could have been exploited by large companies. Introduction! Why weren’t they?
Perhaps useful lessons can be learned by studying the teenage world of independent ventures, one lesson being: Write a great business plan. The assumption behind the framework is essays romeo, that great businesses have attributes that are easy to identify but hard to assemble. They have an experienced, energetic managerial team from the top to the bottom. Suicide Essay! The team’s members have skills and experiences directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing. Ideally, they will have worked successfully together in the past. The opportunity has an attractive, sustainable business model; it is possible to create a competitive edge and write x sub 1 defend it. Many options exist for expanding the essay scale and scope of the business, and these options are unique to introduction, the enterprise and its team. Value can be extracted from the business in a number of ways either through a positive harvest event—a sale—or by essay scaling down or liquidating.
The context is introduction university essay, favorable with respect to teenage suicide argumentative essay, both the critical essays romeo and juliet regulatory and the macro-economic environments. Risk is teenage suicide argumentative essay, understood, and the team has considered ways to mitigate the impact of difficult events. In short, great businesses have the four parts of the framework completely covered. If only critical romeo, reality were so neat. When I receive a business plan, I always read the résumé section first. Not because the people part of the new venture is the most important, but because without the right team, none of the teenage argumentative other parts really matters. I read the résumés of the venture’s team with a list of questions in mind. (See the insert “Who Are These People, Anyway?”) All these questions get at the same three issues about the venture’s team members: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? Fourteen “Personal” Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer. Where are the founders from?
Where have they been educated? Where have they worked—and for for a thesis, whom? What have they accomplished—professionally and personally—in the past? What is their reputation within the teenage suicide argumentative business community? What experience do they have that is directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing?
What skills, abilities, and knowledge do they have? How realistic are they about the hl coursework venture’s chances for success and the tribulations it will face? Who else needs to teenage suicide, be on the team? Are they prepared to recruit high-quality people? How will they respond to adversity? Do they have the mettle to critical essays romeo and juliet, make the inevitable hard choices that have to be made? How committed are they to suicide argumentative, this venture? What are their motivations? What and whom they know are matters of insight and experience.
How familiar are the team members with industry players and dynamics? Investors, not surprisingly, value managers who have been around the block a few times. A business plan should candidly describe each team member’s knowledge of the romeo new venture’s type of teenage product or service; its production processes; and hl coursework the market itself, from competitors to teenage suicide argumentative essay, customers. It also helps to indicate whether the team members have worked together before. Not played—as in roomed together in college—but worked . Investors also look favorably on a team that is known because the real world often prefers not to deal with start-ups. They’re too unpredictable.
That changes, however, when the new company is run by people well known to conclude essay, suppliers, customers, and employees. Their enterprise may be brand new, but they aren’t. The surprise element of teenage essay working with a start-up is somewhat ameliorated. Finally, the people part of a business plan should receive special care because, simply stated, that’s where most intelligent investors focus their attention. A typical professional venture-capital firm receives approximately 2,000 business plans per year. How To X Sub 1! These plans are filled with tantalizing ideas for new products and teenage argumentative essay services that will change the world and reap billions in the process—or so they say. But the fact is, most venture capitalists believe that ideas are a dime a dozen: only execution skills count.
As Arthur Rock, a venture capital legend associated with the formation of such companies as Apple, Intel, and essay argument Teledyne, states, “I invest in people, not ideas.” Rock also has said, “If you can find good people, if they’re wrong about the product, they’ll make a switch, so what good is suicide argumentative essay, it to understand the acknowledgements thesis product that they’re talking about in the first place?” Business plan writers should keep this admonition in mind as they craft their proposal. Teenage Essay! Talk about the people—exhaustively. And if there is nothing solid about their experience and abilities to herald, then the entrepreneurial team should think again about launching the venture. When it comes to the opportunity itself, a good business plan begins by focusing on two questions: Is the total market for the venture’s product or service large, rapidly growing, or both? Is the critical essays industry now, or can it become, structurally attractive?
Entrepreneurs and investors look for teenage suicide argumentative essay, large or rapidly growing markets mainly because it is often easier to obtain a share of write introduction university a growing market than to fight with entrenched competitors for teenage suicide argumentative essay, a share of how to x sub a mature or stagnant market. Smart investors, in fact, try hard to identify high-growth-potential markets early in their evolution: that’s where the suicide essay big payoffs are. And, indeed, many will not invest in a company that cannot reach a significant scale (that is, $ 50 million in annual revenues) within five years. HBR Guide to Building Your Business Case Ebook + Tools. As for attractiveness, investors are obviously looking for markets that actually allow businesses to make some money. But that’s not the no-brainer it seems. In the late 1970s, the computer disk-drive business looked very attractive. The technology was new and educational system exciting. Dozens of companies jumped into teenage essay the fray, aided by an army of professional investors. Twenty years later, however, the write introduction thrill is gone for managers and investors alike. Disk drive companies must design products to meet the perceived needs of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users.
Selling a product to OEMs is complicated. The customers are large relative to most of their suppliers. There are lots of competitors, each with similar high-quality offerings. Moreover, product life cycles are short and ongoing technology investments high. The industry is subject to major shifts in teenage argumentative, technology and system customer needs.
Intense rivalry leads to lower prices and, hence, lower margins. In short, the disk drive industry is simply not set up to make people a lot of teenage suicide argumentative essay money; it’s a structural disaster area. The information services industry, by contrast, is paradise. Companies such as Bloomberg Financial Markets and First Call Corporation, which provide data to the financial world, have virtually every competitive advantage on their side. First, they can assemble or create proprietary content—content that, by the way, is like life’s blood to thousands of money managers and stock analysts around the world. And although it is acknowledgements for a thesis, often expensive to develop the suicide argumentative essay service and to acquire initial customers, once up and running, these companies can deliver content to customers very cheaply. Conclude Essay Argument! Also, customers pay in advance of receiving the service, which makes cash flow very handsome, indeed. In short, the structure of the suicide argumentative essay information services industry is beyond attractive: it’s gorgeous. Critical Essays And Juliet! The profit margins of Bloomberg and First Call put the disk drive business to shame. The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It?
Nine Questions About the Business Every Business Plan Should Answer. Who is the new venture’s customer? How does the customer make decisions about teenage suicide argumentative, buying this product or service? To what degree is the product or service a compelling purchase for the customer? How will the product or service be priced? How will the venture reach all the for a identified customer segments? How much does it cost (in time and resources) to acquire a customer?
How much does it cost to argumentative, produce and deliver the product or service? How much does it cost to support a customer? How easy is it to retain a customer? Thus, the first step for acknowledgements, entrepreneurs is to make sure they are entering an industry that is large and/or growing, and teenage essay one that’s structurally attractive. How To! The second step is to make sure their business plan rigorously describes how this is the case. Teenage! And if it isn’t the case, their business plan needs to specify how the venture will still manage to university essay, make enough of a profit that investors (or potential employees or suppliers, for that matter) will want to participate. Once it examines the suicide essay new venture’s industry, a business plan must describe in detail how the company will build and launch its product or service into the marketplace. Again, a series of questions should guide the discussion. (See the acknowledgements for a thesis insert “The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It?”)
Often the answers to these questions reveal a fatal flaw in the business. I’ve seen entrepreneurs with a “great” product discover, for example, that it’s simply too costly to suicide, find customers who can and write will buy what they are selling. Economically viable access to customers is the key to business, yet many entrepreneurs take the Field of teenage argumentative Dreams approach to this notion: build it, and write introduction university essay they will come. That strategy works in the movies but is not very sensible in the real world. It is argumentative, not always easy to answer questions about the likely consumer response to conclude, new products or services. The market is teenage suicide argumentative, as fickle as it is unpredictable. Acknowledgements Thesis! (Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?) One entrepreneur I know proposed to introduce an electronic news-clipping service. He made his pitch to a prospective venture-capital investor who rejected the plan, stating, “I just don’t think the dogs will eat the dog food.” Later, when the entrepreneur’s company went public, he sent the venture capitalist an anonymous package containing an empty can of dog food and teenage argumentative essay a copy of his prospectus. If it were easy to predict what people will buy, there wouldn’t be any opportunities. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?
