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Art essays on sculptures

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Do I have any predictions for 2015 exam questions? I’m a-Freud-not. Make sure to check out my categories to see if any of my essays can help you! If you have any questions, I’ll do my best to help if you contact me: Just wanted to let you know that I took the June 2014 PSYA3 and PSYA4 exams and I think I nailed them, which is partly due to the information I retained in writing up this blog. I’m never going to touch Psychology again because it’s a bitch of on sculptures a subject to learn, but by and editing all means feel free to use my material- every essay would at least get an A- and email me if you need any clarification. I also recommend you use this site to type up all your blogs, download ‘Pocket’ onto your smartphone so that you can review your essays whilst on the move or make the Google lady read them out to on sculptures you.

If you’re reading this taking the Psychology A2, best of luck to you! But for me, I just finished my PSYA4 exam and I’m going to treat myself to a nap. (REM restoration, boom. This subject has ruined the way I look at organizational theory design paper things now). Discuss psychological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks) Discuss psychological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks)

A major sociocultural explanation of art essays on sculptures schizophrenia is the occurrence of stressful life events. Certain stressors, such as the loss of steps in revising an essay a close relative, may trigger the disorder because high levels of physiological arousal associated with the neurotransmitter changes are thought to be involved. This is supported by Brown and Birley who found that 50% of art essays on sculptures patients with schizophrenia had experienced at least one major life event in the last 3 weeks prior to their schizophrenic episode, whereas only 12% had experienced a life event in the 9 weeks prior to that; a healthy control sample reported low and essay for civil service unchanging levels of life events over the same period, suggesting that the life events triggered the art essays on sculptures relapse. However, methodological issues may question the findings of Brown and breathing underwater alex report Birley making it less likely to support life events as a credible explanation because the findings were based on the patients’ retrospective recall which is never truly objective and often altered by art essays on sculptures reconstructed memory or their schizophrenic episode, so it’s possible that the research is breathing alex flinn book report low in internal validity because it doesn’t measure what it claims to. In addition, Brown and Birley’s research suggesting a link between life events and the onset of schizophrenia is only correlational because it doesn’t distinguish between whether the life events preceded schizophrenia or whether they are a consequence of the disorder, making it hard to establish cause and effect between the two variables; as a result prospective research is needed to better understand the direction of effect which would heighten the validity and reinforce the sociocultural explanation of schizophrenia.

To test whether life events are a cause or effect, Hirsch et al (1996) carried out a prospective study checking the life events experienced in art essays, a year. They used various scale ratings where independent raters assessed how severe a life event was whilst accounting for the individual’s personal context. They found a 23% risk of research topics patients having a relapse during the 1 year period due to life events, and on sculptures the risk was 41% for patients who had twice the average number of life events. These findings thus contradict Brown and Birley as they did not find that life events needed to essay huck immediately precede a schizophrenic episode, therefore making the sociocultural explanation an incomplete psychological explanation of schizophrenia. However, life events as an explanation is a more holistic account of schizophrenia because when combined with a biological predisposition it may be more able to explain schizophrenia better. The biological explanation suggests that there may be a diathesis-stress relationship where a biological predisposition (diathesis) only triggers schizophrenia if other stressors (such as stressful life events) are present in a person’s life. For instance, Tienari et al (1994) used 164 Finnish adoptees whose biological mothers had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and found that 7% had received the art essays same diagnosis as opposed to theory and change paper 2% in a control group. However this only emerged in on sculptures, situations where the adopted family was rated as ‘disturbed’ which counts as the appropriate stressor. Therefore it’s likely that schizophrenia can be explained by the biological approach when coupled with life events to encompass both the nature/nurture side in topics on jane austen, the debate and be a more complete explanation. Another psychological explanation of schizophrenia is the psychodynamic explanation as proposed by Freud who believed schizophrenia was due to a regression to a pre-ego state as a defence mechanism. Art Essays! Freud argued that if a schizophrenic’s parents were cold and uncaring, then the child may regress to a state of development before the ego was formed and a realistic awareness of the world was realised.

As a result, schizophrenia is seen as an infantile state which is reflected in important steps and editing an essay, its symptoms such as delusions of grandeur which reflects this primitive condition. The main issue of Freud’s psychodynamic explanation is that it’s unfalisifiable, making it impossible to test its credibility as an explanation. The psychodynamic approach is art essays on sculptures not objective and based on Freud’s subjective opinions; therefore it lacks principal features of steps in revising science which doesn’t convincingly explain schizophrenia when compared to more scientific explanations, such as the biological neural explanation of schizophrenia. Whilst the theory has some face validity in art essays, assuming that the schizophrenics experience inner turmoil, this might not be due to the harsh parental environment but may be explained otherwise such as through the cognitive explanation which suggests that schizophrenics become internally troubled when not believing what others have to say (such as denying the reality of voices or hallucinations), therefore leading them to think that others are hiding the truth and they’re on their own against everyone else who is trying to manipulate them. On the other hand, real life applications can be drawn from the psychodynamic explanation of schizophrenia because understandings of Freud’s theories have led to for civil service exam psychodynamic therapies, such as psychoanalysis, which helps bring subconscious conflicts to the conscious to establish control over the ego and on sculptures ultimately recover from schizophrenia. Supporting evidence comes from Gottdiener (2000) who in a meta-analysis found that 66% of patients receiving psychotherapy improved after treatment, suggesting that psychoanalysis as a result of the psychodynamic explanation has valuable applications in medicine to treat schizophrenia. Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks) Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks) The biological approach assumes that schizophrenia has an organic cause, though this doesn’t deny the role of psychological factors in underwater flinn report, the onset of the disorder.

There might be a diathesis-stress relationship where a biological predisposition (diathesis) only triggers schizophrenia if other significant stressors are present in on sculptures, a person’s life. This essay will cover both genetic and neural explanations of schizophrenia. There is a large body of evidence to suggest that schizophrenia runs in families which indicates it’s genetically inherited. Most evidence comes from essay exam, research using family studies which indicate that the closer the art essays genetic relationship to someone with schizophrenia the greater the chance of steps in revising and editing an essay developing the disorder (Gottesman 1978). Gottesman reported that whilst the rate of schizophrenia is 1% in the general population, the chances between first degree relatives having the disorder is 12% and if both parents have a disorder it is 40% likely their child will also have it. Compared to this, schizophrenia only art essays on sculptures occurs 2-3% between nephews.

Overall, Tsuang et al (1990) estimate that if stringent criteria are used, a first degree relative of essay huck schizophrenia has 5-20 times higher risk of it developing than those with no relatives. There are however methodological issues with using family studies because they lack population validity. Only small samples can be used because twins are hard to find, meaning the results can’t be extrapolated to the general public. Furthermore, in family studies it’s hard to distinguish whether schizophrenia is caused by art essays nature or nurture because families often share the same environment (nurture), thus making research into family studies low in internal validity because it’s not sure what’s being measured. Further evidence to support the genetic explanation comes from twin studies.

In general, it is reasonable to to write a 5 essay assume that if identical twins (MZ) have a higher concordance rate than fraternal (DZ) twins, then this indicates a degree of inheritability. A meta-analysis by Gottesman and Shields found a higher concordance rate for MZ twins than DZ twins, being 42% and 9% respectively. Although other studies have shown other rates, all twin studies have shown a significantly higher rate among MZ than DZ twins, therefore suggesting that research into this area is reliable, making the genetic explanation academically credible to explain schizophrenia. However, there are issues with using twin studies. If schizophrenia were genetically inherited then concordance rates should be closer to art essays 100% which leads to for civil service exam assume that only a biological predisposition is passed on.

Joseph would argue that the differences in concordance rates between MZ and DZ twins reflect nothing more than the environmental differences that establish the two types of art essays twins. Taking this argument, twin studies like family studies also fail to distinguish between nature and nurture. To deal with this issue, researchers have conducted adoption studies into schizophrenia. Tienari et al (2000) used 164 Finnish adoptees whose biological mothers had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. 7% received a diagnosis of steps and editing schizophrenia as opposed to 2% of the art essays on sculptures control group adoptees born to non-schizophrenic mothers. This led Tienari to breathing underwater flinn book conclude that the genetic liability has been ‘decisively confirmed’ when explaining schizophrenia. On the other hand, Tienari’s research can be interpreted as ethnocentric because it applies an emic construct when it is actually etic, therefore being culture biased because living in Finland may have more prevalent stressors to trigger the art essays on sculptures biological disposition of schizophrenia than in other countries. Overall, all the research into the genetic explanation suggests a genetic element to schizophrenia which makes research into this area reliable. However, despite all the above research 2/3rds of schizophrenics don’t have relatives with the illness. This argument thus can’t explain why or how they have it and therefore it’s an incomplete explanation of schizophrenia because it’s reductionist by ignoring other influences of biology. The theory is also reductionist because it ignores the main role of nurture, however it does state that a predisposition is inherited allowing for the role of nature in the initiation of the illness.

Alternatively, the dopamine hypothesis suggests that schizophrenia occurs from an excess activity of how long does to write dopamine in on sculptures, certain parts of the brain. Organizational Theory Paper! It is not the amount of art essays dopamine, but the sensitivity and book report density of dopamine receptors. Art Essays On Sculptures! Weinbereger (1987) argues that schizophrenia is due to important in revising and editing an essay dopamine overactivity in the pathways linking the midbrain to on sculptures the limbic system, and underactivity linking the midbrain to the cortex. Supporting evidence for the dopamine hypothesis can be found by book research by Wong et al (1986) who conducted PET scans on medication free schizophrenics, those taking phenothiazines and on sculptures normal controls matched for age. A greater density of dopamine receptors was found in the brains of untreated patients. The dopamine hypothesis does have practical applications because research by underwater book Wong has led to understanding of the brain’s functioning, therefore medication to affect dopamine has been created. Phenothiazines are used to art essays treat schizophrenia by decreasing dopamine activity in the brain. The symptoms of schizophrenia reduce slowly over 2/3 weeks, making it an application in medicine. This is does it take essay supported by Davis et al who carried out art essays a meta-analysis asking the design and change paper effectiveness of the dopamine treatment to a placebo and art essays found that relapse occurred in on jane austen, 55% of placebo patients as opposed to 19% of those on on sculptures the drugs, therefore suggesting the dopamine hypothesis does work and has applications.

In conclusion, the dopamine hypothesis is underwater flinn book report not entirely valid when looking at the causes of schizophrenia and is therefore reductionist. This is due to on sculptures the biological explanation’s main proposal (excessive dopamine activity) cannot be the main cause of schizophrenia by only focusing on the nature side of the underwater flinn book nature/nurture debate and ignoring other behavioural and cognitive factors. Outline the clinical characteristics of schizophrenia (4 marks) Outline the clinical characteristics of schizophrenia (4 marks) Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterised by a loss of touch with reality.

Patients meeting the criteria for a diagnosis can exhibit a range of symptoms which are categorised as being either positive or negative. Positive symptoms include hallucinations (auditory, visual, olfactory and tactile), inappropriate delusions (of grandeur and power), thought control and disordered thinking. A patient exhibiting positive symptoms may, for example, believe they are God or hear voices commenting on their behaviour. Alternatively, negative symptoms include affective flattening of expressions, alogia and avolition. For instance they may show no emotional expressions or speak slower. There is rarely a pattern in schizophrenia, though the onset is art essays on sculptures either gradual or acute. Early signs include withdrawal, mood changes and general apathy which eventually give away to the psychiatric episode. In order to flinn book report be diagnosed with the on sculptures disorder using DSM 4, 2 or more positive symptoms must persist for at and editing an essay least a month. However, if the delusions are bizarre or a voice is art essays keeping a running commentary on the individual, the underwater flinn book report diagnosis can be made with just one symptom. Discuss issues in the classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia (24 marks)

Discuss issues in art essays, the classification and for civil service exam diagnosis of schizophrenia (24 marks) The main tool of measurement to classify and diagnose schizophrenia is the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). One issue present is the tool’s reliability which refers to art essays the consistency of a measuring instrument, such as DSM-IV. This can be measured in terms of whether two independent assessors give similar scores (inter-rater reliability), or whether tests used to deliver the diagnoses are consistent over time (test-retest). Inter-rater reliability has been assessed for diagnoses of schizophrenia and has been criticised as being low. Though Carson (1991) claimed that DSM-III gave psychiatrists a reliable classification system with greater agreement on who had schizophrenia, this isn’t necessarily true and later revisions have continued to produce low inter-rater reliability scores. Essay Huck! For example, Whaley (2001) found only on sculptures a small positive correlation of +0.11 between different raters.

In addition, cultural interpretations also pose a threat to the reliability of the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Copeland (1971) gave a description of underwater flinn book report a patient showing clinical characteristics associated with schizophrenia to 134US and 194UK psychiatrists. Of the US psychiatrists, 69% diagnosed schizophrenia, whereas only 2% of the art essays UK psychiatrists gave the essay huck same diagnosis. This leads to suggest that the diagnostic criteria is on sculptures ethnocentric because it applies an emic construct when it is actually etic, therefore being culture biased because Copeland found schizophrenia has an imposed etic which reduces the reliability between cultures. In addition, the reliability of diagnosing schizophrenia is challenged through Rosenhan (1973) who claimed that situational factors were more important in essay huck, determining the ultimate diagnosis of schizophrenia, rather than any specific characteristics of the person. This was demonstrated through Rosenhan’s ‘Being Sane in on sculptures, Insane Places’ where various psuedopatients presented themselves to psychiatric hospitals in the US claiming to be hearing voices (a positive symptom of schizophrenia). Research Paper Topics! All were diagnosed with schizophrenia and on sculptures admitted, despite the fact they showed no further symptoms during their hospitalisation.

Throughout their stay, none of the staff recognised they were normal and essay for civil service interpreted all their behaviour as being symptomatic of on sculptures schizophrenia- for instance waiting for dinner before the canteen opened was diagnosed as characteristic of schizophrenia, though there was little else for them to do. The unreliability of the diagnosis was further demonstrated in a follow-up study by Rosenhan. Psychiatrists at several mental hospitals were told to expect psuedopatients over a period of essay for civil exam several months. Art Essays! This resulted in a 21% increase detection rate by the psychiatrists, even though none were actually sent. This shows that the important and editing an essay diagnostic criteria used by psychiatrists couldn’t reliably identify a person with schizophrenia. Alternatively, validity refers to the extent that the classification system such as DSM measures what it claims to measure.

For instance, comorbidity refers to the extent that two (or more) conditions co-occur in disorders such as schizophrenia. Therefore comorbidity is the extent to which the condition is ‘real’ and distinct. One way to avoid the issue of comorbidity is to use first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia when diagnosing (e.g. delusions and hallucinations) because Klosterkotter et al (1994) assessed 500 psychiatric admissions to Germany to determine whether positive or negative symptoms are more valid for a diagnosis of schizophrenia and found the former to art essays be more valid. However, Bentall et al (1988) claimed that many of the first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia are also found in other disorders (such as depression and bipolar). This makes it difficult to separate schizophrenia as a distinct disorder because there is crossover in symptoms; therefore schizophrenia is not a distinct condition. It may be more realistic to suggest that there is no discrete disorder as schizophrenia, but rather it’s an ‘umbrella term’ encompassing a spectrum of psychotic symptoms. Allardyce et al (2001) claimed that the symptoms used to characterise schizophrenia do not define a specific disorder because they can be found in other categories of psychosis described in DSM and therefore there should just be a psychotic spectrum. Another aspect of validity is predictive validity which demonstrates the important in revising validity of art essays a diagnosis by demonstrating that it can predict scores on some criterion measure.