Similarly, it is tough to guess how much people will pay for something, but a business plan must address that topic. Sometimes, the dogs will eat the dog food, but only at a price less than cost. Investors always look for opportunities for value pricing—that is, markets in educational in ukraine, which the costs to produce the product are low, but consumers will still pay a lot for it. No one is dying to invest in suicide argumentative essay, a company when margins are skinny. Still, there is money to be made in inexpensive products and services—even in commodities. A business plan must demonstrate that careful consideration has been given to the new venture’s pricing scheme. The list of questions about the new venture’s opportunity focuses on the direct revenues and the costs of ib business producing and marketing a product. That’s fine, as far as it goes. Teenage! A sensible proposal, however, also involves assessing the business model from educational in ukraine a perspective that takes into account the investment required—that is, the balance sheet side of the equation.
The following questions should also be addressed so that investors can understand the cash flow implications of pursuing an suicide opportunity: When does the business have to buy resources, such as supplies, raw materials, and thesis people? When does the teenage suicide essay business have to pay for them? How long does it take to acquire a customer? How long before the how to write x sub 1 customer sends the business a check?
How much capital equipment is required to support a dollar of sales? Investors, of course, are looking for businesses in suicide argumentative, which management can buy low, sell high, collect early, and pay late. The business plan needs to spell out how close to that ideal the new venture is expected to come. Even if the answer is “not very”—and it usually is—at least the educational system in ukraine essay truth is out there to discuss. The opportunity section of a business plan must also bring a few other issues to teenage suicide argumentative, the surface. First, it must demonstrate and analyze how an hl coursework opportunity can grow—in other words, how the new venture can expand its range of teenage suicide argumentative products or services, customer base, or geographic scope. Often, companies are able to create virtual pipelines that support the economically viable creation of new revenue streams. In the publishing business, for example, Inc. magazine has expanded its product line to include seminars, books, and videos about entrepreneurship.
Similarly, building on how to x sub 1 the success of its personal-finance software program Quicken, Intuit now sells software for teenage suicide argumentative, electronic banking, small-business accounting, and tax preparation, as well as personal-printing supplies and write on-line information services—to name just a few of its highly profitable ancillary spin-offs. Now, lots of business plans runneth over on teenage essay the subject of the new venture’s potential for introduction university essay, growth and expansion. But they should likewise runneth over in explaining how they won’t fall into some common opportunity traps. One of suicide those has already been mentioned: industries that are at their core structurally unattractive. But there are others. The world of invention, for argument, example, is fraught with danger. Essay! Over the past 15 years, I have seen scores of how to write 1 individuals who have devised a better mousetrap—newfangled creations from inflatable pillows for use on teenage suicide argumentative airplanes to automated car-parking systems. Few of these idea-driven companies have really taken off, however. I’m not entirely sure why. Sometimes, the inventor refuses to spend the money required by or share the rewards sufficiently with the business side of the company.
Other times, inventors become so preoccupied with their inventions they forget the customer. Ib Business Hl Coursework! Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of malfunctioning. Another opportunity trap that business plans—and entrepreneurs in argumentative, general—need to pay attention to is the tricky business of arbitrage. Basically, arbitrage ventures are created to take advantage of some pricing disparity in the marketplace. MCI Communications Corporation, for instance, was formed to offer long-distance service at a lower price than ATT.
Some of the industry consolidations going on system in ukraine today reflect a different kind of arbitrage—the ability to buy small businesses at a wholesale price, roll them up together into a larger package, and take them public at a retail price, all without necessarily adding value in the process. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an teenage argumentative essay uncanny way of educational system malfunctioning. Taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities is a viable and potentially profitable way to enter a business. In the final analysis, however, all arbitrage opportunities evaporate. It is not a question of whether, only when. The trick in these businesses is to use the arbitrage profits to build a more enduring business model, and business plans must explain how and when that will occur. As for competition, it probably goes without saying that all business plans should carefully and thoroughly cover this territory, yet some don’t. That is teenage suicide essay, a glaring omission.
For starters, every business plan should answer the following questions about the competition: Who are the new venture’s current competitors? What resources do they control? What are their strengths and weaknesses? How will they respond to how to write, the new venture’s decision to enter the business? How can the new venture respond to its competitors’ response?
Who else might be able to teenage essay, observe and exploit the same opportunity? Are there ways to co-opt potential or actual competitors by forming alliances? Business is like chess: to be successful, you must anticipate several moves in advance. A business plan that describes an insuperable lead or a proprietary market position is by definition written by naïve people. That goes not just for the competition section of the business plan but for the entire discussion of the opportunity. All opportunities have promise; all have vulnerabilities. A good business plan doesn’t whitewash the latter.
Rather, it proves that the entrepreneurial team knows the good, the bad, and the ugly that the venture faces ahead. Opportunities exist in a context. At one level is the macroeconomic environment, including the level of economic activity, inflation, exchange rates, and interest rates. At another level are the wide range of government rules and regulations that affect the opportunity and how resources are marshaled to conclude, exploit it. Examples extend from tax policy to the rules about raising capital for a private or public company. And at yet another level are factors like technology that define the limits of what a business or its competitors can accomplish. Context often has a tremendous impact on teenage argumentative essay every aspect of the entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. In some cases, changes in some contextual factor create opportunity. More than 100 new companies were formed when the airline industry was deregulated in essays romeo, the late 1970s. The context for financing was also favorable, enabling new entrants like People Express to teenage suicide, go to how to, the public market for capital even before starting operations.
Conversely, there are times when the context makes it hard to start new enterprises. The recession of the early 1990s combined with a difficult financing environment for new companies: venture capital disbursements were low, as was the amount of argumentative capital raised in the public markets. (Paradoxically, those relatively tight conditions, which made it harder for essay argument, new entrants to get going, were associated with very high investment returns later in the 1990s, as capital markets heated up.) Sometimes, a shift in context turns an unattractive business into an attractive one, and essay vice versa. Consider the case of a packaging company some years ago that was performing so poorly it was about to be put on the block. Then came the Tylenol-tampering incident, resulting in multiple deaths. The packaging company happened to ib business, have an efficient mechanism for installing tamper-proof seals, and in a matter of weeks its financial performance could have been called spectacular. Conversely, U.S. Teenage Suicide Essay! tax reforms enacted in 1986 created havoc for companies in critical and juliet, the real estate business, eliminating almost every positive incentive to invest.
Many previously successful operations went out of business soon after the new rules were put in place. Every business plan should contain certain pieces of evidence related to context. First, the entrepreneurs should show a heightened awareness of the new venture’s context and teenage suicide argumentative how it helps or hinders their specific proposal. Second, and more important, they should demonstrate that they know the venture’s context will inevitably change and describe how those changes might affect the business. Further, the business plan should spell out what management can (and will) do in the event the context grows unfavorable. Finally, the business plan should explain the ways (if any) in in ukraine, which management can affect context in a positive way. For example, management might be able to have an teenage impact on regulations or on industry standards through lobbying efforts.
The concept that context is fluid leads directly to the fourth leg of the framework I propose: a discussion of risk and how to manage it. I’ve come to think of a good business plan as a snapshot of an event in the future. That’s quite a feat to educational in ukraine, begin with—taking a picture of the unknown. Teenage Essay! But the best business plans go beyond that; they are like movies of the future. They show the people, the opportunity, and the context from acknowledgements multiple angles. They offer a plausible, coherent story of what lies ahead. They unfold possibilities of action and reaction. Good business plans, in other words, discuss people, opportunity, and teenage suicide argumentative essay context as a moving target. All three factors (and the relationship among them) are likely to essays, change over time as a company evolves from start-up to ongoing enterprise. Therefore, any business plan worth the time it takes to write or read needs to teenage suicide, focus attention on the dynamic aspects of the entrepreneurial process.
When it comes to the matter of risk and reward in acknowledgements, a new venture, a business plan benefits enormously from the inclusion of two graphs. Suicide Argumentative! Perhaps graphs is the wrong word; these are really just schematic pictures that illustrate the most likely relationship between risk and acknowledgements thesis reward, that is, the relationship between the suicide argumentative essay opportunity and its economics. High finance they are not, but I have found both of these pictures say more to investors than a hundred pages of charts and prose. The first picture depicts the amount of money needed to launch the ib business hl coursework new venture, time to positive cash flow, and the expected magnitude of the payoff. This image helps the investor understand the depth and duration of negative cash flow, as well as the relationship between the investment and the possible return. The ideal, needless to say, is to teenage essay, have cash flow early and often. Ib Business! But most investors are intrigued by the picture even when the cash outflow is high and long—as long as the cash inflow is more so. Of course, since the world of new ventures is populated by wild-eyed optimists, you might expect the suicide argumentative picture to display a shallower hole and a steeper reward slope than it should. It usually does. For A Thesis! But to be honest, even that kind of picture belongs in teenage suicide essay, the business plan because it is a fair warning to and juliet, investors that the new venture’s team is completely out of essay touch with reality and should be avoided at all costs.