If a disorder has high predictive validity then it should be clear how the disorder would develop and how people would respond to the treatment. Though research has found low predictive validity for schizophrenia. Essay Exam! Approximately 20% of patients do recover their previous level of on sculptures functioning but 40% never recover. This much variation in the prognosis suggests that the original diagnosis lacked predictive validity, meaning that the diagnosis was not helpful in dealing with the course of schizophrenia. Research has shown that other factors may be more influential on the ultimate outcome of having schizophrenia. For example, it may be linked to gender (Malmberg et al) and psychosocial factors, such as social skills, academic achievement and family tolerance of topics on jane austen schizophrenia behaviour (Harrison et al 2001). Discuss the role of exogenous zeitgebers in circadian rhythms (24 marks) Discuss the art essays on sculptures role of exogenous zeitgebers in circadian rhythms (24 marks) Exogenous zeitgebers are external cues or time-givers that help to keep circadian 24 hour rhythms in tune through entrainment. If organisms were lacking these zeitgebers then the underwater flinn biological rhythms such as the sleep wake cycle would be on a different time frame to the external environment; for on sculptures instance the shorter days in winter wouldn’t be detected.

Therefore exogenous zeitgebers are crucial in essay for civil, keeping the art essays on sculptures biological rhythms in time with that of the changing external environment. The dominant zeitgeber in organizational theory and change research, humans is art essays on sculptures light which enters into the retina and is transferred through the optical nerve to the SCN. This then stimulates the release of hormones such as cortisol and does it take to write melatonin the art essays on sculptures pineal gland, thus maintaining our sleep-wake circadian cycle. Essay Service! This was exemplified by on sculptures Campbell and Murphy (1998) who found that if you shine light on the back of participants’ knees (which is also sensitive to and change research light due to the CYP protein) their circadian rhythms shifted. The importance of exogenous zeitgebers and the role of artificial light upon circadian rhythms was empirically supported by Boivin et al (1996) who found that circadian rhythms can be entrained by ordinary dim lighting. If dim lighting does reset the biological clock, then the fact that we live in an artificially lit world (with TVs and lampposts) may have some negative consequences. For instance, Stevens (2006) suggests that exposure to art essays on sculptures artificial lights disrupt the it take a 5 paragraph essay circadian sleep-wake cycle and art essays ultimately explain why women in industrialised well-lit societies are more likely to develop breast cancer. Therefore the role of artificial exogenous zeitgebers may go some way to affect people’s sleep and wellbeing. As a result, research into the role of design exogenous zietgebers can have real life applications because the understanding gained from the research implies that by restricting the amount of bright lights (such as LCD screens) before going to bed can prevent the disruption of on sculptures a person’s sleep wake cycle, thus having applications by preventing ramifications of stress and insomnia, or entrain rhythms that are disrupted (e.g. jet lag). Furthermore, the how long it take a 5 paragraph essay existence of the exogenous zeitgeber is supported by Miles et al who presented the case study of a man blind from birth who had a sleep-wake cycle of 24.9hours. On Sculptures! This shows the importance of light as an exogenous zeitgeber over other external times cues because by not being able to underwater alex flinn report process light, the internal endogenous pacemaker was stuck on the timing of 25 hours, regardless what was going on in the on sculptures outside world, therefore providing evidence for the importance of light.

On the other hand, there are issues of validity with Miles’ study because a case study reflects one person’s personal individual differences, which cannot be representationally generalised to all people who might react differently to light- especially as the man had been blind so he might have developed other ways of picking up zeitgebers. For instance, research by Campbell and essay for civil service Murphey showed how endogenous pacemakers could be reset by shining light on people’s knees, therefore light could entrain the man through other ways, making the on sculptures study low in internal validity, thus not wholly support the role of light through the essay for civil service optical nerve. Another main exogenous zeitgeber of circadian rhythms are social cues. Meals are eaten at socially determined mealtimes, and go to art essays on sculptures bed and wake up at times designated for our age, therefore our sleep-wake cycle could be entrained by in revising and editing an essay social conventions. For example, Davidson (2006) found the zeitgeber for art essays cells in the liver and heart is topics austen likely to be mealtimes because these cells are reset by eating. Luce and Segall (1966) showed how social cues as zietgebers have an important role in on sculptures, circadian rhythms.

In the Arctic Circle people still maintain a constant sleep pattern of 7 hours a night, despite having 6 months of darkness in the winter and light in underwater book report, the summer. Art Essays On Sculptures! In these conditions, knowing it is either day or night time (by looking at a clock), even in how long does to write a 5 paragraph, the absence of proper light conditions, is likely to help the art essays rhythm to be maintained and fit in how long does it take paragraph, the outside world, supporting the view that social cues are important in sleep wake cycles also. On the other hand, the role of the exogenous zietgeber on its own can run the circadian rhythm is art essays a reductionist explanation because it fails to consider the influence of endogenous pacemakers. The running of the biological clock is organizational theory design paper more realistically an art essays on sculptures endogenous-exogenous exercise. Generally, research into the role of underwater alex flinn book report exogenous zeitgebers doesn’t take into account that there are individual differences in sensitivity to external cues, for instance some people have chronotypes which classes them as either owls or larks judging on how well they react to the sleep wake cycle and find it easier to wake up at different times, thus being reductionist because people react differently to art essays on sculptures circadian rhythms. Outline research into institutional aggression. (4 marks) Outline research into institutional aggression. (4 marks) Research into the importational model comes from Harer and Steffensmeier who in a study of 58 US prisons found that patterns of misconduct for essay exam particular groups tended to parallel differences outside of prison. For example, black inmates showed significantly higher rates of on sculptures violent behaviour within prison whereas white inmates shower higher rate of drug and alcohol related misconduct, reflecting behaviour outside of prison. These differences reflect the statistical differences found in underwater alex book report, the US generally, thus suggesting that they were imported into art essays on sculptures the prison environment. Steps In Revising And Editing! Alternatively, research into the deprivational model of institutional aggression comes from McCorkle et al who found that overcrowding, a lack of privacy and a lack of art essays on sculptures meaningful activity all significantly increased interpersonal violence in prisons, supporting the view that aggression is a direct consequence of situational factors that deprive prisoners of normal living standards.

Discuss evolutionary explanations of organizational design and change paper food preference (24 marks) Discuss evolutionary explanations of food preference (24 marks) To understand the evolution of art essays food preferences passed on it take to write by our distant ancestors, we must understand the environment they lived in. On Sculptures! The environment of it take to write paragraph essay evolutionary adaptation (EEA) refers to the environment in art essays, which our ancestors lived and evolved, over 2 million years ago in the African savannah. Essay Huck! The adaptive problems faced by our ancestors in the EEA would have shaped our early food preferences; for most of human history, humans lived together in hunter-gatherer societies which would have led to a preference for high calorie and easily available food for energy.

As a result, this preference for art essays fatty foods is an adaptive response to early diets because harsh EEA conditions forced humans to research on jane austen seek high-calorie foods which promote survival, achieved through high energy to keep warm and catch food. These preferences for calorific still persist among humans today, despite the foods not being particularly nutritious, therefore explaining why food preferences exist today. There is supporting evidence for the importance of calories in early diets through research by Gibson and Wardle (2001) who found that the best way to predict which fruit and vegetables would be preferred by a 4/5 year old was to measure how calorie-rich they were. Bananas and potatoes are rich in calories and mostly preferred, supporting the claim that humans have an evolved preference for art essays on sculptures food-preference which has an adaptive value. On the other hand, methodogical issues raise doubt over the internal validity of the it take a 5 paragraph study because it could simply be that children were attracted to certain fruits because such as potatoes and bananas because of their soft and bright texture, as opposed to a dull non-calorific food such as a kiwi, therefore making the evolutionary explanation of food preference hard to art essays support. In addition, many food preferences can be traced back to adaptive EEA-pressures but it is essay huck not always the art essays on sculptures case; some modern preferences, (such as low cholesterol foods) could not have evolved during EEA because they would hinder our ancestor’s survival, suggesting it’s a modern adaption. Similarly, many things which were important to our distant ancestors (such as saturated animal fats) are harmful in research paper austen, modern environments, so we are more likely to avoid them today because they are no longer adaptive to art essays live a healthy life, which suggests that although the process is essay slow there are still changes in our food preferences to art essays on sculptures match our environment. A common way of testing the evolutionary hypothesis is by studying related species that face similar adaptive problems, such as chimpanzees that face similar adaptive issues to humans. Stanford found that after starving a sample of chimps for most of the year, they went straight for the fattiest parts of their kill to take on as much energy and fat as possible, supporting the theory design and change research adaptive principle.

Though there are ethical issues with Stanford’s study by art essays on sculptures starving and causing extended pain to steps and editing an essay animals, which doesn’t stand to reason against BPS guidelines, thus making the research unreplicable and art essays on sculptures unfalsifiable in important in revising, supporting the evolutionary explanation. In addition, Stanford’s study can be criticised as being an imposed etic as researchers assume findings are relevant to humans as well, though the anatomy between both species are vastly different and findings cannot be representationally extrapolated. Instead, the evolutionary explanation may mask proximate causes of the same behaviour, such as advertising and availability of food- thus a person’s food preference may be explained through behaviourist explanations such as the social learning theory, because parental modelling of attitudes to food affects their offspring’s own attitudes because parents control what’s being served in the house. For instance, Brown and Ogden found correlations between parents and children in terms of snack intake and eating motivation because the offspring have observed their parents’ behaviour and are motivated to reproduce that behaviour. Another evolutionary explanation of food preference is taste aversion, first discovered by farmers trying to art essays on sculptures get rid of rodents. It was difficult to kill the pests by using poisoned baits because rats would only take a small amount of new food, and if they became ill they would quickly learn to avoid it. This is exemplified through Garcia et al who radiated rats after eating saccharin, which made the pests form an association between the illness and the food, therefore avoiding it to aid survival. Our ancestors performed similar rituals which explains why modern humans are innately repulsed by rotting or raw food (because it’ll make us ill).

Subsequently, the medicine effect illustrates how animals learn a preference for foods that make them healthier, with any food eaten just before recovery, as seen today such as in salads. This can be seen to have a real life application. The research on the origins of taste aversion has been used to with pest problems to encourage using stronger poisons or chemicals that don’t allow for rodents to survive, which is especially helpful for farmers who have crops ruined by pests who have averted not potent enough poisons. Further research support for taste aversion involving children and bitter foods was conducted by Minella (2008) who conducted research on important steps and editing an essay 900 people aged 5-50 who were given bitter foods. Art Essays! Children were more sensitive to organizational bitter due to a variation of the TAS2R38 gene, concluding that children have an innate evolutionary dislike for bitter foods whereas it’s more prominent in adulthood. Naturally, Minella’s research raises the art essays on sculptures question of the effect of nurture in the nature/nurture debate.

While evolutionary theories may explain food preferences in childhood, the research paper topics austen behaviourist approach which suggests people re conditioned to like or dislike foods may be a better explanation of food preferences in adulthood. Therefore explaining taste aversion through an evolutionary position alone would be a reductionist account of food preference. Discuss explanations for the success/failure of dieting (24 marks) Discuss explanations for the success/failure of art essays on sculptures dieting (24 marks) One explanation for the failure of dieting is the restraint theory proposed by Herman and Mack (1975). The theory suggests that a cognitive boundary on essay huck attempting not to eat ironically increases the probability of on sculptures eating. People often fail because the dieter has periods of restraint followed by periods of disinhibition; a result of eating more than normal through loosening restraints in does to write essay, response to influences such as emotional distress.

In an attempt to art essays on sculptures explain why dieting might lead to overeating, the essay ‘boundary model’ illustrates how hunger keeps intake of food above a certain minimum and satiety prevents us from overeating. Though when dieting, psychological factors influence consumption because the distance between these ranges expand making us feel satiated slower than if we weren’t dieting. Wardle and Beales (1988) validated research into the restraint theory by assigning 27 obese women to three groups; diet, exercise and a control group. Results after 7 weeks in lab assessments showed that women in the diet condition ate more than the on sculptures other women, implying that overeating is breathing alex flinn book report caused by dieting itself. Research support comes from Ogden (2003) who tested the failure of dieting by art essays giving a group of dieters and non-dieters a high or low calorie preload (such as chocolate or crackers) followed by a ‘taste preference’ of other foods. How Long It Take A 5 Paragraph! Ogden measured how much ‘taste food’ they ate and found that dieters who had a low calorie preload ate more, therefore these results suggest that although dieters eat less on some occasions, restrained eating is art essays on sculptures also associated with more at other times, supporting the restraint theory explanation of dieting. Furthermore, Ogden’s study can be praised on methodological grounds for being a lab experiment with greater control over essay huck the independent variable (food preload) and dependent variable (amount eaten, making it highly controlled and objective when drawing out cause effect conclusions on what causes the failure of art essays dieting. In addition, participants believed they were tested on taste though they were actually measured on their biological and unconscious processes; as a result participants can’t exhibit demand characteristics which thus raises the mundane realism of the study to make it more credible. On the other hand participants were being deceived which breaches the BPS’s ethical guidelines, therefore making the study unreplicable and in revising an essay unethical. However it could be argued that for the purposes of art essays on sculptures scientific understanding to explain dieting, this breach is justified.

However, although Ogden argues that the organizational theory design and change paper restraint theory may explain overeating of people with disordered eating patterns (such as bulimics and dieters), it’s a reductionist explanation by not being able to explain all disorders such as anorexia. Art Essays On Sculptures! If trying not to eat results in overeating as Ogden’s research claims, then how do anorexics starve themselves? It is likely that a number of genetic components exert an influence on eating; suggesting that the alex flinn book restraint theory may be a deterministic explanation, influenced by factors other than an art essays individual’s choice of breathing underwater alex book report lifestyle. Art Essays! For instance the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an enzyme produced by steps an essay fat cells to store calories. LPL also makes it easier to regain lost weight, suggesting a genetic reason may explain the failure of on sculptures dieting, not solely a cognitive explanation, thus this can be praised when combined for encompassing both the nature/nurture side of the debate. Another explanation for the failure of dieting is the role of paper on jane denial which suggests that attempting to suppress thoughts of foods is counterproductive and has the opposite art essays, effect. For example Wegner (1987) asked half a sample of does it take a 5 paragraph essay participants to not think about a white bear, but to art essays ring a bell if they did. Those instructed not to rung the how long paragraph essay bell significantly more than those who were not instructed to.

Therefore as soon as a food is denied, it becomes more attractive and likely to be eaten which ruins the diet. Similarly, this theory illustrates the ironic processes of mental control because it represents a paradoxical effect of thought control. On Sculptures! Diets often fail because when a restricted food becomes forbidden, the denied food becomes more attractive making attempts to how long to write a 5 paragraph essay suppress it difficult. Research support for the role of denial comes from Soetens (2006) who used an independent groups design by splitting participants into on sculptures a restrained and unrestrained group (which was subsequently split into high or low disinhibition) The disinhibited group used more suppression than other groups, but showed a rebound effect through thinking about it more. This suggests that restrained eaters who tend to overeat try to suppress foods more often but end up thinking about design and change, it and wanting it. Though, Soetens’s study used data from art essays on sculptures, personal accounts of the participants which suggests limitations on memory. Retrospective recall is never 100%, nor is the assessment of the failure of essay huck dieting entirely objective, which creates problems for the study’s internal validity. Generally, research into dieting can be seen as gender biased because participants are mostly women, thus being low in external validity by not being generalisabe to males.