The second picture complements the first. Ib Business! It shows investors the range of argumentative possible returns and the likelihood of achieving them. The following example shows investors that there is a 15 % chance they would have been better off using their money as wall-paper. The flat section reveals that there is a negligible chance of losing only a small amount of money; companies either fail big or create enough value to system in ukraine, achieve a positive return. The hump in the middle suggests that there is a significant chance of earning between 15 % and 45 % in the same time period. And finally, there is a small chance that the initial outlay of teenage suicide argumentative essay cash will spawn a 200 % internal rate of return, which might have occurred if you had happened to invest in conclude, Microsoft when it was a private company. Basically, this picture helps investors determine what class of investment the business plan is presenting. Suicide Essay! Is the new venture drilling for introduction essay, North Sea oil—highly risky with potentially big payoffs—or is it digging development wells in Texas, which happens to suicide argumentative, be less of a geological gamble and probably less lucrative, too? This image answers that kind of question. Essay! It’s then up to suicide argumentative essay, the investors to decide how much risk they want to live with against what kind of odds. Again, the people who write business plans might be inclined to skew the write 1 picture to make it look as if the probability of a significant return is downright huge and the possibility of loss is negligible.
And, again, I would say therein lies the picture’s beauty. What it claims, checked against the investor’s sense of reality and experience, should serve as a simple pictorial caveat emptor. Of course, the future is hard to predict. Still, it is possible to teenage essay, give potential investors a sense of the conclude essay argument kind and class of teenage suicide argumentative risk and acknowledgements reward they are assuming with a new venture. All it takes is a pencil and two simple drawings. (See the insert “Visualizing Risk and Reward.”) But even with these drawings, risk is, well, risky. In reality, there are no immutable distributions of outcomes. It is ultimately the responsibility of management to change the distribution, to increase the likelihood and consequences of success, and to decrease the likelihood and implications of problems.
One of the great myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. As Harvard Business School professor (and venture capitalist) Howard Stevenson says, true entrepreneurs want to capture all the reward and give all the risk to others. The best business is a post office box to which people send cashier’s checks. Yet risk is unavoidable.
So what does that mean for a business plan? It means that the plan must unflinchingly confront the essay risks ahead—in terms of people, opportunity, and context. What happens if one of the new venture’s leaders leaves? What happens if a competitor responds with more ferocity than expected? What happens if there is a revolution in Namibia, the source of a key raw material? What will management actually do ? Those are hard questions for an entrepreneur to pose, especially when seeking capital. But a better deal awaits those who do pose them and write introduction essay then provide solid answers. A new venture, for argumentative essay, example, might be highly leveraged and therefore very sensitive to interest rates.
Its business plan would benefit enormously by stating that management intends to conclude essay, hedge its exposure through the financial-futures market by purchasing a contract that does well when interest rates go up. That is the equivalent of offering investors insurance. (It also makes sense for the business itself.) Finally, one important area in suicide argumentative, the realm of risk/reward management relates to ib business hl coursework, harvesting. Suicide Argumentative Essay! Venture capitalists often ask if a company is “IPOable,” by which they mean, Can the company be taken public at write, some point in the future? Some businesses are inherently difficult to take public because doing so would reveal information that might harm its competitive position (for example, it would reveal profitability, thereby encouraging entry or angering customers or suppliers). Some ventures are not companies, but rather products—they are not sustainable as independent businesses. One of the greatest myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. Therefore, the business plan should talk candidly about the end of the process.
How will the investor eventually get money out of the business, assuming it is successful, even if only marginally so? When professionals invest, they particularly like companies with a wide range of exit options. They like companies that work hard to preserve and enhance those options along the way, companies that don’t, for example, unthinkingly form alliances with big corporations that could someday actually buy them. Investors feel a lot better about suicide, risk if the venture’s endgame is ib business hl coursework, discussed up front. Suicide! There is an old saying, “If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there.” In crafting sensible entrepreneurial strategies, just the opposite conclude essay argument, is true: you had better know where you might end up and have a map for getting there. A business plan should be the suicide argumentative essay place where that map is drawn, for, as every traveler knows, a journey is a lot less risky when you have directions. Once a business plan is written, of course, the goal is to land a deal. That is a topic for conclude argument, another article in itself, but I will add a few words here. When I talk to young (and old) entrepreneurs looking to finance their ventures, they obsess about the valuation and terms of the deal they will receive.
Their explicit goal seems to be to argumentative essay, minimize the dilution they will suffer in write introduction, raising capital. Implicitly, they are also looking for teenage suicide essay, investors who will remain as passive as a tree while they go about essay, building their business. On the food chain of investors, it seems, doctors and suicide argumentative essay dentists are best and venture capitalists are worst because of the degree to which the critical and juliet latter group demands control and a large share of the returns. That notion—like the idea that excruciatingly detailed financial projections are useful—is nonsense. From whom you raise capital is often more important than the terms. New ventures are inherently risky, as I’ve noted; what can go wrong will. When that happens, unsophisticated investors panic, get angry, and often refuse to advance the company more money. Sophisticated investors, by contrast, roll up their sleeves and help the company solve its problems.
Often, they’ve had lots of experience saving sinking ships. They are typically process literate. Teenage! They understand how to critical essays, craft a sensible business strategy and a strong tactical plan. They know how to recruit, compensate, and motivate team members. They are also familiar with the Byzantine ins and outs of going public—an event most entrepreneurs face but once in essay, a lifetime.
This kind of know-how is worth the money needed to buy it. There is an old expression directly relevant to critical, entrepreneurial finance: “Too clever by half.” Often, deal makers get very creative, crafting all sorts of argumentative payoff and option schemes. That usually backfires. My experience has proven again and again that sensible deals have the following six characteristics: They do not blow apart if actual differs slightly from plan. Educational In Ukraine Essay! They do not provide perverse incentives that will cause one or both parties to teenage essay, behave destructively. They are written on a pile of papers no greater than one-quarter inch thick.
But even these six simple rules miss an important point. A deal should not be a static thing, a one-shot document that negotiates the disposition of a lump sum. Instead, it is incumbent upon entrepreneurs, before they go searching for funding, to think about capital acquisition as a dynamic process—to figure out how much money they will need and when they will need it. How is that accomplished? The trick is for the entrepreneurial team to how to write 1, treat the new venture as a series of experiments. Before launching the whole show, launch a little piece of it. Teenage Argumentative! Convene a focus group to test the product, build a prototype and watch it perform, conduct a regional or local rollout of a service. Such an write exercise reveals the true economics of the business and can help enormously in essay, determining how much money the new venture actually requires and in hl coursework, what stages.
Entrepreneurs should raise enough, and investors should invest enough, capital to fund each major experiment. Experiments, of course, can feel expensive and risky. Teenage Suicide Essay! But I’ve seen them prevent disasters and help create successes. I consider it a prerequisite of essay putting together a winning deal. Among the many sins committed by business plan writers is arrogance.
In today’s economy, few ideas are truly proprietary. Moreover, there has never been a time in teenage argumentative, recorded history when the supply of capital did not outrace the supply of opportunity. The true half-life of opportunity is decreasing with the passage of time. A business plan must not be an albatross that hangs around the neck of the entrepreneurial team, dragging it into oblivion. Instead, a business plan must be a call for action, one that recognizes management’s responsibility to essays, fix what is broken proactively and in real time. Risk is inevitable, avoiding risk impossible. Risk management is the key, always tilting the venture in favor of suicide argumentative essay reward and away from risk. A plan must demonstrate mastery of the entire entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. X Sub! It is not a way to separate unsuspecting investors from suicide argumentative their money by hiding the fatal flaw.
For in the final analysis, the only one being fooled is the entrepreneur. We live today in educational system in ukraine, the golden age of entrepreneurship. Although Fortune 500 companies have shed 5 million jobs in the past 20 years, the overall economy has added almost 30 million. Many of teenage suicide essay those jobs were created by argument entrepreneurial ventures, such as Cisco Systems, Genentech, and Microsoft. Suicide Argumentative Essay! Each of those companies started with a business plan. Is that why they succeeded? There is no knowing for conclude essay argument, sure. But there is little doubt that crafting a business plan so that it thoroughly and teenage essay candidly addresses the educational system essay ingredients of success—people, opportunity, context, and the risk/reward picture—is vitally important. In the absence of a crystal ball, in fact, a business plan built of the right information and analysis can only be called indispensable.
William A. Sahlman is the Dimitri V. D’Arbeloff-MBA Class of 1955 Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School.
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6 most violated resume writing rules. Five most violated resume-writing rules. Teenage Suicide? This is the problem with the resume-writing world: Everyone thinks they#039;re an exception to the rules. Everyone thinks they can pick and choose which rules are important. Do not do this. Until you work in human resources and personally scan 300 resumes a day, you are in argument no position to discard rules of teenage suicide argumentative essay resume writing. Here are the conclude essay argument six most violated rules among the resumes that people send to me to review: 1. One page. The job of a resume is to get you an interview, not get you a job. A hiring manager has to sift through a pile of resumes to figure out suicide argumentative which person to 1, interview.
Each resume gets about a ten-second look. If you think you need a longer resume, give someone one page of your resume and have them look at it for ten seconds. Suicide Essay? Ask them what they remember; it won#039;t be much. They are not going to remember any more information in ten seconds if you give them two pages to look at; ten seconds is ten seconds. 2. Acknowledgements? Ditch the suicide argumentative essay line about references on request. It#039;s implied. Of course, if someone wants a reference, you will give one. No one presumes that you will not.
So when you write that you will provide a reference you seem to not understand how the game is played. Write Introduction University? (Bonus tip: If you have an excellent reference, like a CEO of a Fortune 500 company who vacations with your Mom, have the reference call before you even go to the interview. Sets the tone for suicide, the employer to introduction essay, think you are amazing.) 3. Tread lightly on the personal interests line. Your personal interests are not there to make you look interesting. They are there to get you an interview. Every line on your resume is there to get you an teenage essay interview. So only list personal interests that reveal a quality that will help you meet the employer#039;s needs. Educational System In Ukraine Essay? If you are in argumentative essay sports marketing, then by how to x sub, all means, list that you kayak.
If you were an Olympic athlete, put it down because it shows focus and achievement. If you are a mediocre hobbyist, leave it off. Personal interests that don#039;t make you stand out suicide argumentative as an achiever do not help you. And personal interests that are weird make you look weird and educational system in ukraine essay, you don#039;t know if your interviewer likes weird or not, so leave weird off the resume. 4. Teenage Argumentative Essay? You must list achievements, not job duties. Anyone can do a job.
Achievements show you did the acknowledgements job well. Past performance is the best indicator of suicide essay future performance, so don#039;t let someone think you just showed up for your last job and didn#039;t do it well. It#039;s very hard to see your achievements from the trenches; you might think you did not have achievements because your boss doesn#039;t ask you to do achievements, your boss asks you to do tasks and projects. Ib Business? But you need to recognize that you do not see achievements and ask for help to see them. A resume coach, or even a friend, can help you to teenage argumentative essay, see them more clearly.
5. Don#039;t be a designer unless you are. If you have more than three fonts on your resume and you#039;re not a designer, I can promise you that you#039;ve botched the layout. If design were easy, no one would get paid for it. Recognize your strengths and keep design elements to the bare minimum. And please, save Photoshop for cards to hl coursework, your mom: Just because you know how to use the teenage argumentative essay shading tools doesn#039;t mean you know how to use them well. Educational In Ukraine? 6. List your most recent job first.
Chronological order is only a good idea if you are looking to get hired to suicide argumentative, go back in time. For A Thesis? Otherwise you look like you#039;re bucking resume writing convention in order to teenage suicide argumentative, hide something, which you probably are, but you have to do it with a better sleight of hand than that. 17 comments on educational in ukraine essay, “ 6 most violated resume writing rules ” 2. #8220;Ditch the line about references on teenage essay, request.#8221; Very good advice. Acknowledgements? But if someone is dumb enough to think I won#8217;t ask for teenage essay, references if they don#8217;t put that line in, there#8217;s little hope of them giving it up. I struggled #8212; struggled #8212; to get a friend to give it up without success. He consulted the introduction university VP in teenage suicide essay his company and that eminent personage (goofball) told him not to listen to me. 1. #8220;One page.#8221; I don#8217;t agree. It depends on how much information you have to handle. Mind you, if you#8217;re in Gen Y, you won#8217;t have enough experience for two pages and then this advice would be fine. 4. #8220;List achievements, not job duties.#8221; A lot of people who don#8217;t understand your job will be scanning your resume for duties they can match to the job specifications.
I#8217;m one of those people. So, duties then achievements is what I look for. How do you feel about listing basic computer competence? I feel it is a waste of a line to put: proficient in MS Outlook, Powerpoint, Word, etc. I think you#8217;d have a difficult time finding a professional today that lacks those abilities. Ib Business? You obviously don#8217;t have colleagues like mine, whose documents and spreadsheets I get called on to fix almost every day#8230; (On the other hand, if people list computer proficiencies on their resumes, I would tend to be sceptical without a proficiency test.) on Reverse Chronological Order: what#8217;s the problem with this? I#8217;ve only teenage ever seen resumes that start from the job you currently hold then work backwards from there. It makes sense for an employer to be able to see them in that order. Are you saying we should list our current job first, THEN list the first job I ever had? won#8217;t that look weird? Thanks for pointing out the error.
I fixed it. I agree with everything except number one. There is hl coursework, no way a resume should be just one page long. I look for historical performance and job consistency. And to essay, be honest, I am also looking for keywords (skills) and how long those keywords were in use. If I have to go to hl coursework, the 2nd or 3rd page to get those details so be it. Additionally, if you make the first cut your resume will be reviewed in more detail. One page doesn#8217;t provide much detail. What do you think about including an teenage argumentative line in your resume for acknowledgements for a, your #8220;objective#8221;? As in, #8220;Objective: To make company xyz the leader in teenage essay widget production worldwide#8221;?
My stepmother swears it#8217;s essential, but I think it#8217;s goofy. What do you think? Leave it off. Your objective is to leverage your skills and experience to get a job with the company you are applying to. If your objective is anything else you shouldn#8217;t be applying.
As far as the one page resume I think this an important rule to follow if it is even a question in your mind. By that I mean, if you are applying for an entry level or mid level job, one page. Essay? If you need more than one page you will #8220;know#8221; you need more than one page. Accomplishments for scanning by the human eye; a separate resume with duties for those machine scanners that have not yet evolved sufficiently to understand accomplishments. That initial 10 second skimming seldom gets beyond the middle of the first page. At that point a one or multi-page resume is irrelevant. But if that 10 seconds generates interest, the reader then WANTS information. The more experienced applicant will lose interviews if enough information to make a decision is lacking.
I have redone my resume a million times over. I am at argumentative essay, wits end#8230;#8230;.can#8217;t seem to essay argument, find a job in teenage suicide argumentative essay this Houston. Moving to PA, my hubby got a job there#8230;.seems they have jobs there#8230;#8230;..are there sites that can help in doing my resume for a fee.. This is AMAZING. Extremely useful and helpful but also hilarious at the same time :) I am sick and tired of rewriting and ib business, revising resumes too. Now, what is your honest advice in curbing the gap barrier. Teenage Suicide Argumentative Essay? Twenty-three plus years of experience is 23 years. Where does a person begin at 57 years of age?? By the way, make it 2 pages and 3 if need be.
Thanks for the opportunity. I am always looking for a job. I work in the event industry and acknowledgements, it was hit pretty hard by suicide argumentative, the recession. Acknowledgements For A? Also, there is teenage suicide, a lot of change in the industry, tons of educational in ukraine freelancers. Suicide Argumentative? All this means is that I#8217;m an expert job seeker #8212; unfortunately.
I used to be an agency recruiter and have been interviewed by essay, a lot of HR people, as well as other agency recruiters and have been on the hiring end, both for a company and an agency, also as a salesperson selling recruitment services into any company. So, seeing the full spectrum of things has really openend my eyes on how to job hunt. I agree with all the points listed except the first one. Funny, young people think a one pager is not enough, older people think a 2 pager is too long. Some people feel that a binder of all achievement documents are required for an interview. All I can say is, do what suits your personality. If you just graduated, use one page. If you have been around for 20 years like me, do 2 3 pages. Always apply with a cover letter, it looks more professional, it doesn#8217;t matter if its generic.
Use a career objective, it means you have a goal. List job duties/responsibilities, because agency and suicide argumentative, HR software look for keywords, like #8220;operations#8221; #8220;sales#8221;, etc. Type up your achievments and take them with you to the interview, talk about critical romeo and juliet, yourself using that. I never much liked people who listed their personal interests. It takes away from the fact that a resume is teenage argumentative, a summary of your career history.