Male eating differs considerably from female consumption (more calories a day requirement). Some dieting behaviour can have negative consequences, like the development of art essays anorexia nervosa; although mostly a female complaint, it has a 15% incidence in essay huck, males, suggesting that more research must be conducted using males to enrich our understanding of dieting in both females and males. Overall, as a consequence of art essays on sculptures research into the success/failure of dieting, applications into real life can be made to research topics on jane austen change dietary customs. On Sculptures! Psychological support can be constructed in the form of research paper topics on jane austen social support groups, such as Weightwatchers, to on sculptures set achievable goals and a positive mindset towards dieters, therefore being an application in improving people’s wellbeing. This is exemplified in the longitudinal study by breathing underwater flinn Miller-Kovach who compared the art essays Weightwatchers programme to a self-help programme over for civil service a 2 year period, finding the art essays on sculptures former more successful in dieting successfully.

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Fear About My New Life: A Personal Essay. I am full of fear about my new life. Art Essays On Sculptures. I am planning, with my friend Fred Timm, to start a not-for-profit organization called Con scious Community — a hub, online and also in-person, for people interested in and dedicated to becoming more c onscious. Does It Take To Write A 5 Essay. This is the first time I have spoken publicly ab o ut this group. On Sculptures. We have been w or king hard on formulating its principles for some time and research on jane austen, it’s almost ready to go. I don’t want to say much more about it right now, beyond that its ideas are in synch w ith the values I have been espousing for the last ten or so years. In framing this essay, I’d like to ask myself some questions about my fear. Sometimes I find interviewing myself to be quite helpful. So here goes.

To start, why do you have so much fear? My fear comes, I believe, because what is happening to me represents a major shift in my life. But if you’ve been publicly sharing these ideas (like “don’t have kids, it’s a terrible idea”) for ten years, what is different now? I think the art essays on sculptures, big difference is that I’m talking about underwater it less and living it more. My life is becoming more integrated. A big part of what’s so difficult about this is that a lot of people I’m close with, in one way or another, do not share many of my values. So there’s tension in many of my relationships. Why would you be close with people with whom you don’t share many important values?

I think a big part of this is that not all the work I’ve done has encompassed the totality of my values. For example, this holds true for the films I made about recovery from psychosis without medication. Through that work I have connected deeply with many wonderful and inspiring people, but that doesn’t mean we share the on sculptures, same range of values. Some values yes, key ones even, but not all. Now things are changing.

I haven’t felt the sense of satisfaction that I once did with focusing my energies in areas in which all my values don’t line up. It’s just not working for me anymore. But that sounds healthy. Why would you be scared? I am scared because it’s not easy to say goodbye. It’s not easy to make a shift in my life. It’s not easy to know that I am standing up for things that contradict basic values held by essay huck others people who have been such important allies in one part of art essays on sculptures, my life. But on a deeper level this ties in austen, with my history — my childhood.

I was rejected by my family, my parents, for being myself. When I became more open and direct about how I felt about them and their actions, especially their past actions toward me, they attacked me, and on a psychic level tried to destroy me. That shocked me to my core — and also taught me a thing or two about people who have a lot of denial to defend. Yet it wasn’t entirely unexpected. Art Essays. Deep down I pretty much always knew who my parents were. I knew the stakes of the game into which I was raised. And the stakes were this: you play our game, you silence the parts of yourself that don’t fit in with our denial, and design and change research paper, if you don’t we will reject you. As would be true for any child, that rejection spelled emotional death for me. I simply could not tolerate this overwhelming possibility, which is why I became like them for art essays on sculptures, so long.

I had Stockholm syndrome — a great defense against fear and rejection. That’s how deeply my rebellion was buried. But as I grew older and more independent, certainly into steps, my 20s and 30s, my true self began thawing out and my breaking away, though terrifying, became inevitable. But again, how does this connect with what you’re going through now? Well, I have a history of deep pain associated with growing and art essays on sculptures, changing. I have learned the how long does it take a 5 paragraph essay, hard way that allies don’t necessarily appreciate me standing in the light of on sculptures, values that contradict theirs. My family certainly didn’t. Essay Huck. So in on sculptures, a sense I remain traumatized by that familial rejection. Theory And Change Research. In many ways I loved my parents, and I lost them when I became more wholly me.

And I’m scared — my little, remaining wounded child is scared — that it will happen again with others I love. And I’m scared that it will hurt. So part of you is still a wounded little child? Yes. That little wounded child has grown up a lot, and many sides of him have matured into adulthood, but remnant parts of him remain. He still exerts some influence over my life. But I don’t want to put all the focus on him. Rather, I think it’s just as important to realize the radical nature of what I’m doing — and attempting to do — with my life. On Sculptures. I’m sticking my neck out pretty far by saying some of the things I’m saying and doing some of the things I’m doing. It Take To Write A 5 Paragraph Essay. I think so much of what people do — even what many of my partial allies do — is on sculptures, rotten. I think people having kids in this modern world is rotten.

It’s bad for the kids, bad for the growing adults, and bad for the world. I also see people doing so many other things to avoid growing, healing, and organizational and change research paper, being altruistic. So many people live in their own wounded child to the degree that they don’t know it at all, or at least know it very little. Art Essays On Sculptures. In a way I relate to how long does a 5 essay them, because I was there. But their lack of art essays, evolution doesn’t leave me with many great allies. I wish I had a lot more. Is that why you’re doing this — this ‘Conscious Community’ idea — to find more real allies? In part, yes, I am doing it to find more allies. But I’m also doing it for reasons of austen, altruism.

One thing I’ve learned as an adult, especially in on sculptures, the last ten years, is alex flinn, that what I do can really help people. Tons of people have reached out to me in that time and told me so. That feels good, and on sculptures, is yet another reminder from life that I’m on the right track. So I keep doing it — in does it take essay, new and improved ways. I want to help our world heal. I want to art essays on sculptures help others grow. I want to be more honest about who I am and what I stand for. And I want to breathing alex share ideas that I wish I had come across earlier in on sculptures, my life. And if I can create an organization that really does good on a broader scale, then I’m willing to make some sacrifices. And one sacrifice is that I’m scared a lot. Do you think this fear will go away in time?

I think, yes, it will. I’ve learned that whenever I’ve stuck my neck out, whenever I’ve taken a healthy risk in my life, I feel fear. I feel fear that I will fail, that there will be backlash, that I will be somehow punished or chastised, that I will become a pariah, that I will lose something. And often most of these, to a degree, are true. But failure — real failure — no. I haven’t yet failed.

That has never come true. Organizational Research. I think that is because real failure, if you just make the art essays, effort and how long to write a 5 essay, don’t hold back, if you really go for it and art essays on sculptures, give it your best shot, is impossible. I’ve always learned something from trying. So even if my new project doesn’t come to full fruition and service, if my hopes and dreams about its success don’t come true, there is on sculptures, gain. Learning is gain. And Editing An Essay. Experience is gain. And that’s just the minimum — because sometimes a project takes on a life of its own, far beyond my expectation. Art Essays. That happened with my film “Take These Broken Wings.” In the seven or eight years since I created it, it’s grown beyond anything I imagined. It’s now been translated into organizational design and change, more than 20 languages and it’s free on on sculptures, Youtube, where it gets watched nearly a thousand times a day. Important Steps An Essay. And oddly one of art essays on sculptures, its most popular audiences is Arabic viewers across the Middle East — who watch it with Arabic subtitles. It Take To Write. And to think, eight years ago when I was going to fly out to Colorado to film an art essays on sculptures, interview with Joanne Greenberg, one of the film’s “stars,” I had an urge to back out — to how long does it take paragraph essay find excuses to cancel.

I was so scared that I didn’t want to art essays on sculptures get out of research paper topics, bed. The voices in my head were screaming “failure, failure!” And they had their reasons. Art Essays. I barely knew how to operate a camera. I’d never before interviewed a famous writer. The project was costing me a lot of breathing alex report, my savings. I had to take off from work. There were so many things that could go wrong. I would be out of my comfort zone. Art Essays. But I did it — and I’m glad I did. It changed my life. So maybe that experience is a good metaphor for what will happen with Conscious Community.

I definitely feel what I’m doing now is new. And I definitely feel the fear. Yet I move forward anyway. 30 thoughts on “ Fear About My New Life: A Personal Essay ” I came across your videos and your blog years ago.

At that time it gave me hope. Hope, because I saw that there are people out there with a critical view of the psychiatric system who do something about it! Now, years later, I am standing at crossroads in essay huck, my life. What I plan to do will also mean a major shift in my life. And it scares me a lot. Art Essays. Well, at exactly that point I came across your book “breaking from your parents”. Although I do not intend to break with my parents, I will need courage to live my life according to my principles and essay huck, give more power to that inner voice of mine. And now I am reading about your plans to start a “Conscious Community”.

I love that plan and art essays, I wish you the best of success with your project! I need to say thank you for how long to write paragraph, your courage and your great work. Your films and art essays, your words have given me hope, and now they help me not to lose track and give me courage to take the important steps in revising and editing an essay, plunge. thank you melanie. much appreciated—and wishing you great strength on art essays, this journey called life. i think great strength is required to breathing underwater alex flinn report grow, more and art essays, more every day…….. daniel. thank you melanie. much appreciated—and wishing you great strength on this journey called life. i think great strength is required to grow, more and more every day…….. daniel. Really resonate with what you and Anna shared about organizational design and change being courageous to fight the on sculptures, loneliness and fear and press forward in important steps, seeking truth and allies in truth. Looking forward to this community and the opportunity to connect with other people on the journey through the valley (is that what you called it–maybe in another article). It is a matter of faith to believe that truth, love, reality and on sculptures, honesty triumph over fear, shame and on jane austen, comfort.

But reaping the rewards of that faith, as you explained, can be ever so sweet–seeing a ripple effect of healing and awareness. The giving of ones life force for on sculptures, the greater good and seeing that good grow and multiply. As John Wayne said, “Courage is breathing flinn book report, being scared to death and saddling up anyway.” Looking forward to seeing your new project launch and participating. -Rachel in Seattle. (same gal that commented your videos recently) thanks Rachel #128578; and good to see you here. i plan to be starting (in some way) this new community soon…… getting closer. and yes, scaaaary. thanks for the john wayne quotation———-daniel. Hi Daniel, just checking in and saying hi!

Hope you’re doing well, *waves*, hello again from Seattle! #128578; And, it really is on sculptures, challenging to start something new. Would love an update on how it’s all going, whenever (no pressure). Today I came face to essay huck face with some of my biggest creative blockages (anger at my parents) and just pleaded with God to take the art essays, blocks away so that, for the first time in 30 years, I can start vocalizing the millions of creative ideas and dreams I keep on the island I live on in my mind. May sound weird, but that’s the underwater alex book report, best way I put it! I finally realized that I’m tired of continuing my parents’ abuse/neglect and on sculptures, punishing myself in order to in revising not have to deal with the on sculptures, crushing reality that neither of my parents loved me. I think God heard me.

Its hard to start though. To fight back the persistent lies screaming at me to continue believing them, to stay moored in fear. I’m ready though. For Civil Service Exam. To give the pain of art essays on sculptures, courage a try again. I’ve been listening to a few lovely bands, which are helping me to build up that courage. My favorite at the moment is Typhoon.

If you get the chance, check out their song, Hope you don’t mind me sharing music! Have a great week! I feel exactly the same things that you describe, and essay huck, have been for the last couple of years since I started dealing with my childhood. Connecting with others is so difficult in the world were living in. To a large degree you have difficulties because you KNOW what real connection is like, and you’re starved of it surrounded by art essays on sculptures people who probably have never experienced it and research paper, who think you’re strange (that’s if you’re lucky).

Add to that all the art essays, really damaged ppl who become enraged and does it take a 5, get in art essays on sculptures, the way of any real conversation. Taking this path is organizational theory and change, so difficult, but every time I think of giving up, I think, what’s the alternative? To not really live at art essays on sculptures, all? To live in a daze, drugged on approval? Courage, we must have courage, and knowing there are others no matter how few helps. I wish you well with the essay huck, community, take courage. What we’re taking about is either the choice to retain choice, or to kill our own selves and our ability to art essays on sculptures make choices.

greetings anna — good to hear what you write. it makes sense!! well, slowly i am getting closer to starting my new group, “conscious community.” pretty close, in fact. maybe in a month or so i’ll get it going, with my friend fred. maybe it will appeal to you? check back soon! greetings from steps in revising an essay nyc, daniel. Wow…I’m glad I stumbled on this blog!…Yes…it’s truly frightening to be honest and art essays, real….I’ve experienced many slaps in my face (metaphorically) whenever I try to be honest and essay for civil exam, speak my own truth…Practically, no-one affirms what I say…instead I get labelled as a weirdo…even a heretic…. Anna says to art essays have courage…yes it takes hell of a lot of courage to deviate from the essay huck, norm…I’m not a brave person… I must admit that many times, just to get accepted by my community, I kept silent.. I did not dare speak my true thoughts and feelings…otherwise I risk total ostracism and art essays, even attacks from people around me. So I’m really looking forward to Daniel’s new Conscious Community and looking to read more comments in for civil service exam, this blog…It makes me feel less isolated. So thanks to Daniel, Anna, Rachel and all the on sculptures, other earlier comments.

I’ve some quetions for you: – Do you think it’s possible to learn to live with some uncertainties in live? – Is it impossible to cooperate/ live with people with different values than yours? – Would you also be happy, even if your achievements were of a moderate level all the time? – Can it be that you’re scared of financial and career uncertainty? To me it seems that your trauma’s constantly motivate you to change yourself as a person (becoming a ‘better you’) and create a better world (transforming anger in positive projects for the world). Could it be that a stronger focus on essay huck, a nice live for yourself would make you feel happier? p.s. I agree with you in 85% of the art essays, cases in your video’s!

Nice work #128521; Daniel, this is is inspiring. I have the essay huck, same instinct, if that word resonates with you, that people need to stop having kids because we need to slow down the growth and art essays, work on ourselves and society. I am very interested in your Conscious Community. And like you I have wanted to make the change and an essay, live what I preach, but am scared to leave the comfort of art essays on sculptures, what I have now for fears that i know some of and book report, other fears that I don’t know that might happen. Daniel, you speak the truth as many do, but not enough people. Art Essays On Sculptures. WHen a person is pure honesty it shakes people for they believe that have to lie to fit in with society. Keep speaking your truth, and maybe a kckstarter campaign would help you start this awesome website of which you speak. Great idea. I think that you two would make someting great together.

I can understand your doubts, but who knows better than you, that your inner voice is right and speak the truth and you can believe in it. I wish you courage and luck materializing it. Greetings from ACoA. Hi! I found you today. Just stumbled upon your video on youtube having searched for critiques of current psychotherapy education. Essay Exam. I watched the two hour-long videos and on sculptures, a recent interview on your website, non-stop. I am overwhelmed… If we aren’t soulmates #128521; we must have so much in common! It’s the first time in my life that I feel and organizational theory research paper, understand a person so well. Listening to you was as if my own hard-thought thoughts were speaking to me.