Something more interesting and essay, relevant is volunteer work. At least its commendable. One more final point. No one ever reads a resume from teenage essay, beginning to argument, end, unless its the owner a company and he#8217;s hiring you out of his own pocket. Then the essay fine tooth comb comes out. Otherwise, HR people are way too busy to ib business hl coursework, read, most of them are women and women are attracted to nice things. Make sure you format the teenage essay resume to critical essays, #8220;look#8221; very appealing.
This will get you a phone call for sure. Teenage Suicide Argumentative? Also, if you never want to worry about having a hard time finding work, try to critical romeo, get a job at teenage suicide argumentative essay, a big company doing anything and stay there for as long as possible. Recruiters and HR people always look for what is safest for themselves and write 1, their company first. THey only hire the teenage suicide argumentative ones that fit into a certain mould. Big brand company names that are well known will always get interest before joe blow company ever would. Okay, I will try this. For some reason, I have never been taught about the cover letter, but common sense told me to write a one-page #8220;RESUME#8221; that fits in just after my job history. May I assume the correct way would be to cut that out, and make it my front page?
After all, it is educational system in ukraine, my entire history, rewritten in a sort of engaging, friendly and story-like manner. I am a recruiter and I agree with much of what you stated here with the exception of cramming everything on to one page. I would rather see an informative resume. Essay? If two pages is necesssary to bullet point out 5 job duty lines along with 3-4 accomplishments that would be useful. I dont need to critical essays romeo and juliet, see what you were doing 20 years ago or jobs that have no relevance to teenage suicide argumentative essay, the open position. One page?
Sorry, that is just not enough for essay argument, an accomplished, experienced professional and results in underselling your achievements. At least from the perspective of every recruiter to whom I have ever spoken about the subject, the argumentative essay #8220;one-page-rule#8221; applies, at most, to the entry-level job seeker. Introduction Essay? Fire the middle man (the recruiter) and the job market problem will be solved, the company will save and the employees will be happy. thanks for your advice. but, i have a few questions to ask. it looks like most recruiters are looking for an experience and accomplishment in argumentative essay a resume. so, how can i write a resume if i dont have any experience and university, any relavant achievement that match the job?. please help me here, then i will start to build my resume from the cratch. i have been looking for teenage, jobs for so long since i am a Computer Science Graduate.
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Suicide with Teens | Teen Essay About …
essay links Double-click on any word and suicide argumentative essay, see its definition from Cambridge Dictionaries Online. Paragraphs: The main part of the essay: structure and linking. This section should be read in parallel with that which looks at the production of introductions and in ukraine essay, conclusions (next module). Here the emphasis is on the writing which occurs between the two, the main body of the teenage argumentative essay, essay. It takes practice to manage the material you use in analysing and conclude essay argument, interpreting a work of literature. With this in mind it should be stressed that it is important to plan the essay in advance . Even in suicide timed conditions such as exams you must take the time to think about the structure of the essay . Think about what points you want to make beforehand, and essays and juliet, then think about the best way of arranging this material in sequence. The order in which you make the points will go a long way to argumentative determining how clear the arguments you put forward will be. You do not have to say everything there is to be said about a given subject and you should try to develop a feel for the most important elements. An essay should be the development of in ukraine essay argument, interpretation and analysis through an extended and flowing sequence of suicide essay points and illustrations . This entails work at the level of the sentence, of course, but also, very importantly, you need to work at the level of the ib business, paragraph. The paragraph is teenage suicide argumentative essay a coherent passage of logically connected sentences usually concentrating on no more than one or two ideas relevant to your argument . Do not use very short and critical essays romeo, unconnected staccato sentences, and teenage suicide argumentative essay, develop your use of hl coursework linking words by which the various sentences of a paragraph are bound together.
It takes experience and practice to develop a sense of when a new paragraph is teenage suicide essay needed and when it has run its course. Examine the general guide to essay writing to get some sense of how the paragraphs, or 'idea units' as they have also been called, have been constructed, and how their 'natural' beginnings and ends appear. The first sentence of the paragraph should generally be a ' strong ' one, used to signal or indicate the idea to how to write 1 be discussed within the teenage, paragraph . Think of a ' topic sentence ', as it has also been called, which will highlight the main areas examined in a particular paragraph. Connecting and signposting words and phrases should be learnt, used, and practised (examples are ' furthermore ', ' moreover ', ' in addition ', ' to qualify the above ', ' however ', ' in order to ', ' in this connection ', ' having established that ' etc.). The argument should develop through the language you use and therefore in a short essay sub-headings are unnecessary. Your essay will be the representation of an argument on hl coursework, a given subject or subjects. It will include only teenage essay points which are relevant to the subject, so be careful to get rid of how to material that is not directly relevant . Although students sometimes complain that the lengths demanded of essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short. Part of the skill of writing is to teenage argumentative essay write concisely and economically, without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and repetition. Argument? Once the points have been chosen they should be presented logically and coherently, so do not leap about from point to point. Essay? Each point generally will have some connection to the preceding one and the one which follows. If you do leave one part of the system in ukraine essay, essay to move onto another, but intend later to go back to the point you have left and show, for example, how the points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to say so by ' signposting ', e.g. 'this point will be picked up later', 'this point will be returned to suicide later, after taking into consideration . '. After each draft of the essay check that each point is presented in a logical and coherent order.
Read each draft carefully and critically . Is there a significant idea you have not included in how to write x sub the essay? Do you need to expand some of the points you have chosen to suicide write about? Are some of the points, after due consideration, not really relevant? Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? If so, cut out and/or reduce some of the text. Does your argument need to be clearer, and do the links between some of the main points need more emphasis? You should be asking yourself these questions throughout the whole process. Strong sentences are essential in terms of the flow of your essay. When signalling the fact that they now want to begin a discussion about the imagery of the text in question, students often begin paragraphs with a sentence such as the following: 'I will now go on to discuss the imagery, which plays an important role in this story.' Whilst this would be fine in a first draft for more refined essay writing there are much better alternatives and methods. What is wrong with this particular sentence?
To start with there is no real need to introduce the subject so mechanically: as you are writing about literature it will come as no great surprise to the reader that imagery is to be discussed at some point. Secondly, as the student has chosen to write about the imagery there is no need to state that it is important. If it was not important then the student should not have chosen to write about it. (Please note that there would be no objection to a sentence such as 'I will now go on to discuss the imagery, which is fundamental to a full understanding of the story', although it would be even better if the ib business hl coursework, type of imagery was identified. This says something different. Teenage? Do not repeat these phrases mechanically in write introduction university essay your essays - the imagery will not always be absolutely key to understanding the story. Use your common sense.) You can introduce the subject of imagery in a strong sentence, at the beginning of teenage suicide argumentative essay a paragraph, by simply starting to discuss it straightaway. If you have identified a number of images, metaphors, etc., but have decided that, in the end, they can be collected under two separate headings, then it is a good idea to say so.
As an example, here is a paragraph which starts to deal with the literary language in write x sub 1 Graham Greene's 'The Destructors'. This paragraph would ideally come about a third or half way into the essay, as it comes after the introduction and signals the fact that some analysis has already been carried out. A discussion of the imagery can reinforce the general points made above; broadly speaking there are two main sets of images and metaphors, dealing firstly with the tensions between the individual and the community, to which I will turn later, and secondly focusing on Christian symbolism. Teenage Argumentative? A number of the images have religious connotations. It is significant that Old Misery's house was designed by Christopher Wren, who was the seventeenth century architect of St.
Paul's cathedral. By mentioning Wren Greene is attempting to show the presence of the past in the present and write x sub 1, how irrelevant it seems to the boys: 'Who's Wren?' asks Blackie, the suicide argumentative, initial leader of the gang. Their experience of massive destruction has eroded references and deprived them of values. Conclude Essay Argument? Instead of the integration and shared common values illustrated by, among others, the fact that Wren designed both a public place of worship and a private home, the post-war period leaves them with fragmentation and mutual distrust: the gang are aware of rival gangs, there is distrust between the teenage suicide essay, generations - shown by the gang's suspicion of introduction essay Old Misery's gift of sweets - and T. rejects all values. For him 'All this hate and love [is]soft, it's hooey. There's only things.' For Greene, the ideological vacuum is reflected in the wasteland in which the gang organises its activities.
The next paragraph might begin: Furthermore, the argumentative essay, passage describing the introduction, destruction of the house is an ironic parody of the opening chapter of Genesis. The vocabulary is teenage similar: Blackie notices that 'chaos had advanced', an ironic reversal of God's imposing of form on a void. Furthermore, the phrase 'streaks of light came in through the closed shutters where they worked with the seriousness of creators', used in the context of destruction, also parodies the creation of light and darkness in argument the early passages of the Biblical book.[. ] There might be another paragraph, or two, on religious metaphors, or the next paragraph might begin: Images and argumentative essay, metaphors concerning the individual and community are centred on Trevor, and are also linked to the theme of leadership. [. ] What are the advantages of such a sequence of paragraphs? Notice that the romeo and juliet, opening sentence in each paragraph is a strong one. There are several strong points about the suicide argumentative, first paragraph: · The fact that literary language (metaphors, symbols, images) are now the focus is signalled efficiently and economically, through the strategy of launching the discussion directly.
The main extended images are mentioned in the first sentence, which is preferable to 'I am now going to discuss the imagery of Graham Greene's story.' · The first sentence, however complex, is critical essays and juliet clear and does a lot of work by clearly situating the reader in the overall structure of the essay . · The paragraph refers back to analysis already done, thus emphasising the clear structure of the essay and enhancing the interrelationships of suicide argumentative essay its parts. Importantly, whilst it is obvious that there is to educational system in ukraine be some reference to ideas already mentioned, it is also clear that there is to be no repetition. Teenage Suicide Argumentative Essay? Instead, the analysis is to be deepened and extended. · The paragraph also refers ahead to analysis still to come. The anxious reader, who might be wondering why the important theme of the individual and the community has not been mentioned, can relax and enjoy the analysis of the religious symbolism in ib business the full knowledge that the former theme has not been neglected. · The images are not merely identified, pointed out and listed.; there is teenage suicide essay active interpretation and analysis of system in ukraine essay what they actually mean.
In other words the writer is actively engaging with Greene's story. What of the second paragraph? Firstly one might ask why a second paragraph is needed, given that the theme is still that of teenage essay religion. True, but the first paragraph is becoming quite long, it is reaching the 'natural' length of a paragraph. There are no hard or fast rules and essay argument, regulations here - no writing committee has decreed that a paragraph should contain an essay, ideal number of words or sentences or run a certain length over a page. How To Write? Extended writing practice will give you a 'feel' and an instinct for realising that a paragraph is complete and it is time to start a new one. More importantly here there is a very strong sense that the first paragraph in teenage essay the model is 'full'. The writer has identified a link between the house and the ideological vacuum in which the ib business, gang exist and essay, has tried to interpret and explain it. Next s/he wants to critical highlight the links between Greene's vocabulary and that of the book of Genesis.
The theme is still religion, but the teenage, writer is now going to approach a different aspect of it. The third paragraph begins to produce what has been promised: an analysis of the theme of the individual and acknowledgements for a thesis, the community. Note how this is done. There is no need to teenage suicide essay state mechanically that this is the theme that is now to be discussed. It has already been anticipated and the 'full' nature of the first sentence makes clear what is being discussed. Again, the reader is being clearly led through the arguments in a well structured and thought out manner. One further point, by way of providing another model. The analysis in the second paragraph could lead in the following direction. 'The Destructors' deals with, obviously, destruction, whilst the book of Genesis deals with creation.
The vocabulary is similar: Blackie notices that 'chaos had advanced', an ironic reversal of God's imposing of form on a void. Furthermore, the phrase 'streaks of light came in through the closed shutters where they worked with the seriousness of creators', used in hl coursework the context of destruction, also parodies the creation of light and darkness in the early passages of the Biblical book. Greene's ironic use of the vocabulary of the Bible might be making the teenage suicide argumentative, point that, for write university essay him, the teenage argumentative essay, Second World War signalled the end of a particular Christian era. Now, it is perfectly arguable that the essay argument, rise of teenage suicide argumentative fascism is linked to this, or that it is the cause. The cult of personality and secular leadership has, for romeo and juliet Greene, taken over from the key role of the church in Western societies. Suicide Argumentative Essay? In this way the two main themes identified above - the ib business hl coursework, tension between individual and community, and teenage suicide argumentative essay, religion - are linked. In terms of essay writing this link could well be made after the discussion of the theme of the individual and the community, and its links with the theme of leadership.
This might be the general conclusion to the essay. Essays Romeo And Juliet? After thoughtful consideration and interpretation a student may well decide that this is teenage suicide essay what 'The Destructors' boils down to: Greene is making a clear link between the rise of fascism and the decline of the Church's influence. Write University? Despite the fact that fascism has been recently defeated, Greene sees the lack of teenage argumentative any contemporary values which could provide social cohesion as providing the potential for its reappearance. However, whilst this is the conclusion the essay, student has come to, this should not be mentioned for suicide argumentative the first time in the conclusion / concluding paragraph. This is the climax to critical essays and juliet the essay, but the concluding paragraph should generally be a brief paraphrase or summary of the essay. This also adheres to the generally held view that the conclusion should not introduce new ideas. Paragraphs need to be coherent, which will be only achieved through the essay, careful arrangement of the sentences within them. Staying with an critical romeo, analysis of Graham Greene's 'The Destructors', let us see how this can be achieved. (1) The apple is compared to Old Misery's house and this house symbolises perhaps the argumentative essay, Church. (2) Actually it may mean that the Church is losing its credibility, first from inside, and then, when everything will be lost, a single push could destroy it. (3) But why the Church? (4) We know that as well as the destruction of everything this house symbolises temptation too; hence the image of the conclude essay argument, apple: it refers to Adam and the temptation. (5) If Adam ate the apple, all his happiness would be destroyed. (6) For Trevor, the house is the only thing that tempts his urge to destroy.
This is by no means a terrible paragraph, but there are weaknesses within it, the chief of them being that whilst it demonstrates that the student is going beyond superficial summarising and interpreting the story, the ideas are struggling to make themselves heard. Some of the argumentative, sentences lack detail or are a little ambiguous, and at times there is a lack of tight connection between several of the essays romeo, sentences. Various ideas are referred to and introduced without ever being fully explained or analysed. Teenage Suicide Argumentative? For example there is no explanation for the introduction of the notions of happiness and temptation. To some extent the reader has to guess what the writer is ib business really trying to express. Teenage Essay? This is a crucial point: you must present your arguments clearly and critical essays and juliet, unambiguously, and grades will we lost if the marker has to try to suicide essay guess what is being said. (1) In the first sentence there is a lack of x sub detail and also inappropriate emphasis. First of all, no apple has been mentioned before in the essay and its introduction here is a little confusing. This is because in the story the apple is not compared to a house, but it is the house which is compared to an apple. Furthermore there is no evidence provided for the assertion that the house can be linked to a church. In addition, the suicide argumentative essay, 'perhaps' does not inspire confidence that the student is fully on top of the idea. (2) There are several problems with the second sentence.
Most importantly there is no clear connection with the preceding and succeeding sentence. Essay? Also, the 'actually' is too informal and, equally importantly, it suggests that the idea to come has just popped into the student's mind. The first 'it' is ambiguous, and it is teenage not exactly clear what it refers to. Acknowledgements Thesis? Finally, the overall idea - that weaknesses within the church make it vulnerable to attacks from the outside - is not very clearly expressed. (3) There is suicide argumentative no problem with the third sentence, and a question can be a good way of introducing or emphasising a particular subject. The problem with this paragraph lies in the other sentences. (4) The fourth sentence does not really address the question just asked in any coherent way. 'The destruction of everything' is too sweeping and needs more detail. Ib Business Hl Coursework? The phrase 'it refers to Adam and the temptation' is a poor one - it should be 'it refers to the tempting of Adam'. The main problem with this sentence is that it has become detached from the first sentence of the paragraph, and one of the problems of the paragraph is that the theme of temptation is referred to and hinted at without ever being fully interpreted and teenage suicide argumentative, analysed. (5) The fifth sentence is system essay far too vague and empty, and introduces a subject - Adam's happiness - which is not picked up on. Where in the story could the religious references suggest that this is a significant point? Why happiness? (6) The sixth sentence contains some of the problems of some of the other sentences.
The writer shifts the essay, emphasis from Adams's temptation - which has not been analysed - to Trevor's temptation, without explanation. There is some dislocation in educational system essay that whilst there was an earlier suggestion or hint (again unclearly expressed) that the church was destroying itself, now there is a suggestion that Trevor is solely responsible for the destruction of the church, in the symbolic form of the house. Teenage Essay? Furthermore, there is essay argument a weakness in the comparison in that Trevor's destruction of the house is in no way punished. The paragraph could be rewritten in the following way: The comparison of Old Misery's house to an apple may recall the teenage suicide argumentative essay, Garden of Eden and the temptation of Adam, given the many religious images in the text and the fact that T. Educational In Ukraine Essay? says 'We'd be like worms, don't you see, in an apple'. Perhaps not the house in itself but the prospect of suicide essay completely destroying its beauty certainly represents a strong temptation for the new leader. An important difference is obviously the fact that whilst Adam fell from a state of grace following his transgression, T. escapes any punishment.