My instinctive or intuitive understanding of these matters has seemed logical and natural to me but it has faced either a vehement opposition from art essays on sculptures my colleagues, teachers, supervisors or a passive semi-conscious sabotage in essay huck, common people I’ve met in my life. My clients being the only ones to appreciate my genuine wish to connect with them and ‘hold the art essays on sculptures, lamp’ for essay for civil, them to lighten their path until they realize that they have the strength to hold it themselves, have always had. Art Essays On Sculptures. My supervisors also taught me to keep my boundaries which to me more resembled building a fortress to protect myself from the people i am supposed to help, they taught me wisely drawing on their experience to abandon hope to help ‘psychiatric patients’ in any significant way as i cannot compete with drugs. I’ve been in therapy all my life, in self-therapy ;-). Observing, reading, thinking, analysing, checking with my guts if my head is breathing underwater alex book report, right. I could never understand why people generally agree about the value of openness and true intimacy in a relationship but do everything not to live it. Art Essays. Why fake confidence is preferred to sincere doubt? Why does preserving one’s own power position make so much sense to people even if they are romantic partners, parent-child, mom-dad, friends? Why the heck would anyone want a relationship which has no profound, all-penetrating intimacy.

Why are so many people scared to open up and be sincere with a person of significance in their life, be it a child or a partner? As you do, I ask many questions looking desperately for answers that would resonate with my inherent worldview and the system of values. I respect and research paper topics on jane austen, employ scientific thinking but resent the God of statistics, I admire ancient wisdom of Eastern philosophies but get frustrated by on sculptures the simplified dogmatism of essay huck, New Agers. I’ve developed radars for fanatism in any disguise, the quality for which I am grateful to one of on sculptures, my earliest teachers, Erasm of organizational design research paper, Rotterdam. Sorry, I forgot to introduce myself. I am 38, originally from Moscow, hold a psychology MSc, mental health (UK), trained in hypnotherapy (USA), residing in Austria and struggling with requirements for psychotherapy trainging here which just leave no choice. I’d rather contacted you per email as there’re so many matters to share but this seems to be the on sculptures, only way available at the moment.

Please do email me if i made any sense to you #128521; greetings — thank you for sharing!! I can only congratulate you on deciding to try and create a community/retreat for people seeking truth/enlightenment/consciousness. Important In Revising An Essay. I remember suggesting this to you years ago and how it wasnt on the top op your list at the time, so even though I myself have given up on my journey, the pain and loneliness just became unbearable, I wish you and and your fellow allies, present and art essays, future, all the best. Just wanted to comment and say that I also had given up on my journey, and had given up on finding true allies. Organizational Theory Paper. I felt insane most of the time, and just let me heart and art essays on sculptures, mind grow numb and essay huck, dull. But I just recently, even after a lot of immensely painful losses and on sculptures, experiences, decided to keep trying. For me, it started with my diet, because I couldn’t think straight because my body and endocrine system was so unbalanced. But I really had thought my life was over, I felt like I’d spent everything I’d had on life and come up dry. But somehow, there was still life my dry bones.

I don’t know your story, but just wanted to share that on a general level, you’re not alone. And I believe there’s hope, for each and every one of us. I hope you find allies and a wellspring of research paper topics austen, motivation to keep going and growing. Every ending is a new beginning of sorts. Also, I’m sorry if any of that was unhelpful to art essays you. And thank you for your honesty and for breathing underwater alex report, sharing; it made me feel less alone and like other people out there understand. Hi Daniel, keep up the good work. Your books and videos have been of tremendous support to me and surely many others too. There is sadly very little out there that touches on on sculptures, these topics with as much honesty and sincerity as you have done. If your next venture is in that same spirit then you are on the right path. You have my support.

Cheers bas. OMG! I LOVE THIS IDEA….a place where people can go get consciousness…..perfect. Because people in most need of it, probably won’t have a clue about how to how long enlighten themselves at on sculptures, first….I love it Daniel…really…a consciousness launching point. Exam. It’s resonating with me because I’ve trying for a couple of months to formulate a letter to my estranged family (very old mother) because after 3 years of on sculptures, no contact….there always seems to breathing book be a nagging part of me that feels invisible and unvalidated. On Sculptures. Every time I attempt a revision on for civil exam, the letter, I remember back to when I was where they are….I don’t thing they will understand where I’m coming from. One of art essays on sculptures, my revisions ended by telling them I don’t want any phony apologies, but my best case scenario would be to see all of them (middle aged and older) on a path of facing the theory design paper, truth and growing to ever higher levels of consciousness. That’s great Daniel, I miss something like this since Alice Miller’s internet forums, it will get all the on sculptures, people together and reduce this painful loneliness of living ina society were people are emotionally distant and breathing underwater report, limp.

thank you JDoe — i hope what you’re saying proves true. daniel. I’m so happy to art essays hear about your amazing new project and wish you the best of luck. I’d love to does visit it some day. I’ve been a long year follower of your work and think you’re one of the most brilliant persons alive today. I know exactly what you mean by values not shared by others and how you find yourself in a position of fear to speak out about certain values in your environment, especially to on sculptures those close to yourself. I’m struggling with these feelings myself as well currently and and change, it really is quite a dilemma and I don’t know how to art essays get out of it yet because the important steps and editing, fear of loss is very much real and strong in me and I’m struggling to overcome it. Btw. Art Essays On Sculptures. have you heard of Tamera? They have build up a similar healing project down in portugal (the whole thing originated in germany back in 1978) and for civil exam, even though I don’t fully agree with some of their focal points (they don’t go deep enough like you do and some topics are misplaced in terms of their importance) it might still be a good starting point to get some inspiration for on sculptures, your own project. Here is a blog written by many of their members which shows their degree of conciousness on service, these topics (I’m not affiliated with them in art essays, any way except having discovered this essay/blog on facebook this morning and having seen some interviews by some of their people recently which was quite interesting to read and watch): ; This sounds like a fabulous project. I am in admiration of your bravery in making and sharing your fears.

I am there’s an online component for those of is essay for civil service, scattered around the globe. Sorry about the art essays on sculptures, typos! It should read I *hope* there’s an online component for those of *us* scattered around the globe. PS Really enjoyed reading your values. Most really resonated.

Oh dear and that should say *naming* and sharing your fears. I am going to stop typing these replies on my phone! In an amazing way it feels to paper topics on jane austen me as if you are creating your conscious family- much as I was taught to art essays on sculptures do in essay huck, recovery, though I did not break from my family, I certainly have found my spiritual parents and my spiritual children. Our roles are fluid as needed with the hope being, we relate to art essays on sculptures each other with a deeply personal tribal-like connection. Steps And Editing An Essay. A Tribe implies loyalty and from my research, those tribes that achieved endurance and healthy outcomes (where each individual is on sculptures, valued uniquely yet when appropriate interdependently) are still to important in revising and editing an essay be found. Wow, Daniel, this could have been an interview with my inner reticence to on sculptures step out of my box and essay huck, do something different. Art Essays On Sculptures. I’m experiencing something similar, losing people from my life as I change my beliefs and start living closer to paper austen my values. On Sculptures. While bringing my authentic self to the forefront has been an ongoing practice, I do listen to others and take in what they say, try it on. Sometimes I’m changed by it. Breathing Underwater Alex Flinn. I’m very interested in on sculptures, following this blog and seeing what others say about the theory and change research, risks and the losses associated with taking on new ventures. The question for someone who was raised with a follow the art essays, rules mindset and the shaming, rejecting, disapproving family and culture related to that is the toughest of all, “Underneath my appropriate social veneer, am I basically not loveable?” For me, that’s the fear.

Thanks for being so honest one more time. Hope u will have a good time in that project. I live in a community project and despite there are some difficult times, it deserves to essay huck do it. I have had similar thoughts living my life with people who don’t share my values, and it is definitly worth trying to live your life with people of your vibe. So nice one, mate.

I just wish you won’t stop writting. It is a great pleasure to read you once in a while.

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An Introduction to RDF and on sculptures the Jena RDF API. This is a tutorial introduction to both W3C's Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Jena, a Java API for RDF. It is written for the programmer who is unfamiliar with RDF and who learns best by prototyping, or, for essay huck, other reasons, wishes to move quickly to implementation. Some familiarity with both XML and Java is assumed. On Sculptures? Implementing too quickly, without first understanding the RDF data model, leads to frustration and disappointment. Yet studying the breathing underwater flinn book report data model alone is art essays dry stuff and often leads to tortuous metaphysical conundrums. It is better to approach understanding both the does paragraph data model and art essays how to use it in parallel. Learn a bit of the steps data model and try it out. Then learn a bit more and art essays on sculptures try that out.

Then the theory informs the practice and the practice the theory. The data model is quite simple, so this approach does not take long. How Long Does Paragraph? RDF has an XML syntax and many who are familiar with XML will think of RDF in terms of that syntax. This is a mistake. RDF should be understood in terms of its data model. RDF data can be represented in XML, but understanding the syntax is secondary to understanding the art essays on sculptures data model. An implementation of the Jena API, including the essay exam working source code for all the examples used in this tutorial can be downloaded from . The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a standard (technically a W3C Recommendation) for describing resources. What is on sculptures a resource? That is rather a deep question and the precise definition is still the subject of and editing, debate. For our purposes we can think of art essays on sculptures, it as anything we can identify. You are a resource, as is your home page, this tutorial, the number one and in revising and editing an essay the great white whale in Moby Dick.

Our examples in this tutorial will be about people. They use an RDF representation of on sculptures, VCARDS. RDF is best thought of in the form of node and essay huck arc diagrams. A simple vcard might look like this in RDF: The resource , John Smith, is on sculptures shown as an elipse and is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) 1 , in this case http://. /JohnSmith. If you try to access that resource using your browser, you are unlikely to be successful; April the first jokes not withstanding, you would be rather surprised if your browser were able to deliver John Smith to breathing alex flinn book your desk top. On Sculptures? If you are unfamiliar with URI's, think of them simply as rather strange looking names. Resources have properties . In these examples we are interested in the sort of properties that would appear on John Smith's business card. Figure 1 shows only one property, John Smith's full name. A property is represented by an arc, labeled with the name of a property. The name of a property is also a URI, but as URI's are rather long and cumbersome, the diagram shows it in important in revising an essay XML qname form. The part before the ':' is called a namespace prefix and art essays on sculptures represents a namespace.

The part after the ':' is called a local name and represents a name in that namespace. Breathing Book Report? Properties are usually represented in on sculptures this qname form when written as RDF XML and it is a convenient shorthand for essay huck, representing them in art essays on sculptures diagrams and in text. Strictly, however, properties are identified by a URI. The nsprefix:localname form is a shorthand for the URI of the namespace concatenated with the localname. There is no requirement that the URI of a property resolve to anything when accessed by a browser. Each property has a value. In this case the value is breathing underwater alex report a literal , which for now we can think of as a strings of characters 2 . Literals are shown in art essays on sculptures rectangles. Organizational Design And Change? Jena is a Java API which can be used to create and manipulate RDF graphs like this one. Jena has object classes to represent graphs, resources, properties and art essays on sculptures literals. The interfaces representing resources, properties and literals are called Resource, Property and Literal respectively. In Jena, a graph is called a model and is represented by the Model interface.

The code to create this graph, or model, is does it take to write a 5 simple: It begins with some constant definitions and then creates an empty Model or model, using the ModelFactory method createDefaultModel() to create a memory-based model. Jena contains other implementations of the Model interface, e.g one which uses a relational database: these types of Model are also available from ModelFactory. The John Smith resource is then created and a property added to it. The property is provided by a constant class VCARD which holds objects representing all the definitions in the VCARD schema. Jena provides constant classes for other well known schemas, such as RDF and RDF schema themselves, Dublin Core and OWL. The code to create the on sculptures resource and essay service exam add the property, can be more compactly written in a cascading style: The working code for this example can be found in art essays the /src-examples directory of the Jena distribution as tutorial 1. As an exercise, take this code and modify it to create a simple VCARD for design research, yourself. Now let's add some more detail to art essays on sculptures the vcard, exploring some more features of RDF and Jena. In the first example, the property value was a literal. RDF properties can also take other resources as their value. Using a common RDF technique, this example shows how to essay for civil service exam represent the art essays on sculptures different parts of John Smith's name: Here we have added a new property, vcard:N, to organizational theory and change paper represent the structure of John Smith's name.

There are several things of interest about this Model. Note that the vcard:N property takes a resource as its value. Note also that the ellipse representing the compound name has no URI. It is known as an art essays, blank Node. The Jena code to construct this example, is again very simple. First some declarations and the creation of the empty model. The working code for this example can be found as tutorial 2 in the /src-examples directory of the Jena distribution. Each arc in an RDF Model is breathing underwater flinn book report called a statement . Art Essays? Each statement asserts a fact about a resource. A statement has three parts: the subject is the resource from which the arc leaves the predicate is the property that labels the important in revising an essay arc the object is the resource or literal pointed to on sculptures by the arc. A statement is sometimes called a triple, because of its three parts. An RDF Model is represented as a set of statements.

Each call of addProperty in tutorial2 added a another statement to the Model. (Because a Model is set of statements, adding a duplicate of a statement has no effect.) The Jena model interface defines a listStatements() method which returns an StmtIterator , a subtype of Java's Iterator over for civil, all all the statements in a Model. StmtIterator has a method nextStatement() which returns the art essays next statement from the iterator (the same one that next() would deliver, already cast to Statement ). The Statement interface provides accessor methods to the subject, predicate and object of a statement. Now we will use that interface to extend tutorial2 to list all the statements created and print them out. The complete code for this can be found in tutorial 3. Since the object of breathing flinn book report, a statement can be either a resource or a literal, the getObject() method returns an object typed as RDFNode , which is a common superclass of both Resource and Literal . The underlying object is of the appropriate type, so the code uses instanceof to determine which and processes it accordingly. On Sculptures? When run, this program should produce output resembling: Now you know why it is clearer to draw Models. If you look carefully, you will see that each line consists of paper topics, three fields representing the subject, predicate and object of each statement. There are four arcs in on sculptures the Model, so there are four statements. The anon:14df86:ecc3dee17b:-7fff is an internal identifier generated by Jena. It is not a URI and should not be confused with one.

It is simply an internal label used by the Jena implementation. The W3C RDFCore Working Group have defined a similar simple notation called N-Triples. The name means triple notation. We will see in the next section that Jena has an N-Triples writer built in. Jena has methods for reading and writing RDF as XML. These can be used to save an RDF model to a file and later read it back in again. Tutorial 3 created a model and wrote it out in triple form. Tutorial 4 modifies tutorial 3 to write the model in RDF XML form to the standard output stream. The code again, is very simple: model.write can take an OutputStream argument. The output should look something like this: The RDF specifications specify how to underwater alex represent RDF as XML. The RDF XML syntax is on sculptures quite complex.

The reader is referred to the primer being developed by the RDFCore WG for a more detailed introduction. However, let's take a quick look at how to interpret the above. RDF is usually embedded in an rdf:RDF element. The element is optional if there are other ways of knowing that some XML is RDF, but it is usually present. How Long It Take A 5 Paragraph? The RDF element defines the two namespaces used in art essays on sculptures the document. There is then an rdf:Description element which describes the resource whose URI is http://somewhere/JohnSmith. If the rdf:about attribute was missing, this element would represent a blank node. Research Paper Topics? The vcard:FN element describes a property of the resource.

The property name is the FN in art essays on sculptures the vcard namespace. RDF converts this to in revising an essay a URI reference by concatenating the URI reference for the namespace prefix and art essays FN, the local name part of the name. This gives a URI reference of Breathing Alex Book? The value of the property is the literal John Smith. Art Essays On Sculptures? The vcard:N element is a resource. In this case the resource is represented by a relative URI reference. RDF converts this to an absolute URI reference by concatenating it with the base URI of the current document. There is an error in this RDF XML; it does not exactly represent the Model we created. The blank node in the Model has been given a URI reference. It is no longer blank.

The RDF/XML syntax is not capable of representing all RDF Models; for flinn book, example it cannot represent a blank node which is the object of two statements. The 'dumb' writer we used to write this RDF/XML makes no attempt to write correctly the subset of Models which can be written correctly. It gives a URI to each blank node, making it no longer blank. Jena has an extensible interface which allows new writers for different serialization languages for on sculptures, RDF to be easily plugged in. The above call invoked the standard 'dumb' writer. Jena also includes a more sophisticated RDF/XML writer which can be invoked by specifying another argument to the write() method call: This writer, the so called PrettyWriter, takes advantage of features of the RDF/XML abbreviated syntax to breathing underwater flinn report write a Model more compactly. On Sculptures? It is also able to preserve blank nodes where that is research paper topics on jane possible. It is however, not suitable for writing very large Models, as its performance is unlikely to be acceptable.

To write large files and art essays preserve blank nodes, write in N-Triples format: This will produce output similar to important steps in revising and editing that of tutorial 3 which conforms to the N-Triples specification. Tutorial 5 demonstrates reading the statements recorded in RDF XML form into a model. With this tutorial, we have provided a small database of vcards in RDF/XML form. The following code will read it in and write it out. Note that for on sculptures, this application to run, the input file must be in the current directory. The second argument to essay service exam the read() method call is the URI which will be used for resolving relative URI's. As there are no relative URI references in the test file, it is art essays on sculptures allowed to be empty. When run, tutorial 5 will produce XML output which looks like: In the previous section, we saw that the it take a 5 paragraph essay output XML declared a namespace prefix vcard and used that prefix to abbreviate URIs. While RDF uses only the art essays full URIs, and not this shortened form, Jena provides ways of controlling the design research namespaces used on output with its prefix mappings . Here's a simple example.

The output from on sculptures, this fragment is three lots of RDF/XML, with three different prefix mappings. First the default, with no prefixes other than the important and editing standard ones: We see that the rdf namespace is declared automatically, since it is required for tags such as rdf:RDF and rdf:resource . XML namespace declarations are also needed for using the two properties P and Q, but since their prefixes have not been introduced to the model in this example, they get invented namespace names: j.0 and art essays on sculptures j.1 . The method setNsPrefix(String prefix, String URI) declares that the namespace URI may be abbreviated by prefix . Jena requires that prefix be a legal XML namespace name, and that URI ends with a non-name character. The RDF/XML writer will turn these prefix declarations into XML namespace declarations and use them in its output: The other namespace still gets the constructed name, but the nsA name is now used in the property tags. There's no need for how long does a 5 paragraph essay, the prefix name to have anything to do with the variables in the Jena code: Both prefixes are used for output, and no generated prefixes are needed. Take the output produced by the previous fragment, and paste it into some file, with URL file:/tmp/fragment.rdf say. Then run the on sculptures code: You'll see that the underwater alex prefixes from the input are preserved in the output. All the prefixes are written, even if they're not used anywhere. You can remove a prefix with removeNsPrefix(String prefix) if you don't want it in art essays on sculptures the output. Since NTriples doesn't have any short way of writing URIs, it takes no notice of prefixes on output and doesn't provide any on input. The notation N3 , also supported by Jena, does have short prefixed names, and research topics on jane records them on art essays on sculptures input and uses them on output. Jena has further operations on the prefix mappings that a model holds, such as extracting a Java Map of the exiting mappings, or adding a whole group of mappings at once; see the documentation for essay huck, PrefixMapping for on sculptures, details.

Jena is a Java API for design, semantic web applications. Art Essays On Sculptures? The key RDF package for the application developer is org.apache.jena.rdf.model . The API has been defined in terms of research austen, interfaces so that application code can work with different implementations without change. This package contains interfaces for representing models, resources, properties, literals, statements and all the other key concepts of RDF, and a ModelFactory for creating models. So that application code remains independent of the implementation, it is best if it uses interfaces wherever possible, not specific class implementations. The org.apache.jena.tutorial package contains the working source code for all the examples used in this tutorial. The org.apache.jena. impl packages contains implementation classes which may be common to many implementations. For example, they defines classes ResourceImpl , PropertyImpl , and LiteralImpl which may be used directly or subclassed by different implementations.

Applications should rarely, if ever, use these classes directly. For example, rather than creating a new instance of ResourceImpl , it is better to use the createResource method of whatever model is being used. That way, if the model implementation has used an optimized implementation of Resource , then no conversions between the two types will be necessary. On Sculptures? So far, this tutorial has dealt mainly with creating, reading and research paper on jane writing RDF Models. It is now time to deal with accessing information held in a Model. Given the art essays on sculptures URI of a resource, the service exam resource object can be retrieved from a model using the Model.getResource(String uri) method. This method is defined to return a Resource object if one exists in the model, or otherwise to create a new one. For example, to retrieve the art essays John Smith resource from the model read in from the file in tutorial 5: The Resource interface defines a number of methods for accessing the properties of a resource.

The Resource.getProperty(Property p) method accesses a property of the topics on jane resource. On Sculptures? This method does not follow the usual Java accessor convention in that the type of the object returned is research paper on jane Statement, not the art essays on sculptures Property that you might have expected. Returning the theory paper whole statement allows the art essays application to access the value of the property using one of its accessor methods which return the object of the important steps and editing statement. For example to retrieve the resource which is the value of the art essays on sculptures vcard:N property: In general, the object of a statement could be a resource or a literal, so the essay huck application code, knowing the value must be a resource, casts the returned object. One of the art essays on sculptures things that Jena tries to do is to provide type specific methods so the application does not have to cast and type checking can be done at compile time. The code fragment above, can be more conveniently written: Similarly, the literal value of a property can be retrieved: In this example, the vcard resource has only one vcard:FN and one vcard:N property. RDF permits a resource to repeat a property; for example Adam might have more than one nickname. Let's give him two: As noted before, Jena represents an RDF Model as set of statements, so adding a statement with the important in revising and editing an essay subject, predicate and object as one already in the Model will have no effect.

Jena does not define which of the two nicknames present in the Model will be returned. The result of calling vcard.getProperty(VCARD.NICKNAME) is indeterminate. Jena will return one of the values, but there is no guarantee even that two consecutive calls will return the same value. Art Essays On Sculptures? If it is possible that a property may occur more than once, then the Resource.listProperties(Property p) method can be used to return an iterator which will list them all. This method returns an iterator which returns objects of research on jane austen, type Statement . We can list the nicknames like this: This code can be found in tutorial 6. The statement iterator iter produces each and every statement with subject vcard and predicate VCARD.NICKNAME , so looping over on sculptures, it allows us to fetch each statement by using nextStatement() , get the object field, and convert it to a string. The code produces the following output when run: All the organizational theory research properties of a resource can be listed by on sculptures using the listProperties() method without an argument.

The previous section dealt with the case of navigating a model from a resource with a known URI. This section deals with searching a model. The core Jena API supports only essay huck a limited query primitive. The more powerful query facilities of SPARQL are described elsewhere. The Model.listStatements() method, which lists all the statements in a model, is art essays perhaps the crudest way of service, querying a model. Art Essays? Its use is essay huck not recommended on very large Models. On Sculptures? Model.listSubjects() is similar, but returns an iterator over all resources that have properties, ie are the subject of some statement. Model.listSubjectsWithProperty(Property p, RDFNode o) will return an iterator over all the resources which have property p with value o . If we assume that only vcard resources will have vcard:FN property, and that in research paper our data, all such resources have such a property, then we can find all the vcards like this: All these query methods are simply syntactic sugar over a primitive query method model.listStatements(Selector s) . This method returns an iterator over all the statements in the model 'selected' by s . The selector interface is designed to be extensible, but for now, there is only one implementation of it, the class SimpleSelector from the package org.apache.jena.rdf.model . On Sculptures? Using SimpleSelector is one of the essay huck rare occasions in Jena when it is on sculptures necessary to use a specific class rather than an interface. The SimpleSelector constructor takes three arguments: This selector will select all statements with a subject that matches subject , a predicate that matches predicate and an object that matches object . If a null is supplied in any of the positions, it matches anything; otherwise they match corresponding equal resources or literals. (Two resources are equal if they have equal URIs or are the same blank node; two literals are the same if all their components are equal.) Thus: will select all the statements in a Model. will select all the statements with VCARD.FN as their predicate, whatever the subject or object.

As a special shorthand, listStatements( S, P, O ) is equivalent to listStatements( new SimpleSelector( S, P, O ) ) The following code, which can be found in full in tutorial 7 lists the full names on all the vcards in the database. This should produce output similar to the following: Your next exercise is to modify this code to use SimpleSelector instead of essay huck, listSubjectsWithProperty . Lets see how to implement some finer control over the statements selected. SimpleSelector can be subclassed and its selects method modified to perform further filtering: This sample code uses a neat Java technique of overridding a method definition inline when creating an art essays on sculptures, instance of the class. An Essay? Here the selects(. ) method checks to ensure that the full name ends with Smith. It is important to note that filtering based on the subject, predicate and on sculptures object arguments takes place before the selects(. In Revising And Editing An Essay? ) method is called, so the extra test will only be applied to matching statements. The full code can be found in tutorial 8 and art essays produces output like this: You might think that: is equivalent to: Whilst functionally they may be equivalent, the first form will list all the statements in the Model and test each one individually, whilst the second allows indexes maintained by the implementation to improve performance. Try it on a large Model and see for yourself, but make a cup of coffee first. Jena provides three operations for manipulating Models as a whole. These are the common set operations of union, intersection and difference. The union of two Models is the union of the sets of statements which represent each Model.

This is important steps in revising and editing an essay one of the key operations that the design of RDF supports. It enables data from disparate data sources to be merged. Consider the following two Models: When these are merged, the two http://. Art Essays? JohnSmith nodes are merged into one and paper topics on jane austen the duplicate vcard:FN arc is dropped to produce: Lets look at art essays, the code to do this (the full code is in it take to write paragraph essay tutorial 9) and art essays on sculptures see what happens. The output produced by essay exam the pretty writer looks like this: Even if you are unfamiliar with the details of the RDF/XML syntax, it should be reasonably clear that the Models have merged as expected. The intersection and difference of the Models can be computed in a similar manner, using the methods .intersection(Model) and art essays .difference(Model) ; see the difference and intersection Javadocs for more details. RDF defines a special kind of resources for representing collections of things. These resources are called containers . The members of a container can be either literals or resources.

There are three kinds of container: a BAG is an unordered collection an research topics, ALT is an unordered collection intended to represent alternatives a SEQ is an ordered collection. A container is on sculptures represented by underwater flinn report a resource. That resource will have an rdf:type property whose value should be one of rdf:Bag, rdf:Alt or rdf:Seq, or a subclass of one of these, depending on the type of the container. The first member of the container is the value of the container's rdf:_1 property; the second member of the container is the value of the container's rdf:_2 property and art essays on sculptures so on. The rdf:_nnn properties are known as the ordinal properties . For example, the Model for a simple bag containing the vcards of the Smith's might look like this: Whilst the members of the bag are represented by the properties rdf:_1, rdf:_2 etc the ordering of the properties is not significant. We could switch the values of the research paper topics on jane rdf:_1 and rdf:_2 properties and the resulting Model would represent the same information. Alt's are intended to represent alternatives. For example, lets say a resource represented a software product. It might have a property to indicate where it might be obtained from.

The value of that property might be an art essays, Alt collection containing various sites from which it could be downloaded. For Civil? Alt's are unordered except that the rdf:_1 property has special significance. It represents the default choice. Whilst containers can be handled using the basic machinery of resources and properties, Jena has explicit interfaces and implementation classes to art essays on sculptures handle them. It is not a good idea to have an object manipulating a container, and at the same time to modify the state of that container using the lower level methods. Let's modify tutorial 8 to create this bag: If we write out this Model, it contains something like the following: which represents the Bag resource. The container interface provides an iterator to paper topics on jane list the contents of on sculptures, a container: which produces the following output: Executable example code can be found in tutorial 10, which glues together the fragments above into a complete example. The Jena classes offer methods for manipulating containers including adding new members, inserting new members into the middle of a container and how long it take essay removing existing members. On Sculptures? The Jena container classes currently ensure that the organizational theory design research the list of ordinal properties used starts at rdf:_1 and is contiguous.

The RDFCore WG have relaxed this contraint, which allows partial representation of containers. This therefore is an area of Jena may be changed in the future. More about Literals and art essays Datatypes. RDF literals are not just simple strings. Literals may have a language tag to indicate the language of the literal. The literal chat with an English language tag is considered different to the literal chat with a French language tag.

This rather strange behaviour is an artefact of the original RDF/XML syntax. Paper Topics Austen? Further there are really two sorts of art essays, Literals. In one, the string component is just that, an ordinary string. In the other the breathing underwater alex flinn book string component is expected to be a well balanced fragment of XML. When an RDF Model is written as RDF/XML a special construction using a parseType='Literal' attribute is art essays used to and change represent it. In Jena, these attributes of a literal may be set when the literal is constructed, e.g. in tutorial 11: For two literals to be considered equal, they must either both be XML literals or both be simple literals. In addition, either both must have no language tag, or if language tags are present they must be equal.

For simple literals the art essays strings must be equal. XML literals have two notions of organizational and change, equality. The simple notion is that the conditions previously mentioned are true and the strings are also equal. The other notion is that they can be equal if the canonicalization of their strings is equal. Jena's interfaces also support typed literals. The old-fashioned way (shown below) treats typed literals as shorthand for art essays on sculptures, strings: typed values are converted in the usual Java way to strings and topics on jane austen these strings are stored in the Model. For example, try (noting that for simple literals, we can omit the model.createLiteral (. ) call): The output produced is: Since both literals are really just the string 11, then only one statement is added.

The RDFCore WG has defined mechanisms for supporting datatypes in RDF. Jena suports these using the on sculptures typed literal mechanisms; they are not discussed in this tutorial. The identifier of an RDF resource can include a fragment identifier, e.g. http://hostname/rdf/tutorial/#ch-Introduction, so, strictly speaking, an RDF resource is essay huck identified by a URI reference. As well as being a string of on sculptures, characters, literals also have an optional language encoding to represent the language of the string. For example the literal two might have a language encoding of on jane, en for English and the literal deux might have a language encoding of fr for France. [1]: sparql_data/vc-db-1.rdf. Copyright 20112017 The Apache Software Foundation, Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0.

Apache Jena, Jena, the art essays Apache Jena project logo, Apache and for civil service the Apache feather logos are trademarks of The Apache Software Foundation.

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Forbidden City Essay By William Bell Essays and art essays on sculptures, Research Papers. ?John Morales Coach Schiele CP English-6th Period 3/1/2015 The City that was Forbidden . . The Forbidden City is the biggest palace complex on earth! The Forbidden City is an research topics, immense palace complex that has a rich History, an exquisite architecture, and art essays on sculptures, plays a major role on tourism today. It has a rich History because it was home to fourth-teen Ming emperors and ten Qing emperors. The Forbidden City has an exquisite architecture because it has been a topic of. Beijing , China , Chinese language 770 Words | 3 Pages. Alexander Jackson’s Growth in the Novel “ Forbidden City ” What if you had a one in a lifetime chance to look at the world from for civil service exam . a whole new angle? Would you take the opportunity to look at things in a new way, or would you simply accept things as you see them now? Alexander Jackson is on sculptures a seventeen year old Canadian, whose view of the world has been drastically changed. My novel study presentation on the book “ Forbidden City ”, will be about the design and change paper, protagonist Alex Jackson and how he grows and changes. Alexander , Chariot , Novel 960 Words | 3 Pages.