This suggests that without a coherent and integrated system of values contemporary society has no way of deciding what is right and wrong. Please note that there is a very large sense in which the student example cannot really be redeemed, given its contradictory arguments and lack of clarity. Students should learn how to interpret literary texts and go beyond a mere recounting of the plot or themes, for example, but they should avoid wild extrapolations. Further model example:the theme of impersonality in 'The Destructors' The theme of impersonality is embedded in the story in complex, perhaps ambivalent, ways, reflected by the T.’s own ambivalence towards the house. T. persuades the gang to destroy the house he paradoxically admires: he finds the interior of the house 'beautiful', and is particularly impressed by the old staircase and 'the opposite forces' which prevent it collapsing. It should be noted that his finding the for a, house beautiful initially causes tension within the gang. Blackie is immediately suspicious and, whilst it is explicitly stated that this suspicion is related to class, implicitly it is the suicide essay, fact that T. is educational system in ukraine essay making a personal response that is the suicide argumentative essay, source of the tension. Evidence for this is found in the fact that 'it only needed a single use of his real name and the gang would be at his heels.' His personal response, symbolic of a set of university values, is not permitted and it threatens the identity he has within the gang. The power the gang has to name is also linked to impersonality: one's previous identity, symbolised by a 'real name', has to be sacrificed in order to join.
The gang itself has the characteristics of a separate society; it has elaborate rules and punishes the breaking of them, it is disciplined, it elects leaders, and it is also self-policing, symbolised by the surveillance carried out during the game of teenage suicide argumentative stealing rides. In other words it is a very impersonal society which permits little individuality, symbolised by conclude the description of teenage suicide essay it as 'a hive in swarm.' Blackie also refuses to take his loss of leadership personally, and stays because of the potential fame the impersonal gang might gain. Old Misery comes to be aware of the impersonal forces dominating society. Locked in a toilet which has earlier been described as a 'tomb in a neglected graveyard', which symbolises a lack of for a respect and a brutal and callous world, his cries for help are ignored and he is instead 'rebuked by the silence', suggesting a lack of personal communication. At the end of the story the essay, lorry driver insists that his laughter is 'nothing personal', echoing an earlier statement made by an unnamed member of the gang. Ironically the driver denies his own humanity and expresses the callousness and impersonality of world lacking values. After reading this module carefully, choose two subjects/topics/themes from the list below and write two substantial paragraphs on each of the two chosen subjects/topics/themes.
Each paragraph should consist of a minimum of five full, preferably rather complex sentences (see module 2, Sentences ). Use clear links and transitions and make sure that the first sentence of each paragraph is a strong one (see above). 1. The theme of advertising in Larkin's ' Sunny Prestatyn '. How is for a thesis it related to stereotyping? 2. The atmosphere evoked by the description of suicide argumentative essay Mr Duffy's house . (' A Painful Case' by James Joyce.) 3. The function and symbolism of the hl coursework, stuffed animals in Clanchy's ' The Natural History Museum '. 4. The theme of challenging authority in teenage suicide ' The Conversion of the Jews ' by P. Roth.
Feel free to write complete essays on any of the subjects, or ask your tutors to provide you with more subjects and how to write 1, themes to write about. Click here to go to Essay questions in Short Stories and Sample Essays .
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example literature News Comment / Research Resources. HOW TO WRITE A LITERATURE REVIEW. Will G Hopkins PhD. Department of teenage, Physiology and School of Physical Education, University of Otago, Dunedin 9001, New Zealand. Sportscience 3(1), sportsci.org/jour/9901/wghreview.html, 1999 (2618 words) Reviewed by: Garry T Allison PhD, School of Physiotherapy, Curtin University, Shenton Park 6008, Australia; Mark Hargreaves PhD, School of Health Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood 3125, Australia. BACKGROUND . In this first section of the Summary, get the reader's interest with a sentence or two explaining the need for the review.
LITERATURE . List the documents you included in the review. For example: 31 original investigations, one monograph, five reviews, four popular articles, one manuscript. FINDINGS . Write several sentences here to outline the main findings of the documents you reviewed. Give data and interpret magnitudes of effects. Use plain language and ib business, no abbreviations. CONCLUSIONS . This section of the Summary should need only a sentence or two. Teenage Suicide Essay? Try to include a conclusion of practical significance.
FURTHER RESEARCH . Indicate what you think now needs to in ukraine essay be done. The summary must consist of less than 300 words. Be as economical with words as possible, but do not compromise grammar. Reprint · Help. KEYWORDS: analysis, design, publishing, research, scientific writing. This article is written in the form of a literature review for the journal Sportscience. A few of the requirements for form and content are unique to Sportscience, but most are common to essay all good scientific journals. You can therefore use this article to help you write a review for acknowledgements, any journal. You can also use this article to suicide structure a literature review for conclude argument, a thesis, but check with your supervisor for any special requirements. This article exists in slightly modified form as a template for a Sportscience review article. If you intend to suicide submit a review to Sportscience, you should download the romeo, template from the Information for Authors page at teenage essay, the Sportscience site.
Whether you are writing a review for Sportscience, another journal, or a thesis, you should read my guidelines on educational system essay scientific writing (Hopkins, 1999a). Teenage Suicide Argumentative? Here are the main points from that article: Avoid technical terms. System Essay? Avoid abbreviations. Use simple sentences. Avoid common errors of punctuation and grammar. Use the first person (I, we) rather than the passive voice. Link your ideas into a sensible sequence without repetitions or discontinuities. Get feedback on your article from suicide, colleagues. In this Background section, make the topic interesting by explaining it in plain language and by relating it to actual or potential practical applications.
Explain any scientific principles underlying the topic. Define and justify the scope of the acknowledgements for a thesis, review: why you are limiting it to certain sports, why you are including studies of non-athletes and non-human species, and teenage argumentative, so on. In this short section you should list how many of each kind of publication you summarized (for example, 31 original investigations, one monograph, five reviews, four popular articles, one manuscript), and hl coursework, how you found them (for example, a search of the sport-science database SportDiscus). Be specific about any database search you performed. Include the key words you used, and the ways you refined your search if necessary.
For example: A search for overtrain* produced 774 references, which reduced to 559 when we limited the search to intermediate or advanced levels ( not le=basic ). Further restricting the search to teenage essay psych* or mood produced 75 references. We read 47 of how to 1, these as full papers. Of the 41 papers cited in this review, we were able to suicide argumentative essay obtain the following only in abstract form: Jones et al. (1979) and Smith and for a thesis, Brown (1987). Describe and suicide essay, justify briefly any papers or areas that you decided not to include. This section is the most important part of your review. Do not give a summary paper-by-paper; instead, deal with themes and draw together results from write, several papers for each theme. Teenage Suicide Argumentative? I have identified four themes for this section: assessing the quality of published work; interpreting effects; points of grammar and style; and a few remarks about tables and figures.
These themes are dealt with under subheadings. I encourage you to use such subheadings, which will make it easier for you to ib business write the review and easier for teenage suicide essay, others to read it. Quality of Published Work. Look critically at any published work. The fact that something has been published does not mean the findings are automatically trustworthy. Some research designs are better than others (see Hopkins, 1998a). The most trustworthy conclusions are those reached in double-blind randomized controlled trials with a representative sample of sufficient size to detect the smallest worthwhile effects. The weakest findings are those from case studies. In between are cross-sectional studies, which are usually plagued by critical and juliet the problem of interpreting cause and effect in teenage argumentative the relationship between variables. How subjects were sampled is an important issue.
You can be confident about generalizing results to a population only if the sample was selected randomly from the population and there was a low proportion of refusals and dropouts (30%). Be wary of generalizing results from critical essays and juliet, novice athletes to elites. Something that enhances performance in young or untrained individuals may not work so well in highly trained athletes, who may have less headroom for improvement. There are big differences in teenage suicide argumentative essay the way data can be collected. At one extreme are qualitative methods, in which the researcher interviews subjects without using formal psychometric instruments (questionnaires). At the other extreme are quantitative methods, in which biological or behavioral variables are measured with instruments or techniques of known validity and reliability. How To Write 1? In the middle are techniques with uncertain precision and questionnaires with open-ended responses. Qualitative assessment is time consuming, so samples are usually small in size and non-representative, which in turn limit the conclusions that can be made about effects in a population.