Traveling to another country, and being situated in some dangerous situations opens ones eyes and helps ones gain experience. In the book . Forbidden City by William Bell , Alexander jackson is a seventeen year old boy that travels with his father Ted who is a camera man that works for CBC news. On Sculptures. In this novel Alexander Jackson goes from innocence to experience. He developes as a caring, responsible human being and grows up through his experience in China. Essay Huck. Alex before his journey to China is a typical. Adolescence , Army , Government 828 Words | 3 Pages. Innocence to Experienced in Forbidden City. ?Innocence to experience in Forbidden City Life is a journey that everyone has to go through. We always start with innocent and . inexperience. As we go through our journey of life, we usually meet some obstacle and challenge that we have to on sculptures, overcome to continue our journey of life, but we can receive help from other people along the way.

We will learn experiences and become mature as we overcome the challenges and obstacles. So we can receive some important concert and abstract rewards for go through. Battle , Chess , Experience 1760 Words | 8 Pages. ? Forbidden City Quote Chart Theme Quotation Son and dad relationship -“I’m really proud of important steps in revising and editing an essay [my dad]” ( Bell , 2) . -“I have to handle the tickets and boarding passes and art essays, steer Dad around “ ( Bell , 10) -“Alex, I would rather have you up here in case anything happens” (98) -“I wanted dad to be with me” (143) -“He searched my face, his eyes coming alive”(187) Grief Alex and and editing, Dad are grief-stricken when they think of their mom, who are not living with them -Dad’s “shoulders and head shook from. Beijing , Communism , Communist Party of China 1264 Words | 6 Pages.

?The Bells Mackenzie Gates Many types of art essays on sculptures literary devices are used to create an overall mood for each section of Edgar Allan Poe’s . “The Bells ”. The first section starts out happy reminding people of Christmas time and many of the ways bells are incorporated with this time of year. This is followed by does to write paragraph a joyful wedding in section two. The mood, however, then shifts for art essays, the worst in section three, turning to the terror of important in revising and editing an essay a fire. The fourth section finishes the poem off with death represented. Edgar Allan Poe , Madrid Metro , Metropolitana di Napoli 922 Words | 3 Pages. Forbidden City Guide Forbidden City (Chinese: ??? pinyin: Zijincheng), also known as the Palace . Art Essays On Sculptures. Museum, was the imperial palace of the Ming and Qing Emperors.

It served as a home for essay service, the emperors and their families, a ceremonial hall, and political hub for Chinese rule. Located at the center of Beijing, China, the Forbidden City is definitely worth seeing when traveling to art essays, Beijing. This rectangular-shaped palace is 3,153 ft (961 meters) long and 2,470 ft (753 meters) wide. There are 980. Beijing , China , Emperor of China 1498 Words | 6 Pages. of Grove City vs. Breathing Alex Flinn Book Report. Bell , Title IX was proved to affect not only colleges and universities but private schools as well. Title IX . states that no person shall be excluded from being a part of any educational program according to the sex of the person. Before this court case, Title IX only referred to colleges and art essays, universities that receive federal funds.

After the topics on jane, court case, private schools that refused direct funding were able to on sculptures, receive federally funded scholarships. Even though Grove City College won. Education , Federal government of the United States , Law 932 Words | 3 Pages. Crabbe by William Bell ENG4C For:Mr.Hawkins Due: Monday December 17th 2012 I was very surprised when I began . to read the novel Crabbe by William Bell , the theme of the book was very clear and delivered a distinct message. We cannot run away from our problems, we cannot run nor hide, for our dreams, mistakes and daily lives will always find a way to catch up to us.

It was rather shocking to me how much I could relate to the novel, I once had the same mind set as the research on jane austen, protagonist…. Emotion , Film editing , Novel 1134 Words | 3 Pages. Sound of the Freedom- The Liberty Bell Figure 1 Liberty Bell Forever Stamp . Figure 1 Liberty Bell Forever Stamp Meaning can be found even in the most mundane of objects. For instance, consider the USA First Class stamp. On its upper left corner, the number 2008 shows that this stamp was produced in art essays, year 2008. The right side of the organizational paper, stamp says “USA FIRST-CLASSS FOREVER”, meaning that this postage stamp is valid for First-Class. Bell , Bells , Expo 2232 Words | 7 Pages. The name of Xin-hua translates to New China and art essays on sculptures, it was her powerful belief for a new China that made her determination so strong. Throughout . Forbidden City her determination seemed to breathing alex flinn book report, grow. On Sculptures. It required a lot of breathing alex flinn book guts and determination for the powerless ordinary people to take on the all-powerful government.

Determination, though not her only characteristic, was certainly the strongest one, but through her determination she showed Alex a different world. To die for on sculptures, your country is not as heart. Beijing , China , Communist Party of China 1194 Words | 3 Pages. and the how long does paragraph, resulting denial of human responsibility for change. There is a loss of human involvement that shape technology and society (Sarah Miller). . Another conflicting idea is art essays that of technological somnambulism, a term coined by Winner in his essay Technology as Forms of Life. And Change Paper. Winner wonders whether or not we are simply sleepwalking through our existence with little concern or knowledge as to how we truly interact with technology.

In this view it is still possible for us to on sculptures, wake up and once. Determinism , History of important an essay technology , Philosophy of technology 779 Words | 3 Pages. In the art essays, Day of to write a life experienced by the author as a seller of blackberries when he was a 10 year old child. It is told from a first persons perspective . Art Essays. so as to pronounce the level of Intimacy to the narrative relative to how long it take a 5 paragraph, the poet. In this essay , I’ll give a brief analysis of my Thoughts on the poem and its effectiveness as an artistic literature. In recounting the nostalgiac setting of summer, while working as a berry picker And seller, the author attempts paint an image of the. Ayumi Hamasaki , Berry , Pint 556 Words | 4 Pages. The book FORBIDDEN CITY by art essays on sculptures William Bell is a historical themed book.

The time and place that this . book is set is the Spring of breathing report 1989 in Beijing, China. This book follows Alexander Jackson who narrates the story about the biggest occurrence of his life. Alexander was a teenager who loved to create or amuse himself with things that has to do with the army or anything that pertains to China’s Army. His favorite part of learning about on sculptures history is learning the different battle tactics and essay service exam, plans of. Army , Beijing , Change 521 Words | 2 Pages. William Bell's No Signature Theme Essay. Andrew Clark Mrs. Dickson ENG 1D June 10, 2013 Theme Essay on William Bell’s No Signature The novel No Signature . ratifies the importance of human relationships through exhibiting how drastically Steve’s decisions can negatively affect his relationships with his family and art essays, friends. After Steve Chandler's father leaves the family, Steve receives a postcard from him every month. There's no return address, and alex flinn, no signature; just DAD stamped on the back.

When Steve’s mom finds him angrily. Family , Father , Friendship 1517 Words | 5 Pages. The Liberty Bell , located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is an American bell of great historic significance. The Liberty . Bell is perhaps one of the most prominent symbols associated with the American Revolution and the American Revolutionary War. Art Essays. It is one of the most familiar symbols of independence, abolition of underwater alex flinn slavery, nationhood and freedom within the United States, and has been used as an international icon of liberty. [1] Its most famous ringing, on July 8, 1776, summoned citizens of Philadelphia. Allentown, Pennsylvania , Bell , Citizens Bank Park 2154 Words | 7 Pages. Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone. Essay. Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Graham Bell invents the . telephone September 2011 Justine Gadiel M. Gaditano Checklist Contents Possible Points Points Earned 1 Folder 5 2 Tittle Page 1 3 Illustrations 10 and Pictures 4 Outline . Alexander Graham Bell , Bell Telephone Company , Elisha Gray 1745 Words | 7 Pages. ?“Dr Faustus is an exploration of art essays forbidden knowledge and the unknown” to what extent do you agree?

Attain forbidden knowledge- . leads to downfall At the beginning of in revising Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus, the reader quickly learns that the central character is highly educated and ambitious, as well as remarkably arrogant. Before we are introduced to art essays, him as he sits in essay huck, his study, we are told that he is “swollen with cunning” and has grown tired of traditional studies and art essays on sculptures, seeks a new darker path of study. This endeavour. Devil , Epistemology , Faust 1192 Words | 3 Pages. Forbidden Many things are forbidden , but nothing is quite as forbidden as The Forbidden . Paper Topics. City . The Forbidden City located in the capital of China, Beijing. The Imperial Palace represents the main ideas of the on sculptures, Chinese history, and organizational design research, the way of life. These ideas are Culture, Religion, and on sculptures, the Imperial Family. First, are the essay exam, ideas of the on sculptures, Chinese Culture.

The Forbidden City is a great representation of the Chinese culture. The palace is said to have harmonious balance along with a symmetrical layout. China , Emperor of how long it take a 5 paragraph essay China , Forbidden City 453 Words | 2 Pages. Alexander Graham bell was a very important man, not only to Canada but to the whole world as well, and art essays on sculptures, it was not an easy road to success. His . contributions to the world of communication were unmatched by any one.

This essay will be arguing the facts about how long a 5 paragraph Bell that have been stated through 3 main topics, which are, Bell #8217;s contribution to deaf people. Graham Bell made a contribution to the communication world. Art Essays. Finally he ran into many problems while in innovations were occurring. Alexander. Alexander Graham Bell , Creativity , Gardiner Greene Hubbard 1383 Words | 3 Pages. ?Are We Responsible To (say) Fuck? Due to does to write essay, the more and more relaxed state of regulations on the use of “ forbidden words” in the media, the art essays on sculptures, . individual responsibility of using curse words has increased. In this research I have found that the use of curse words has heightened some people’s sensitivity to these words. Underwater Report. Children are the most affected and art essays, the parents are not far behind.

The use of design research paper curse words in our media has changed our perspective; children and on sculptures, teens use them sometimes on the daily basis. Curse , Fuck , Minced oath 1426 Words | 5 Pages. Between the book, My Forbidden Face, written by Latifa, a young women who grew up under the Taliban’s control and the article Women in . Afghanistan: Afghan Women’s Rights, written by and editing an essay PBS, have many similarities in how women were treated. Art Essays. They tell how before the Taliban arrived, they were a normal country, with equal rights for men and women, and how the women dominated most work forces, such as teaching, medical, and others. They even played a part in the government. However, when the Taliban arrived.

Afghanistan , Female , Girl 1014 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Statues of William the Conqueror 1066. ESSAY : ANALYSIS OF THE STATUTES OF WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. 1066 1. Introduction a)Nature of the text This is a juridical . text in which the main decrees and laws that English people had to follow and accept after the conquest of England in 1066 are exposed. b). Location The text can be located in breathing underwater book, England, year 1066, after the Norman Victory in art essays on sculptures, The Battle of Hastings. c) Author The author's of the Statutes of William the Conqueror are William I and his princes, that is to say. Battle of steps in revising Hastings , Bayeux Tapestry , England 964 Words | 3 Pages. William Paterson (Patterson) was born in County Antrim, Ireland, in 1745. When he was almost 2 years of age, his family emigrated to America, . disembarking at art essays, New Castle, DE.

While the father traveled about the country, apparently selling tinware, the does to write a 5, family lived in New London, other places in art essays, Connecticut, and in does to write, Trenton, NJ. In 1750 he settled in Princeton, NJ. Art Essays On Sculptures. There, he became a merchant and manufacturer of tin goods. How Long To Write Paragraph. His prosperity enabled William to attend local private schools and the College. Articles of Confederation , New Jersey , Supreme Court of the United States 2267 Words | 7 Pages. Chinese Culture The Forbidden City Introduction The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial . palace from the mid-Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. Art Essays On Sculptures. It is located in the middle of Beijing, and now houses the research, Palace Museum.

It was built from art essays 1406 to 1420 by organizational theory design and change research the third Ming emperor Yongle, who upon usurping the on sculptures, throne, determined to move his capital north from Nanjing to Beijing. In 1911 the Qing dynasty fell to the republican revolutionaries. The last emperor, Puyi??, continued to live. Beijing , China , Empress Dowager Cixi 713 Words | 2 Pages. The early settling of America came with many kinks and problems. In Revising And Editing. With the prospect of a new world, settlers will often return to the comfortable ideal and . moral of their mother country, England. William Penn was determined to initiate an idea of on sculptures equality in service, the hearts of Americans. On Sculptures. Over time and dedication, he was able to study how the court system can work in his favor to reinvent his presentation and accomplish his objectives. The defining actions of Penn established his position as an American. Freedom of religion , Pennsylvania , Philadelphia 1622 Words | 4 Pages. Commentary Essay for Sylvia Plath’s Bell Jar.

Commentary Essay for Sylvia Plath’s Bell Jar. Sylvia Plath? Have you heard of her? Well, Sylvia Plath is a well-known poet, . novelist and author. Plath was born during the great depression influencing her writing style. At a very young age she lost her father and since then she began lose faith. She also became ambivalent about religion all throughout her life. Important In Revising And Editing An Essay. Plath was a very smart student and was accepted into Smith College in America. During her stay in college she was accepted as an art essays, editor. Electroconvulsive therapy , Great Depression , Mademoiselle 1008 Words | 3 Pages. Critical Essay on essay service exam, for Whom the Bell Tolls.

minimal degree of appropriateness for art essays on sculptures, the author to breathing underwater flinn book report, include it in his work, and art essays, this is especially true for Ernest Hemingway in breathing underwater book report, the case of For Whom the . Bell Tolls. The most prevailing theme in on sculptures, the novel is the loss of innocence in war, which, at some point during the story, happens to every character. Hence it is not surprising that For Whom the Bell Tolls is rich in essay huck, imagery, motifs, and symbolism. Using these literary devices Hemingway paints a clear picture of humanity, and art essays on sculptures, doing so unmasks the true. A Farewell to Arms , Character , English-language films 1349 Words | 4 Pages.

? Problem statement “The colonial cities in organizational, the ‘New World’, that is, the Americas, were founded and laid out according to specific . Art Essays. rules and intentions. Alex Book. What were they? Did similar rules result in similar appearances or features in the cities of the different European colonisers? If not, why not? Use a specific city as suitable illustration of your argument.” Essay Plan 1. Introduction/argument (150) 2. Spain colonies rules (politics and religion) (200) 3. Art Essays On Sculptures. English. Colonialism , History of Spain , Mexico City 1625 Words | 6 Pages. Forbidden City After reading this unforgettable novel “The Forbidden City ”, Alex’s trip to China has . shown that a single action can have dramatic consequences. Alex changed from a boy who enjoyed military history, having adventures, and thought clay soldiers were heroes, to steps an essay, someone who is art essays on sculptures more mature, grew responsibility, and learned the true meaning of essay service exam a hero. Before Alex went to Beijing, he had a passion for Chinese military. As he stayed in Beijing for few months, he found that there were more.

Beijing , Chang'an Avenue , Forbidden City 546 Words | 2 Pages. The Role Models of art essays Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar Throughout the novel Esther Greenwood has trouble deciding who she wants to be. Her . search for organizational and change paper, an identity leads her to look at her female role models. These women are not ideal in her eyes. On Sculptures. Although they represent a part of what she herself wants to be, Esther finds it impossible to decide which one she is to become. Jay Cee, Mrs. Willard, Philomena Guinea, her mother and Doctor Nolan all act as role models for Esther Greenwood. The ways. 2003 in film , Doctor , Gender role 1390 Words | 4 Pages. Major Essay Outline William Shakespeare not only wrote magnificent plays but captured what it was like in the Elizabethan era . and how certain relationships played a huge role in their life.

Certain relationships like with God, family, and between lovers are shown throughout Shakespeare’s plays and give people today a history lesson of what it was like back then with regards to types of relationships. The plays that show universal relationships are Hamlet and As You Like It, these bonds are shown. As You Like It , Family , Hamlet 1425 Words | 4 Pages. City of Glass by organizational design and change paper Paul Auster Essay. The New York Triology: City of Glass By Paul Auster City of Glass is a novel written by Paul Auster in 1985, and its one of art essays on sculptures . the stories included in breathing underwater alex report, the series of art essays on sculptures novels The New York Trilogy (1987). One of the essential themes that recur in many of Austers works is the search for identity and personal meaning, and this is exactly one of the main elements of City of Glass. It deals with this detective writer, who descends into madness when he becomes a private investigator himself by to write a 5 mistake. In. Daniel Quinn , David Mazzucchelli , Fiction 1556 Words | 4 Pages.

Final Essay Through the feminist lens, equality, dehumanization, and stereotypes are seen within The Bell Jar, A Streetcar . named desire, and A Farewell to Arms. The time period and on sculptures, author of an essay each book are major reasons to why stereotypes are so strongly enforced. The time period of on sculptures these novels 1940 to 1960’s was a time when women didn't have much status, men were superior and women were only housewives. Paper Topics On Jane. Based on the gender, the author comes across these aspects differently by how they characterize. Autobiographical novel , Electroconvulsive therapy , Gender 765 Words | 3 Pages. Gabriel Arcia 9 Honors English Mr. Settle April 18, 2010 William Faulkner’s Accomplishments William Faulkner stood 5’6” . tall, but was a giant in the realm of Americans (Padgett). He is a great image of literature up to this date for his many contributions to American literary works. He has helped humanity discover how important literature and art is in America.

He had accomplished more artistically over a decade than most writers in art essays on sculptures, a lifetime (Padgett). Between the it take to write a 5 paragraph, years 1927-1934, he. American literature , Library of America , Mark Twain 1233 Words | 4 Pages. ? Cities of the Future Presented To: John Gillies Presented by: Devon Francis English Essay Wednesday, October 8, 2013 . On Sculptures. The arrival of the cities of the future and what it has to offer such as technology and does it take, many other things evolves as everybody awaits to see what the city has to offer and what changes and on sculptures, improvements the city will have also. Many people have these types of question stuck in their heads and wonder: “Could the changes and improvements. Better , City , Crime 851 Words | 3 Pages. taste and other devastating, but often acute, symptoms. This research paper will discuss the clinical presentation of the disorder, its complications, . For Civil. investigate its etiology and art essays, various treatment options.

Bell’s palsy was named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who described the clinical findings of the syndrome and its neuropathic effects on the facial nerve. As the diagram below illustrates, the nerve is responsible for innervating all of the steps, muscles of facial expression and contains parasympathetic. Bell's palsy , Facial muscles , Facial nerve 1605 Words | 5 Pages. ? William Blake Term Paper Assignment Carlos Gomez ENG 102 April 24, 2014 Blake, Posthumous Superstar Conceived in 1757 in London, England, . William Blake started written work at an early age and asserted to have had his first vision, of a tree brimming with holy messengers, at age 10. “He did not go to school but instead was apprenticed to James Basire, an engraver.” (Bloom, 1) He mulled over art essays engraving and developed to love Gothic art, which he joined into his own particular interesting lives up. William Blake 1162 Words | 6 Pages. William Penn and the Quaker Legacy For many Americans, William Penn is just known as the Quaker leader who founded . Underwater Alex Flinn Book. Pennsylvania and for art essays, his ‘Holy Experiment’. Penn’s achievements were far greater than just the founding of a colony.

He had devotion and spirit and service, love for the Quaker sect and in turn spent his whole life trying to get others to on sculptures, see the good in Quakerism and theory, create toleration for the religion. In the art essays, biography of William Penn and design, the Quaker Legacy, John Moretta asserts that William. Freedom of religion , George Fox , Pennsylvania 2972 Words | 7 Pages. ? City Of God The film that I chose to art essays on sculptures, watch and and editing, analyze is the art essays on sculptures, Brazilian film City of God. Theory Design And Change Research. The movie takes place in art essays, one of . Rio de Janeiro’s 500 favelas, a favela known as the City of God. On Jane. The name of the city is disturbingly ironic, as most of the activities that take place in art essays on sculptures, the slum are decidedly ungodly.

The movie, spanning three decades, chronicles the important, lives of art essays on sculptures some of the residents, most adolescent, from their pre-pubescent years to their upbringing into the criminal underworld. This. City , Cycle of poverty , Favela 1130 Words | 5 Pages. Alexander Graham Bell , a man who best known for inventing the organizational design, telephone. Most people don't know he spent the majority of his life teaching and . helping the deaf. Educating the hearing impaired is what he wished to be remembered for. Bell was born on March 3, 1847, in art essays on sculptures, Edinburgh, Scotland. His mother was a painter of miniature portraits and also loved to play the piano even though she was nearly deaf. Aleck's mother knew that he had a talent for music and for civil exam, always encouraged him to play (Matthews. Alexander Graham Bell , Alexander Melville Bell , Gardiner Greene Hubbard 1596 Words | 4 Pages. The importance of Alexander Graham Bell on today's society is visible, or rather audible, every day and everywhere.

First and foremost, . Alexander Graham Bell was a prolific teacher of the deaf. This is what he considered to be his true life's work, but only one of the many important things he did. Through his research of speech and sound, and his creative mind, he would become one of the most influential inventors in modern history. His own definition of an inventor, A man who looks upon the world. Alexander Graham Bell , Bell Telephone Company , Gardiner Greene Hubbard 1730 Words | 5 Pages. Freya DESCRIBE THE CHALLENGES FACING MEGACITIES AND EVALUATE THE RESPONSES TO THESE CHALLENGES Mega Cities are cities that have . Art Essays On Sculptures. a population of alex report more than 8 million and are characterised by the challenges they face, including issues involving the informal economy, unemployment, poor sanitation and shelter. These issues are largely prominent in these cities due to rapid urban growth and a lack of resources. In many cases action has been taken by art essays national governments and non-governmental organisations. Flush toilet , Government , Informal sector 1160 Words | 4 Pages. Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Graham Bell is a name of great significance in American history today.

A skillful inventor . and generous philanthropist, he astounded the world with his intuitive ideas that proved to be both innovative and extremely practical in the latter half of the 19th century. Most notable, of a 5 course, are Bell's work in on sculptures, developing the telephone and his venerable life-long endeavor to educate the deaf. Originally, his only wish was to help deaf people overcome their difficulty. Alexander Graham Bell , Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing , Alexander Melville Bell 828 Words | 3 Pages. for although my sources tell me that your acting needs some polishing up. This is what the essay huck, people want and art essays on sculptures, being on top as an actor and a comedian the sky is . the limit for Katt Williams . This is not as big of paragraph essay a deal as it sounds. I have pulled some strings and have landed you an audition on art essays on sculptures, Broadway. I know Katt Williams on paper, Broadway? Yes this lead role is perfect for you it allows you to use your natural funny and art essays on sculptures, mix it with some real acting. Soap Opera, David Ives doesn’t sound like the organizational and change, funniest. Love , Need , Romance 864 Words | 3 Pages.

Charles Chaplin's films could be preserved, “ City Lights” (1931) would come the closest to representing all the different notes of his genius. . It contains the slapstick, the art essays, pathos, the pantomime, the effortless physical coordination, the melodrama, the bawdiness, the grace, and, of it take to write a 5 course, the Little Tramp--the character said, at one time, to be the most famous image on earth. When he made it, three years into the era of sound, Chaplin must have known that “ City Lights” might be his last silent film;. Charlie Chaplin , City Lights , Film 1384 Words | 4 Pages. The tragedy “Macbeth” written by William Shakespeare portrays Macbeth as a man who was once a great hero, that falls victim of his ambition for on sculptures, . Essay Huck. power. Art Essays. This ambition is induced by factors including Lady Macbeth, the witches prophecies and the guilt and how long it take a 5 paragraph, remorse felt by Macbeth in regards to the deed he was to commit. These are the on sculptures, factors that contribute to the downfall of how long does it take to write paragraph essay Macbeth. Lady Macbeth is characterized as an ambitious woman who can manipulate Macbeth easily. This is shown in on sculptures, (Act 1 Scene. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Lady Macbeth 1102 Words | 3 Pages. The Forbidden City Forbidden City 1 Introduction The Forbidden . City , also called the Palace Museum, which was the topics on jane austen, imperial palace during the Ming and on sculptures, Qing dynasties. The Forbidden City was built from how long does to write paragraph 1406 to 1420 by the Yongle Emperor who was the third emperor of the art essays on sculptures, Ming Dynasty.

The English name of the Forbidden City is paper topics austen a translation of on sculptures its Chinese name Zijin Cheng, which means that the how long does paragraph essay, Forbidden City is the art essays on sculptures, residence of the how long does paragraph essay, emperor and on sculptures, his family, and theory design and change research, no one could enter or leave the. Beijing , Emperor of China , Forbidden City 494 Words | 2 Pages. Stereotypical Women Throughout well-known stories, authors tend to develop memorable characters in order to enhance the plot; although they may not . Art Essays. always be portrayed in the most considerate manner. In Charles Dickens’ novel A Tale of Two Cities , he also uses such characters. First, Lucie’s role of over steps dramatic damsel in art essays on sculptures, distress. Second, Miss Pross’ participation as the over protective mother figure.

And third, Mme. Defarge as the bloodthirsty crazed villain. How Long Paragraph. Through these characters. A Tale of Two Cities , Charles Dickens , Madam 1219 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on Hamlet by William Shakespeare. proper parenting skills, things may not have been so rotten in the state of Denmark(1.4.94).

Denmark would not have to art essays, say good night [to their] sweet prince . (Coatsworth 20). Works CitedCoatsworth, Elizabeth. Meditation at Elsinore. Shakespeare, William . Hamlet. Does It Take A 5. Ed. John Crowther. New York: Spark Group, 2003. Characters in Hamlet , Family , Father 1741 Words | 5 Pages. 1. How does Williams get into financial distress?

Answer: a) Write-off of investment in WCG During the Tech Bubble, the whole . telecom market that WCG was involved in suffered a lot of problems due mainly to a large oversupply, as indicated by an estimated 2% to 5% of the fiber- optic lines which were only carrying traffic. There venue of WCG eventually plummeted, wherein prices of the lines decreased by more than 90% from 1998 and 2002.When WorldCom filed for art essays, bankruptcy protection in July. Bond , Corporate finance , Credit rating 1637 Words | 7 Pages. SIMILAR AND DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF THE CITY IN “LONDON” BY WILLIAM BLAKE, COMPOSED UPON WESTMINSTER BRIDGE, SEPTEMBER 3, 1802” BY WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, AND IN “IMPRESSION DU MATIN” BY OSCAR WILDE. ? SIMILAR AND DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF THE CITY IN “LONDON” BY WILLIAM BLAKE, COMPOSED UPON WESTMINSTER BRIDGE, SEPTEMBER 3, . 1802” BY WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, AND IN “IMPRESSION DU MATIN” BY OSCAR WILDE The image of the city appears in the literature of all cultural periods, but it often varies depending on historical context, prevailing ideas and research topics austen, the personal style of the author. City images dominate in on sculptures, the periods of Romantic and Decadent, however. City of London , Composed upon research paper topics austen Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802 , England 1619 Words | 5 Pages.

?1) Including the undrawn revolver, the $900 million loan will likely be just enough to cover Williams ’ financing need over art essays on sculptures the next six . months. The $711 million short-term debt can be covered with the undrawn $700 million revolver, plus some cash on hand. The $920 million of long-term debt maturing over the next 6 months can be covered by the new $900 million loan and cash on hand. Breathing Flinn Book Report. That would leave roughly $740 million of cash and securities to cover losses from the operations of the on sculptures, business, though. Bond , Call option , Debt 868 Words | 3 Pages.

The Bell Curve The Bell Curve was designed to explain, using empirical statistical analysis, the flinn, variations in art essays, intelligence in . American Society, raise some warnings regarding the consequences of this intelligence gap, and propose national social policy with the goal of mitigating the worst of the consequences attributed to this intelligence gap. The bell curve begins with a brief description of the paper on jane austen, history of art essays on sculptures intelligence theory and recent developments in intelligence thought and testing, through. Cognition , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 1737 Words | 5 Pages. ?Analysis of ’The Bells ’ by Edgar Allan Poe Human beings are bound to be affected by sound due to the sense of hearing. A listener can be . emotionally stimulated by specific sounds, thereby being reminded of particular events associated with those sounds.

The poem, ’The Bells ’, deals with the concept of sound, its various effects and life and death. In order to illustrate this point, this essay will analyze the poem and examine the poetic devices used in it. Edgar Allan Poe’s poem is structured. Edgar Allan Poe , Fear , Horror fiction 1095 Words | 4 Pages. John Schultz Tennessee Williams Thomas Lanier, also known as Tennessee Williams , was an American writer who worked . principally as a playwright in the American Theatre. Also he wrote essays , short stories, poetry, screenplays, and novels with also a volume of essay huck memoirs. Tennessee’s professional career lasted about art essays on sculptures 45 years until his death in 1983. Does Paragraph Essay. Williams saw the birth of hundreds of plays that are considered to be classics on the American stage. Art Essays. Tennessee Williams was an important American.

Blanche DuBois , Cat on a Hot Tin Roof , Life 1816 Words | 5 Pages. Essay on describing the unconventional grandparents from the essay Inspired Eccentricity by bell hooks. In the essay , Inspired Eccentricity, it is essay huck clear that bell hooks had two very unconventional grandparents. In the relationship of . Art Essays. Baba and Daddy Gus, role reversal was visible in essay huck, almost every aspect of on sculptures their lives. Essay Huck. As the author said, Baba and Daddy Gus were, strangers and lovers - two eccentrics who created their own world. Art Essays On Sculptures. They were a combination that perfectly completed each other, yet every part of underwater flinn report their separate lives was equally important to their successful marriage. Bell hooks wrote, They. Essay , Family , Grandparent 993 Words | 3 Pages. Literature Research Essay : Reading the City . Cities are places which enable the art essays on sculptures, realisation of the self, or . conversely cities separate the self from creativity and imagination in spaces of breathing underwater alex flinn book alienation and estrangement’ (Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson). Discuss the on sculptures, city as a site of self-enhancement and/or ‘alienation and essay huck, estrangement’ in the texts on the unit. Our surroundings manipulate the way we react and interact with both others and ourselves.

We are like putty waiting to be moulded by the. Abraham Maslow , Charles Dickens , City 1455 Words | 4 Pages. The novels Hatchet and on sculptures, Forbidden City can be compared easily because they both describe stories of teenagers facing conflict and . struggle. The similarities and differences between both books are the organizational theory, shown in the conflicts between the main characters and on sculptures, themselves, their families, nature and society. By examining these problems in each novel one can see that they both deal with the overall topic of teenagers coming of age and creating their own identity through challenges and difficulties. In. Conflict , Difference , Divorce 829 Words | 2 Pages. ?Compact city : A Solution for a sustainable future?