The conclusions may also be biased by the prejudices of the researcher-interviewer. Quantitative data collection is more objective, but for some projects it could miss important issues that would surface in an interview. A combination of qualitative methods for pilot work and quantitative methods for a larger study should therefore produce valuable conclusions, depending, of course, on the design. You will probably find that your topic has been dealt with to some extent in teenage argumentative essay earlier reviews. Cite the reviews and critical romeo, indicate the extent to argumentative which you have based your review on them. Make sure you look at educational in ukraine, the key original papers cited in any earlier reviews, to judge for yourself whether the conclusions of the reviewers are justified.
Reviews, like original research, vary in quality. Suicide Argumentative Essay? Problems with reviews include poor organization of the hl coursework, material and lack of critical thought. Some of the better reviews attempt to teenage essay pull together the results of many papers using the statistical technique of meta-analysis . The outcomes in such reviews are usually expressed as relative risk, variance explained, or effect size , terms that you will have to understand and interpret in your review if you meet them. See my statistics pages for explanations of these concepts (Hopkins, 1999b). You cannot assess quantitative research without a good understanding of the terms effects, confidence limits of introduction university, effects, and teenage suicide essay, statistical significance of effects. An effect is simply an observed relationship between variables in a sample of acknowledgements for a thesis, subjects. Teenage Suicide Argumentative Essay? An effect is also known as an romeo and juliet outcome. Confidence limits and teenage suicide, statistical significance are involved in generalizing from the observed value of an effect to the true value of the essay argument, effect. The true value of the effect is the average value of the effect in the whole population, or the value of the effect you would get if you sampled the suicide argumentative essay, whole population. The confidence limits of an ib business effect define the likely range of the true value of the teenage suicide, effect: in short, how big or positive and how small or negative the effect could be.
An effect is statistically significant if the likely range of the write x sub 1, true value of the effect is unlikely to include the zero or null effect. Roughly speaking, statistically significant effects are unlikely to be zero, but such a rough interpretation is misleading: in sport and exercise science, the true value of an effect is never exactly zero. Statistical significance is notoriously difficult to understand, whereas confidence limits are at once more simple and more informative. Confidence limits are appearing more frequently in publications, but most authors still use statistical significance. As a reviewer you therefore have to come to terms with statistical significance.
Here are a few suggestions on how to cope. In most studies in our discipline, sample sizes are smaller than they ought to be. So if a result is statistically significant, it will probably have widely separated confidence limits. Check to make sure the observed value of the effect is substantial (whatever that means--more about that in a moment). If it is, then you can conclude safely that the true value of the effect is likely to be a substantial. If the observed effect is teenage, not substantial--a rare occurrence for a statistically significant effect, because it means the sample size was too large--you can actually conclude that the true value of the effect is likely to be trivial, even though it was statistically significant! Problems of interpretation arise when researchers get a statistically non -significant effect. Ib Business? If the sample size is too small--as in almost all studies in argumentative sport and exercise science--you can get a statistically non-significant effect even when there is a substantial effect in and juliet the population. Authors of small-scale studies who do not understand this point will interpret a statistically non-significant effect incorrectly as evidence for no effect. Essay? So whenever you see a result that is not statistically significant, ignore what the author concludes and look at the size of the effect in question: if the effect is nearly zero and hl coursework, the sample size is reasonable, chances are there is indeed no worthwhile relationship in teenage suicide the population; if the effect is large, there may well be a substantial relationship in the population. But in educational system either case, a bigger sample is required to be sure about what is going on.
Sometimes the research may have been done: for example, moderate but non-significant effects in teenage argumentative essay several studies probably add up to a moderate real effect, if the designs are trustworthy. How big is essay argument, a moderate effect anyway? And what about large effects, small effects, and essay, trivial effects? Make sure you look closely at the effects and ib business, interpret their magnitudes, regardless of whether they are statistically significant; the authors often don't. There are two approaches: statistical and practical.
In the statistical approach, effects or outcomes are expressed as statistics that are independent of the units of measurement of the original variables. These statistics are the same ones referred to in the previous subsection: relative risk, variance explained, and effect size. Statisticians have come up with rules of thumb for deciding whether the magnitude of the effect is to be considered trivial, small, moderate, or large. For example, Cohen (1988) claims that an teenage suicide argumentative essay effect size of conclude argument, 0.2, a variance explained of 1% (equivalent to a correlation coefficient of teenage, 0.1), and a relative risk of hl coursework, 1.2 are the smallest effects worth detecting. I have extended Cohen's scale to effects of any magnitude, and I have made adjustments to his scale (Hopkins, 1998b).
In the practical approach, you look at the size of the effect and try to decide whether, for argumentative, example, it would make any difference to critical romeo an athlete's position in a competition. For many events, a difference in performance of 1% or even less would be considered worthwhile. This approach is the better one for most studies of argumentative, athletes. Whether you use the for a thesis, statistical or the practical approach, you must apply it to the confidence limits as well as the observed effect. Why? Because you want to describe how big or how small the effect could be in reality, not just how big or small it was in suicide argumentative essay the sample that was studied. If the researchers do not report confidence limits, you can calculate them from the p value. I have devised a spreadsheet for this purpose (Hopkins, 1998c). Tables and system essay, Figures.
A table is a good way to summarize the results of a large number of publications. Examples are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. Table 1: The effect of whatever on the performance of athletes in whatever sports a . male international distance runners. 2% decrease in 10-km time. Bloggs et al. (1997) female club runners. a Number footnotes as shown. Table 2: Events in teenage argumentative the development of whatever in whatever sports a . US National Association formed. a Put any footnotes here.
You should also try to include a graph or diagram from critical and juliet, a paper, or draw one yourself, to suicide liven up the appearance of the review. Make sure you get copyright clearance for any verbatim copying. Hierarchical diagrams summarizing the relationships between concepts or variables can be confusing. How To Write X Sub? Make them as simple as possible. For Sportscience reviews, follow the teenage suicide essay, instructions in the template on how to critical and juliet create figures. See below for examples (Figures 1-4). Paste figures and tables into the document after the paragraph where you first refer to them. (In other journals tables and figures go at the end of the teenage suicide argumentative essay, manuscript.)
Figure 1: Informative title for a time series a . Data are means. Bars are standard deviations (shown only for Groups B and C). a Use letters to label footnotes, if necessary. Figure 2: Informative title for a scattergram. Least-squares lines are shown for write introduction, each variable. Figure 3: Informative title for a bar graph. Data are means. Bars are standard deviations.
Figure 4: Informative title for an outcomes figure. Data are means. Bars are 95% confidence intervals. Use bullets to list the points you want to make here. You don't need an introductory sentence before the list.
Be brief. It's acceptable to have only one bullet point. Whenever possible, include practical recommendations in language accessible to athletes and argumentative essay, their professional support crew. Essays Romeo? Complete the checklist that appears at the end of the reference list, and include it when you submit your review. Write a paragraph or two on teenage argumentative the research that needs to be done, and why. You may wish to use bullets to list the items. List the thesis, people who helped you and what they did. Teenage Suicide Argumentative Essay? List substantial sources of funding for the project. There is critical essays and juliet, a wide variety of styles for citing and listing references. Make sure you follow the instructions for suicide argumentative, the journal you are submitting your paper to. These references are in Sportscience style:
Cohen J (1988). How To Write X Sub 1? Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (second edition). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hopkins WG (1998a). Quantitative research design. sportsci.org/resource/design/design.html : Internet Society for Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1998). A scale of magnitude for effect statistics. sportsci.org/resource/stats/effectmag.html : Internet Society for Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1998c).
Calculating confidence limits. sportsci.org/resource/stats/generalize.html#calculate : Internet Society for Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1999). Guidelines on style for scientific writing. Sportscience 3(1), sportsci.org/jour/9901/wghstyle.html (4397 words) Hopkins WG (1999b). A new view of teenage, statistics. sportsci.org/resource/stats : Internet Society for Sportscience. Check these before you submit your review. You have read the article on style. The Summary is no longer than 300 words (including the subheading words).
The Summary includes real data and for a, magnitudes of effects. The content of the Summary is an accurate summary of the content of the review. The content of each section is teenage suicide essay, appropriate to introduction the section. You performed a spelling check in the language appropriate for the journal. References are in the style required by the journal.