Introduction Although urban city has made great contribution to economic . Organizational Design Paper. development globally, more and more scholars and art essays, urban planners realize its role as a cause of resource depletion and research paper, environment degradation (Girardet, 1996). In response to global ecological footprints and the extensively acknowledged demand to discover a sustainable urban development model, the art essays, idea of “compact city ” emerged. Generally, compact city means a city of high. Bus , City , Developed country 1959 Words | 5 Pages.

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COPD - nursing care and implications for nursing. 10 September, 2002. Some nurses will be actively involved in helping diagnose COPD by carrying out spirometry and reversibility testing, while others, particularly in secondary care, will be less involved in art essays, this diagnostic process. VOL: 98, ISSUE: 37, PAGE NO: 43. JUDITH McALLISTER, MA, RN, Respiratory Specialist Nurse, North Peterborough Primary Care Trust; Regional Trainer, Asthma and COPD, National Respiratory Training Centre, Warwick. Sponsored by PFIZER. Some nurses will be actively involved in helping diagnose COPD by carrying out spirometry and reversibility testing, while others, particularly in secondary care, will be less involved in this diagnostic process. Good patient preparation is needed for organizational design and change research paper, accurate spirometry and, as it becomes a more routine test in both primary and secondary care, nurses working with COPD patients need to understand why and how it is carried out. Patients tend to dislike spirometry as it is art essays on sculptures, very hard work and breathing, often induces coughing. A sympathetic approach is needed while ensuring that the patient blows to art essays on sculptures, his/her maximum ability.

Nurses who are carrying out reversibility tests should ensure that they have a patient group direction to cover the administration of any drugs they use (HSC, 2000). Once the diagnosis has been established, nursing care is how long does to write essay, very much aimed at supporting the patient and his/her family, helping them to come to terms with the diagnosis and stay as well as possible. Some patients may feel that the disease is self-inflicted and be reluctant to seek help, fearing the disapproval of healthcare professionals, particularly if they have been unable to stop smoking. Those who have already stopped smoking may feel angry that, having ‘done the art essays right thing’, they should not have to suffer now. A positive approach by how long does it take, the nurse is therefore needed, focused on maintaining day-to-day function while minimising symptoms as much as possible. Much of the on sculptures nurse’s role will be centred on helping patients adjust to their condition and teaching self-management skills. Research Topics On Jane Austen. One of the most important tasks of the nurse is to teach patients how to on sculptures, use their inhaler devices correctly. Regular checking of the inhaler technique of patients in primary care and of those in secondary care before they are discharged is also vital. The importance of an essay, good inhaler technique should never be forgotten, even for patients who mostly use nebuliser therapy. However severe the disease, smoking cessation will lengthen life (BTS, 1997), as cessation slows the accelerated decline in lung function. Unfortunately, lost lung function cannot be regained, so patients need to be aware that stopping smoking will not return them to health.

Some patients may feel that the years gained may not be worth the effort, especially if they are already severely disabled. Smoking cessation is difficult, and most smokers try several times before they succeed. Art Essays On Sculptures. Nicotine replacement therapy and for civil, bupropion do increase success rates (Silagy et al., 2002) and art essays, both are now readily available on prescription. Most nicotine replacement products are safe to use in COPD. The inclusion of smoking cessation services as part of the National Service Framework for Coronary Heart Disease has benefited respiratory patients considerably (DoH, 2000). These services have developed over the past three years, and smoking cessation clinics and flinn report, specialist advisers have now been established in every health authority.

Smoking cessation guidelines (Raw et al., 1998; West et al., 2000) give clear and art essays, structured guidance for health professionals: all patients should be asked if they smoke, advised to quit if they do, offered help with quitting, and exam, followed up. Helping COPD patients to stop smoking is a vital part of the nurse’s role even if that help is referring the patient to specialist services. On Sculptures. Many practice nurses have been trained in smoking cessation techniques and can offer patients a great deal of support. Similar skills are now developing in and editing an essay, secondary care, although it may be more difficult to offer ongoing support in hospital. Think Point: What smoking cessation services exist in your area of work? Are you comfortable with asking COPD patients about their smoking habits?

You may wish to contact your local smoking cessation specialist and on sculptures, find out what services they offer. Do they visit housebound patients? Can they provide training for health professionals? Many patients with advanced COPD are underweight, while some are overweight. Obesity increases the workload of breathing, and reducing weight will help patients cope with disability (BTS, 1997). Measuring body mass index (BMI) is simple and should be a routine part of assessing patients with COPD. A low BMI suggests a poorer prognosis (Landbo et al., 1999), especially in those whose disease is advanced, while an essay for civil increase in BMI with treatment improves prognosis (Schols et al., 1998). On Sculptures. Why patients lose weight is not clear, although it is widely accepted that weight loss occurs when energy demands exceed energy intake.

Dietary supplementation may help, but this should not replace a normal diet. Patients with severe disease should be advised to eat little and often, particularly if eating increases the sensation of breathlessness. Keeping active maintains general fitness and wellbeing. Breathlessness is very distressing, and the natural reaction is to stop the activity causing the breathlessness. Patients need to underwater alex flinn report, be reassured that, although it is distressing, breathlessness is not dangerous, and they should carry on with activities and interests (BTS, 1997).

Many patients with moderate disease will be able to continue to work and should be encouraged to do so. Patients may need advice on pacing their activities, and housebound patients need to be encouraged to maintain upper and lower limb strength through simple exercise programmes so that simple but important tasks such as going to the toilet are manageable. Think Point: A patient with COPD tells you that his wife wants him to art essays on sculptures, stop playing bowls as he gets very breathless and tired. However, he enjoys his bowls but doesn’t want his wife to worry. What advice could you give? Prevention and management of exacerbations of the disease. Exacerbations are common, particularly in the wintertime, and it is sensible to recommend an annual influenza vaccination (Calman, 1993). Many COPD patients are offered pneumoccocal immunisation despite the essay for civil service exam lack of evidence of its effectiveness in art essays on sculptures, COPD (BTS, 1997).

Teaching patients how to recognise exacerbations and to steps and editing, seek help early may reduce the art essays need for hospital admission. Essay For Civil Service Exam. The symptoms of an exacerbation of COPD are listed in Fig 1. Treatment should be aimed at maximising bronchodilation, treating any underlying infection and reducing inflammation. Although most exacerbations are not bacterial in origin, antibiotics are commonly used. Art Essays On Sculptures. Short courses of oral steroids reduce recovery times and improve lung function during an exacerbation, and are recommended for breathing underwater flinn report, all patients with an acute exacerbation who do not have significant contraindications (MacNee, 2002). Some patients may wish to on sculptures, have a supply of antibiotics and oral steroids at home. In such cases, clear written guidance must be given on how and when to start treatment and whom to contact if advice is wanted at any time. Patients with worsening symptoms and signs may need to organizational theory design and change research, be admitted to hospital, so the importance of seeking advice needs to be explained.

In-patient management is similar, but allows assessment of blood gases and closer monitoring and art essays, support. Pulse oximetry can provide a useful means of monitoring oxygen levels but it will not detect hypercapnia. The question of providing ventilatory support may arise for essay huck, some patients, and art essays, it can be helpful to know if they have any views on this aspect of their care. Patients with end-stage disease may not wish to be ventilated, although the for civil development of non-invasive ventilation provides a less frightening alternative. It may become apparent during admission of a patient to hospital that he/she needs to be considered for long-term oxygen therapy. Assessment for on sculptures, this treatment, which involves having supplemental oxygen for a minimum of 15 hours a day (Medical Research Council Working Party, 1981) should be carried out on two separate occasions when the patient is stable, usually four to six weeks post-admission. The criteria for long-term oxygen therapy are listed in Fig 2. Patients who use long- or short-term oxygen therapy should not smoke, as this negates any treatment benefit and, moreover, is theory design and change paper, a fire hazard.

Oxygen concentrators rather than oxygen cylinders should be used if possible, as these offer a much cheaper and more convenient means of providing oxygen. While many patients with moderate COPD are able to continue working, those with more severe disease may not. Financial hardship is not uncommon, although many patients may be reluctant to on sculptures, ask for help. The burden of caring often falls on breathing underwater alex book the spouse, who is likely to be of a similar age and may have his/her own health problems. Tactful inquiry about art essays on sculptures, ability to cope is needed. Financial help may be available, and simple modifications to the home may make life easier for service, both the patient and the carer. Referral to social services can be offered both in hospital and at home. Living with COPD can be an isolating experience for on sculptures, both patient and carer. Some patients will enjoy the opportunity to meet others with the same disease.

The British Lung Foundation has groups all over the country (Breathe Easy groups) which meet regularly. Support from in revising an essay a number of art essays on sculptures, organisations is available for people suffering from design research all types of lung disease (see Fig 3 for a list of on sculptures, addresses and websites). Think Point: Is there a local Breathe Easy group in your area? Familial risk - Advice to families. COPD appears to an essay, run in families, and on sculptures, patients will often report a family history of chest problems. Essay. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the only known genetic risk factor, causing 1% of COPD, yet most of those with a family history of art essays on sculptures, COPD do not have this abnormality. Silverman et al. Organizational Theory Design And Change Research Paper. (1998) found that relatives of patients with early onset COPD were found to have reduced lung function if they had a history of current or past smoking, suggesting some genetic risk. Barnes (1999) has suggested that many genes are likely to be involved.

However, the most important environmental insult to the lungs comes from smoking, and art essays, advice to families should be to stop smoking or never start. Where alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is identified, families should be screened and offered genetic counselling, as they are likely to develop severe emphysema at an early age even if they do not smoke. Smoking greatly intensifies the disease and all family members should be advised not to austen, smoke. Patients who have alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency which leads to severe disease in early life may be suitable for lung transplantation (BTS, 1997). Art Essays. Continuing to smoke may reduce the likelihood of being accepted onto a transplant programme. Pulmonary rehabilitation aims to reduce disability and improve the quality of life of patients with all types of lung disease.

By improving physical fitness, breathlessness is reduced and the ability to breathing underwater flinn book, function independently increases. Little improvement in terms of lung function can be achieved, but exercise tolerance and health status (quality of life) improves markedly, and is sustained at 12 months (BTS, 2001). Most programmes run from six to eight weeks, with twice-weekly group exercise and education sessions. The level of on sculptures, disability and health status is assessed before and after the programme. Exercises should be carried on at home between visits, and after the programme has been completed. Many different formats for paragraph, pulmonary rehabilitation have been developed, but at least some supervised sessions seem to be necessary. Education for patients and their family is generally included in the session, so that by art essays on sculptures, the end of the programme patients will have developed their understanding of COPD and its treatment, and have acquired management skills such as relaxation techniques and paper topics, being able to recognise exacerbations. Unfortunately, despite the art essays on sculptures success of rehabilitation, there are too few programmes to accommodate the number of patients who could benefit.

Consequently, rehabilitation is alex flinn report, offered late in the disease process. Most patients already have severe disease by on sculptures, the time they undergo rehabilitation and while these patients show marked benefits, those with less severe disease might show even greater improvements. Think Point: Is there a pulmonary rehabilitation programme in your area? Is there open access? What difficulties might patients have in attending rehabilitation sessions?

The role of the nurse in caring for patients with COPD is, to a large extent, dependent on her area of how long it take to write a 5, work. Many nurses will have few contacts with these patients, while those in primary care and in respiratory wards will have frequent contacts. Although medical interventions are limited, nurses have a huge role in promoting healthy behaviour in patients with COPD. For example, they provide advice and support to patients and art essays, their families and, at the same time, educate and encourage patients to manage their disease proactively. Essay Service Exam. Because change in lung function in response to interventions is minimal, nurses should be assessing response in art essays, terms of improvements in patients’ ability to mange their daily life.

Using simple assessments of disability such as the oxygen cost scale discussed in Part 2 lends a degree of organizational theory research paper, objectivity to measuring the effectiveness of both pharmacological and on sculptures, non-pharmacological inter-ventions and provides evidence of benefits that are of considerable value to the patient. A new, long-acting anticholinergic drug is awaiting licensing in the UK. The drug (tiotropium) has been shown to give benefit in terms of improvements in essay huck, lung function when compared to ipratropium (van Noord et al., 2000) and, more importantly, in health status as well as lung function when compared with salmeterol (Donohue et al., 2002). Although tiotropium will not improve breathlessness dramatically, any intervention which offers benefit is welcome. Despite the high prevalence of COPD and the huge healthcare cost, there is little prospect of this disease being given the priority it deserves through a national service framework. On Sculptures. However, evidence-based guidelines for both pulmonary rehabilitation (BTS, 2001) and non-invasive ventilation (BTS, 2002) provide support for these newer interventions. The high cost of COPD hospital admission has led to theory and change research, the development of art essays on sculptures, nurse-led early discharge schemes and breathing alex flinn report, acute respiratory assessment services which offer safe and cheaper means of managing exacerbations (Davies et al., 2000). Art Essays On Sculptures. Such services are highly acceptable to patients. Most patients with COPD will be managed in primary care. One of the biggest challenges for primary care nurses is to be aware of the numbers of alex report, patients who will present with COPD and of the art essays equipment and important and editing an essay, training that is available that makes diagnosis possible (Calverley and Bellamy, 2000).

Although most COPD presents in art essays, patients in essay huck, later life, those with undiagnosed COPD will be seen mostly in the winter. Art Essays On Sculptures. Referral of at-risk patients for spirometry would identify disease at underwater report an earlier stage, and provide an opportunity to intervene (Elkington and White, 2002). When a diagnosis of COPD has been confirmed, management should follow the guidelines provided by the British Thoracic Society (BTS, 1997) (see Fig 4). On Sculptures. Bronchodilator therapy can improve but not abolish symptoms, and the success of treatment needs to be measured in breathing underwater alex flinn, terms of improvements in on sculptures, disability and and change paper, health status, rather than changes in lung function parameters. Art Essays. COPD is a progressive and breathing underwater flinn book, disabling condition: nurses play a key role in art essays on sculptures, educating and supporting patients and essay huck, their families. While the disease is irreversible, it should never be viewed as hopeless. Bellamy, D., Booker, R. (2000) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Primary Care. London: Class Publishing.

Esmond, G. (ed). On Sculptures. (2001) Respiratory Nursing. London: Bailliere Tindall. Morgan, M., Singh, S. (eds) Practical Pulmonary Rehabilitation. London: Chapman and Hall. Using individualised cognitive behavioural therapy as a treatment for people with COPD. This research study investigated whether individualised CBT was an effective intervention for patients with COPD for psychosocial difficulties. Success for nurse-led Liverpool lung screening programme. A nurse-led screening programme in Liverpool has boosted early detection of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, an evaluation has found. First quality standards issued for organizational theory and change research paper, use of art essays, adult home oxygen.

All patients who are being considered for long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT) at home should have a thorough risk assessment delivered by trained staff, according to new national standards. Warning of paper topics austen, too few specialist nurses for incurable lung disease. A lack of art essays on sculptures, access to specialist nurses is an important factor contributing to a crisis in care for research paper topics on jane austen, patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), according to a charity report. Clinicians ‘failing to ask 75% of smokers’ about quitting. More than 25% of on sculptures, patients are not being asked by healthcare professionals if they smoke when they come into hospital in the UK, despite acute services having a higher concentration of people dependant on essay service tobacco than the general population, a respiratory doctor has warned. You must sign in to make a comment. Please remember that the submission of any material is governed by our Terms and Conditions and by submitting material you confirm your agreement to these Terms and Conditions. Links may be included in on sculptures, your comments but HTML is not permitted. ?28 per hour + mileage + benefits. ?28 per hour + mileage + benefits. ?28 per hour + mileage + benefits.

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